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  • 1.
    Lorenzi, Guido
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Univ Lisbon, Inst Super Tecn, IN Ctr Innovat Technol & Policy Res, Ave Rovisco Pais 1, P-1049001 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Baptista, Patricia
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Super Tecn, IN Ctr Innovat Technol & Policy Res, Ave Rovisco Pais 1, P-1049001 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Promotion of renewable energy sources in the Portuguese transport sector: A scenario analysis2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 186, p. 918-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport is one of the sectors of the energy consumption where the presence of renewable energies is lower and its increase is hard to achieve especially in countries that import all the fuels that they consume. This paper addresses the progress that Portugal is making toward a more sustainable transport sector. A near- and medium-term scenario analysis is performed, based on the energy consumption in the past and on a detailed evaluation of the trends for renewable energy in the transport sector. The near term scenarios aim at portraying the conditions that allow the country to fulfill the target of 10% renewable share in transportation established by the European Union. The medium-term scenarios highlight the implications, in terms of emission reduction and of energy independence, deriving from the use of electric vehicles and natural gas, synthetic and fossil, as alternatives to liquid fuels. The results show that electric vehicles would substantially reduce the total energy consumption and the greenhouse gas emissions, while the promotion of routes for synthetic natural gas would contribute to taking advantage of local resources. The paper also provides some insights about the design of future policies to build a more sustainable transport sector. 

  • 2.
    Lorenzi, Guido
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Lanzini, Andrea
    Santarelli, Massimo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Exergo-economic analysis of a direct biogas upgrading process to synthetic natural gas via integrated high-temperature electrolysis and methanation2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 141, p. 1524-1537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas upgrading to synthetic natural gas (SNG) is a viable and appealing route for power-to-gas because it combines waste management with the use of the surplus electricity that might arise in energy systems having a considerable share of renewable energy sources in their production mix. In this work, the exergo-economic performance of a biogas upgrading process through integrated electrolysis and methanation is assessed in connection with the current market status to test which conditions could make the proposed option economically viable. Two different configurations, which differ mainly for the operating pressure of the electrolyser, are compared. The exergy efficiencies are high (>80%) and exergo-economic costs of the produced bio-SNG in the two analyzed configurations are 5.62 and 4.87 c(sic)/kWh(exergy), for low- and high-pressure respectively. Lower values would be required for the bio-SNG to compete with fossil natural gas. We show how both the input electricity price and the capacity factor have a substantial impact on the economic sustainability of the process. Eventually, the monetary exploitation of the oxygen produced by electrolysis and the participation to the emission trading scheme could contribute further to improve the economic attractiveness of the process.

  • 3.
    Lorenzi, Guido
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Univ Lisbon, Inst Super Tecn.
    Santos Silva, Carlos Augusto
    Comparing demand response and battery storage to optimize self-consumption in PV systems2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 180, p. 524-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper examines and compares the potential of storage in batteries versus demand response strategies for electricity bill reduction in the residential sector, in the context of the new trend of installing PV systems for self-consumption. The performances of the two methodologies are investigated by applying them to the data of a real household which owns a small solar photovoltaic installation. The benefits of storage and demand response are evaluated through an optimization analysis with a linear programming algorithm. The simulations are carried out both for real market prices of the equipment and for reduced ones, to simulate the case of strong technological development and the corresponding price decrease in the coming years. The electricity pricing scheme is a dual tariff regime modeled according to the Portuguese current rules. The results suggest that at the moment, demand response should be preferred with the current market prices of the hardware. However, a significant decrease in the batteries price can make storage an interesting alternative, especially for the cases in which demand response is not easily applicable.

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