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  • 1.
    Hagman, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Langbroek, J. H. M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Conditions for electric vehicle taxi: A case study in the Greater Stockholm region2019In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 450-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the usability of electric vehicles (EVs) in a taxi company in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. By investigating cost and revenue data of both electric and conventional taxi vehicles, as well as by interviewing taxi drivers and carriers, an assessment has been made of the financial and operational implications of using EVs in a company's taxi fleet. Both the drivers' and the carriers' perspectives have been examined. The main findings are that the investigated e-taxis have a similar or lower Total Cost of Ownership and slightly higher profitability than the investigated conventional taxis. For taxi drivers, using e-taxis implies more advanced planning and revenue service time being sacrificed for charging. However, certain customers' preferences for EVs, as well as benefits such as corporate clients favoring e-taxis and a zero emission priority queuing system at Stockholm's main international airport (partly) compensate for time devoted to charging. In order to facilitate increased use of e-taxis, more fast charging facilities should become available at strategic locations. Besides that, there are signs that carriers' lack of information about the opportunities and consequences of shifting towards e-taxis hamper a wider deployment of e-taxis.

  • 2.
    Langbroek, Joram
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    The effect of policy incentives on electric vehicle adoption2016In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 94, p. 94-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the attractiveness of electric vehicles (EVs), packages of policy incentives are provided in many countries. However, it is still unclear how effective different policy incentives are. Also, it is questionable that they have the same impact on different groups of people. In this study, based on a stated-choice experiment, the effect of several potential policy incentives on EV-adoption, as well as the influence of socio-psychological determinants are investigated, using constructs of the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) and the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). The probability of stated EV-adoption increases if policy incentives are offered in the choice experiment, which is expected because of the decrease of the generalized cost of EV-use. The high stated valuation of free parking or access to bus lanes makes those incentives an efficient alternative to expensive subsidies. EV-adoption probability increases for people that are further in the process of behavioural change. However, the responsiveness to subsidies decreases for people in more advanced stages of-change. People that believe EVs to be effective in decreasing the negative externalities of the current transport system and people whose travel patterns can cope with the use of EVs also have a higher probability to choose the EV. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Langbroek, Joram H. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Malmsten, Jon
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Georén, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. Solkompaniet Sverige AB, Vastbergavagen 4, S-12630 Hagersten, Sweden..
    Electric vehicle rental and electric vehicle adoption2019In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 73, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study describes the project Elbilsiandet (The Electric Vehicle Country) in Gotland, Sweden, where the island Gotland is made "ready for electric vehicles" by providing a network of charging infrastructure and electric vehicle rental during several summer seasons. The influence of the electric vehicle (EV) rental scheme on the process towards electric vehicle adoption is investigated using the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM). Moreover, the travel patterns of electric rental cars are compared with those of conventional rental cars. The main results of this study are the following: Firstly, people renting an EV are on average closer to electric vehicle adoption than people renting a conventional vehicle. Secondly, people who rent an EV are at the time of rental associated with more positive attitudes towards EVs, have more knowledge about EVs and would feel more secure driving an EV. Thirdly, EV-rental does not seem to have a large additional effect on the stage-of-change towards EV-adoption of the participants. Lastly, the driving patterns of EVs do not seem to indicate serious limitations regarding driving distance, parking time and the destinations that have been visited, as compared to the driving patterns of conventional rental cars.

  • 4.
    Langbroek, Joram Hendrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Changing towards electric vehicle use in greater Stockholm2017In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 306-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies electric vehicle (EV) adoption in Greater Stockholm in Sweden using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) and the Protection Motivation Theory as a framework and considers socio-cognitive, behavioural and socio-economic attributes that may influence the process towards electric vehicle use. TTM considers behavioural change as a process consisting of five stages-of-change rather than as an event. Some key findings were made: (1) from the earlier to the later stages-of-change, the attitude towards EVs becomes more positive, the knowledge about EVs increases and the self-efficacy is consistently increasing. (2) The threat appraisal and response efficacy of EVs increase from stage to stage in the stages prior to the actual change but have a lower level for the stages after the change. (3) The explanatory power of regression models modelling both pre-contemplation and all stages-of-change increases significantly when incorporating socio-cognitive variables such as self-efficacy, threat-appraisal, response efficacy and attitudes towards EVs. (4) The modal share of the car is consistently increasing throughout the stages-of-change. The results indicate that policy measures aiming at increasing knowledge and self-efficacy of car drivers related to EV use can stimulate electric vehicle adoption. Also, the relative advantages of EVs for car drivers should get more attention rather than only emphasizing the environmental advantages.

  • 5.
    Langbroek, Joram Hendrik Maarten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    A stated adaptation instrument for studying travel patterns after electric vehicle adoption2018In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 32, p. 464-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and evaluates a stated adaptation instrument to investigate the effects of a transition towards electric vehicles on travel behaviour. The respondents were equipped with an “imaginary” electric vehicle with a specific range and were asked whether they wanted to make changes in an activity-travel schedule they had previously registered. It has been found that electric vehicle use may increase car use, and that activities are likely to be cancelled in case of problems with range limitations. In this paper, the validity, reliability and practical implementation of this stated adaptation experiment are discussed.

