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  • 1.
    Kojola, Niklas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    A Study of Metal Transfer Flow during Late-stage Steelmaking2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Kojola, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Ekerot, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Pilot plant study of clogging rates in low carbon and stainless steel grades2011Ingår i: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 81-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper, the clogging tendency of aluminium or silicon killed low carbon and stainless steel grades has been investigated using pilot scale equipment. Steel was melted and deoxidised in a 600 Hz induction furnace, then teemed through a temperature controlled nozzle into a mould situated on a scale measuring the teemed mass. The steel and nozzle temperatures could be adjusted within +/- 1 degrees C. It was found that the clogging rate, when teeming through a hot nozzle, increased with an increasing amount of alumina phase present in the steel melt. This, in combination with composition analysis and a detailed crystallographic investigation using electron backscatter diffraction, suggested that the clogging was created by deoxidation products from the steel melt. Furthermore, it was found that the freezing effect onto the nozzle wall when teeming non-clogging steel through a cold nozzle was of the same order of magnitude as the clogging rate of the aluminium killed steels teemed through a hot nozzle. Successful trials were also performed where the nozzle accretion during teeming was eliminated by the addition of negative oxygen interacting elements such as aluminium or silicon to the melt. A theoretical assessment based on a mass balance and thermodynamic equilibrium predicted that the removal efficiency increased with a decreased total oxygen content of the steel melt.

  • 3.
    Kojola, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Ekerot, Sven
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Andersson, Margareta
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Pilot plant study of nozzle clogging mechanisms during casting of REM treated stainless steels2011Ingår i: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot scale bottom teemed high frequency furnace with a nominal capacity of 600 kg and an adjustable nozzle temperature was used to study clogging of rare earth metal (REM) treated stainless steels. The influence of the following variables on the clogging was studied: amount of REM, fraction of oxide clusters, total oxygen content in the steel, reoxidation, aluminium additions before REM additions and silicon additions during casting. Overall, the results show that, during the present experimental conditions, mainly two typical clogging rates could be identified, fast and slow clogging. Two main differences could be detected between the fast and slow clogging rates. Steel containing mainly small single inclusions clogged faster than steel containing mainly large inclusion clusters. The reason was believed to be that the small inclusions could stick to the nozzle wall at narrow passages where the steel flow velocity was high while the larger ones could not. The source of the small inclusions was believed to be reoxidation. It was also found that the main part of the nozzle accretion was caused by agglomeration of inclusions and inclusion clusters, while only a thin oxide film along the nozzle wall was caused by oxide precipitation at the nozzle wall.

  • 4.
    Kojola, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    Hurtig, Jenny
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    Nitrogen and Hydrogen Refining During Vacuum Treatment of Liquid Steel2011Ingår i: PR-258-024, 2011, nr 6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen and hydrogen strongly affects mechanical properties of steel. This is why control of liquid steel nitrogen and hydrogen contents is of the utmost importance. In this paper, the nitrogen and hydrogen refining during vacuum treatment and the variation of nitrogen and hydrogen content in the tundish, have been investigated. The results clearly show that the nitrogen refining depends on the gas pressure inside the tank as well as steel sulfur content and vacuum treatment time, while the hydrogen refining seems to reach equilibrium within the varied process parameters. It is further shown that the nitrogen and hydrogen contents vary during casting. A model predicting this variation as function of time is also presented.

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