  • 6.
    Langbroek, Joram Hendrik Maarten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Electric vehicle users and their travel patterns in Greater Stockholm2017In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 52, p. 98-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles (EVs) show promise for improving the environmental sustainability of the transport system since, as opposed to conventional vehicles, they have no tailpipe exhaust gas emissions. The use of EVs can also decrease the amount of greenhouse gas emissions, especially if the electricity has been generated with renewable energy sources. However, the scale of projected benefits can be questioned since the travel patterns of car drivers may not stay the same after changing to EVs, due to various factors such as higher investment costs, lower operation costs and general perceptions associated with electric vehicles. In this study, the travel patterns of both electric vehicle users and conventional vehicle users in Greater Stockholm are compared with regard to the number of trips made and the modal share of the car in the total travel distance. For this purpose, a one-day travel diary carried out in autumn 2014 has been used. The main findings are the following: firstly, the EV is generally perceived by respondents to be more environmentally friendly than public transport modes. Secondly, EV users make significantly more trips than their non-EV using counterparts, according to their one-day travel diaries and controlling for socio-economic and situational variables. Thirdly, EV users choose the car for a significantly larger percentage of their total travel distance than conventional vehicle users. Those observations would suggest a rebound effect, as EVs still consume a considerable amount of energy and contribute to other external effects such as congestion.

  • 7.
    Langbroek, Joram Hendrik Maarten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    When do you charge your electric vehicle?: A stated adaptation approach2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 108, p. 565-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) is likely to contribute to a more sustainable transport system. However, charging EVs will increase the load on the electricity network. The maximum load may be minimized by coordinating the timing of charging activities, in order to spread electricity demand more equally over the course of a day. In this study, based on a stated-choice experiment, the effects of two different temporal price differentiation strategies on stated charging time are investigated, including socio-demographic, behavioural and socio-psychological variables. In a situation without charging time coordination, a peak in charging events is likely to occur during the early evening. Temporal price differentiation has a significant influence on charging time and in particular the level of price differentiation matters. The likelihood to change charging time differs and different alternative time slots are chosen when comparing high to low levels of price differentiation. People that have more knowledge about EVs have a higher chance to change their charging time, whereas people that have the tendency to plan their trips long time beforehand are less likely to adjust their charging time in the scenarios with temporal price differentiation.

  • 8.
    Langbroek, Joram H.M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Understanding processes and travel behaviour changes connected to electric vehicle adoption2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electric vehicles (EVs) has the potential to increase the sustainability of the transport system, especially in case of unchanged or decreased car use, eco-driving and charging during hours of low electricity demand in case of an electricity generation mix with a large share of renewable energy sources. However, EVs still use much energy and EV-use does not solve problems regarding accessibility, social equity, traffic safety and has only a limited beneficial effect on liveability (e.g. through decreased noise). The focus of this study is on the process of the transition from conventional vehicle use to electric vehicle use. Economic and socio-psychological theories have been used in order to get more insight into the motivations for people to start using EVs, the process of EV-adoption and travel behaviour, as well as the interaction between car users, the electric vehicle and policy measures. The aim is to better understand the ongoing transition process to EV-use and the potential behavioural implications of this transition. This study is largely based on a two-wave survey that has been deployed among active car drivers in the metropolitan area of Stockholm, Sweden. In total, 294 respondents have participated in the first wave of the study, while 269 respondents have completed all waves. Besides this survey, one paper of this study is based on another two-wave survey that has been deployed among people renting a car on the island of Gotland, Sweden. In total, 158 respondents have participated in the first wave of this study, while 69 respondents have completed all waves. Electric vehicle adoption implies a considerable initial investment and a behavioural change because of range limitations. Therefore, the change towards electric vehicle use could be considered as a process rather than an event. Using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (Paper 1), it has been iv found that certain socio-economical, behavioural and socio-psychological determinants are correlated with being in a more advanced stage-of-change. Knowledge levels and self-efficacy for electric vehicle use are increasing from stage to stage. The level of response efficacy increases from stage to stage for the non-EV users, but is slightly lower for the group of EV-users that might have a more realistic view of the range and energy use of EVs. There is no direct effect between environmental awareness and stage-of-change, but there is an indirect effect through goal intention to decrease one’s CO2-emissions. In this study (Paper 2), it has also been found that the respondents using EVs make more trips on average and that they also use the car for a larger share of their total distance travelled. The differences in the number of trips and modal share of the car are statistically significant even after controlling for socio-economic variables, which might imply a rebound effect. The risk for a rebound effect is also explainable because of the fact that the marginal cost of EV-use is considerably lower than the marginal cost of conventional car use. Another potential reason for increased car use is the extremely good image that the EV has. It has been found that the EV is perceived to be more environmentally friendly than conventional cars, which was expected, but also more environmentally friendly than public transport modes. Policy makers in many countries provide incentives to make EVs more attractive. Using a stated choice experiment (Paper 3), the effects of several potential policy incentives on EV-adoption has been investigated in this study. Both purchase-based benefits and use-based benefits have a significant positive effect on EV-adoption. Purchase-based benefits intervene with the high investment costs of EVs, while use-based benefits intervene with the already low marginal costs of EV-use. Use-benefits, incentives that are given to EV-users in some countries, such as free parking or access to bus lanes, further decreases the marginal cost of EV-use, increasing the risk for rebound effects. On the other hand, the study shows v that use-based benefits do have a large effect on EV-adoption. Including the stage-of-change of the respondents, EV-adoption rates increase in the stated choice experiment for people in more advanced stages-of-change. However, the price-sensitivity decreases for people in more advanced stages-of-change. Also people with a high self-efficacy and response efficacy are more likely to adopt EVs. Seen from a policy perspective, it might be more efficient to provide use-benefits rather than purchase based benefits. However, there is a risk for a rebound effect because of the decrease of the already low marginal costs of EV-use. Because current electric vehicle users are a small part of the population, future EV-use has also been investigated using stated adaptation methods. Two stated adaptation experiments have been carried out: one concentrating on travel patterns and one on charging patterns. The first stated adaptation experiment (Paper 4/5) was carried out among all respondents, taking the initial travel patterns registered in a one-day travel diary as a starting point. The respondents got scenarios with a kilometre budget that was based on the travel distances during the one-day travel diary day. In case of shortage of range or perceived range limitations, different behavioural alterations have been selected, among trip cancellation, destination change and change of travel mode towards alternative travel modes were most frequently selected. Non-mandatory activities were more likely to be cancelled, as well as trips for which the public transport alternative is rather unattractive in terms of travel time and number of transfers. In case of abundant range and an electricity cost that is five times lower than the fuel cost per kilometre, a non-negligible number of additional trips has been reported, predominantly leisure trips and shopping trips. Besides, for a number of trips, a modal shift “towards the car” has been registered for a non-negligible number of trips, the majority of them being trips to work or school which are often carried out during rush vi hour. So, the existence of a rebound effect under the condition of abundant range has been confirmed. Charging behaviour has a significant effect on the sustainability of EV-use. The timing of charging events can increase peaks in electricity demand or fill the valleys of electricity demand. In this study (Paper 6), it has been investigated when people prefer to start a four-hour charging event and how temporal price differentiation influences these preferences. Based on this study, it has been found that the afternoon rush hour is by far the most preferred charging time if the price for charging events is fixed throughout the day. However, temporal price differentiation significantly affects preferred charging time. Both the existence and degree of temporal price differentiation matters: different behavioural responses were observed using two different price differentiation schemes: a high level of price differentiation causes the majority of charging events to move to night time. In the final paper of this thesis (Paper 7), it has been investigated whether electric vehicle rental affects the process of electric vehicle adoption as described in Paper 1. Using a before-after study, the long-term effects of renting an EV on the Swedish island of Gotland has been investigated. The results of this study show that EV-rental does not seem to significantly affect the stage-of-change towards EV-adoption. However, there seems to be a selection effect: the EV is more likely to be selected as a rental car if the rental guest is in a more advanced stage-of-change. Besides, the driving patterns of EV rental cars do not differ much from those of ICEV rental cars, which is an indicator of EVs being adequate for EV-rental in Gotland.

  • 9.
    Langbroek, Joram H.M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Malmsten, Jon
    Solkompaniet.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Georén, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Electric vehicle rental and electric vehicle adoptionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Langbroek, Joram H.M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    A stated adaptation instrument for studying travel patterns after electric vehicle adoptionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Langbroek, Joram H.M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics. Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5, bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    How would you change your travel patterns if you used an electric vehicle? A stated adaptation approach2018In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 13, p. 144-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The real environmental benefits of a transition towards EVs highly depend on the future EV-users’ activity-travel patterns adapted to their new vehicle’s capacity. Despite its importance, the impact of this adaptation is largely unknown. In this study, a stated adaptation experiment has been conducted to investigate changes of travel patterns as a result of range limitations or the opposite, abundant range. The basis for this experiment is a one-day travel diary among active drivers in Greater Stockholm. The main findings of this study are the following: (1) Drivers facing range limitations are more likely to make use of alternative means of transport (mainly public transport) if the travel time difference between car and public transport is low and if not many transfers are needed for the public transport trip. (2) In case of (perceived) range limitations, shopping trips and trips visiting friends or relatives are more likely to be cancelled than working trips. (3) The main trip purpose of additional trips in case of sufficient EV range is shopping. (4) A non-negligible number of public transport trips are likely to be replaced by EV. Shortly, the effects of the transition towards electric vehicle use on personal mobility seem to depend on the availability of accessible substitutes. Besides that, a rebound effect has been observed in this study.

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