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  • 1.
    Mikkonen, Saara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Electrophoretic focusing in microchannels combined with mass spectrometry: Applications on amyloid beta peptides2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of low-abundance components in small samples remains a challenge within bioanalytical chemistry, and new techniques for sample pretreatments followed by sensitive and informative detection are required. In this thesis, procedures for preconcentration and separation of proteins and peptides in open microchannels fabricated on silicon microchips are presented. Analyte electromigration was induced by applying a voltage along the channel length, and detection was performed either by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) within the open channel, or by sampling a nL fraction containing the preconcentrated analytes from the channel for subsequent nano-electrospray ionization- (nESI-) or MALDI-MS. Utilizing solvent evaporation from the open system during sample supply, sample volumes exceeding the 25-75 nL channel volume could be analyzed. For preconcentration/separation of components in the discrete channel volume a lid of inert fluorocarbon liquid was used for evaporation control.

    In Papers I and II, aqueous, carrier-free solutions of proteins and peptides were analyzed, and the method was successfully applied for fast and simple preconcentration of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, related to Alzheimer’s disease.

    The impact of possible impurities in the analysis of carrier-free solutions was investigated in Paper III with the 1D simulation software GENTRANS, and a method for open-channel isoelectric focusing in a tailor-made pH gradient was developed. The latter approach was used in Paper IV for preconcentration and purification of Aβ peptides after immunoprecipitation from cerebrospinal fluid and blood plasma, followed by MALDI-MS from a micropillar chip.

    Paper V includes simulations of an isotachophoretic strategy for selective enrichment of Aβ peptides. GENTRANS simulations were used to select the electrolyte composition, and 2D simulations in a geometry suitable for on-chip implementation were performed using COMSOL Multiphysics.

  • 2.
    Mikkonen, Saara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Sample preconcentration in open microchannels: Combinations with MALDI and nano-ESI mass spectrometry and computer simulations2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a novel concept for preconcentration of biomolecules in open microchannels is presented. The preconcentration is based on electromigration of charged analytes, and detection is performed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) or nano-electrospray ionization (nESI) mass spectrometry (MS).

    Analysis of minute volumes of low-concentration samples is an important and challenging task within several fields of chemistry, biology and medicine. In bioanalytical chemistry in particular, sample pretreatment procedures including preconcentration must frequently be applied. Due to the often small available sample volumes, it is advantageous to perform these pretreatments in microfluidic devices. Moreover, since MS in many cases is the detection method of choice, there is a requirement for developing suitable interfacing techniques between the microchip and MS.

    In Paper I, the preconcentration concept is presented; silicon microchips with parallel open channels were used. The channels have a rectangular shape and are 1 cm long, 50-150 µm wide and 50 µm deep, yielding a total channel volume of 25-75 nL. By supplying sample to the channel and applying a voltage over the channel length, charged analytes will migrate towards the oppositely charged electrode and become concentrated. In Paper I, detection was performed by using the open microchannel directly as a MALDI-target. To achieve this, matrix solution was added to the channel after the preconcentration with electrospray matrix deposition. Using this approach, preconcentration of cytochrome c was achieved, and the lowest initial protein concentration successfully detected after preconcentration was 1 nM. The trypsin digest of cytochrome c was also analyzed, and the peptides were preconcentrated at different ends of the channel based on charge.

    Other means of coupling the preconcentration to MS, by extracting a nanovolume of the preconcentrated sample from the open channel, are presented in Paper II. The extracted samples could either be analyzed directly using nESI- or MALDI-MS, or subjected to further pretreatment (such as enzymatic digestion) in a nanodroplet under a fluorocarbon (FluorinertPTMP) liquid lid prior to MS-analysis. Furthermore, in Paper II the method was applied on an amyloid beta cell culture. This resulted in that peptides not detectable without preconcentration easily could be detected with MALDI-MS in nanodroplets extracted from the microchannels after preconcentration.

    Paper III includes theoretical simulations of the preconcentration procedure obtained using the electrophoresis simulator GENTRANS. The experimental results from Paper I are compared to simulations of similar systems, and simulations of an isoelectric focusing (IEF) procedure for proteins or peptides in a mixture of amino acids, are presented. The IEF procedure is to be used in the open microchannels in future experimental work.

  • 3.
    Mikkonen, Saara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry. Univ Bern, Inst Infect Dis, Clin Pharmacol Lab, Bern, Switzerland..
    Caslayskal, Jitka
    Univ Bern, Inst Infect Dis, Clin Pharmacol Lab, Bern, Switzerland..
    Gebauer, Petr
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Analyt Chem, Brno, Czech Republic..
    Thormanni, Wolfgang
    Univ Bern, Inst Infect Dis, Clin Pharmacol Lab, Bern, Switzerland..
    Inverse cationic ITP for separation of methadone enantiomers with sulfated beta-cyclodextrin as chiral selector2019In: Electrophoresis, ISSN 0173-0835, E-ISSN 1522-2683, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 659-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chiral ITP of the weak base methadone using inverse cationic configurations with H+ as leading component and multiple isomer sulfated beta-CD (S-beta-CD) as leading electrolyte (LE) additive, has been studied utilizing dynamic computer simulation, a calculation model based on steady-state values of the ITP zones, and capillary ITP. By varying the amount of acidic S-beta-CD in the LE composed of 3-morpholino-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid and the chiral selector, and employing glycylglycine as terminating electrolyte (TE), inverse cationic ITP provides systems in which either both enantiomers, only the enantiomer with weaker complexation, or none of the two enantiomers form cationic ITP zones. For the configuration studied, the data reveal that only S-methadone migrates isotachophoretically when the S-beta-CD concentration in the LE is between about 0.484 and 1.113 mM. Under these conditions, R-methadone migrates zone electrophoretically in the TE. An S-beta-CD concentration between about 0.070 and 0.484 mM results in both S- and R-methadone forming ITP zones. With >1.113 mM and < about 0.050 mM of S-beta-CD in the LE both enantiomers are migrating within the TE and LE, respectively. Chiral inverse cationic ITP with acidic S-beta-CD in the LE is demonstrated to permit selective ITP trapping and concentration of the less interacting enantiomer of a weak base.

  • 4.
    Mikkonen, Saara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Ekström, Henrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Jacksén, Johan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Emmer, Åsa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Selective enrichment of amyloid beta peptides using isotachophoresisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Mikkonen, Saara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Jacksén, Johan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Emmer, Åsa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Mass spectrometric analysis of nanoscale sample volumes extracted from open microchannels after sample preconcentration applied on amyloid beta peptides2014In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 406, no 14, p. 3521-3524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new instrumental concept for extraction of nanovolumes from open microchannels (dimensions 150 mu m x 50 mu m, length 10 mm) manufactured on silicon microchips has been used in combination with a previously developed method for preconcentrating proteins and peptides in the open channels through electromigration. The extracted nanovolumes were further analyzed using nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI) or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) directly or with subsequent enzymatic protein digestion in a nanodroplet prior to the MS analysis. Preconcentration of the samples resulted in a 15-fold sensitivity increase in nESI for a neurotensin solution, and using MALDI-MS, amyloid beta (A beta) peptides could be detected in concentrations down to 1 nM. The method was also successfully applied for detection of cell culture A beta.

  • 6.
    Mikkonen, Saara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Jacksén, Johan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Roeraade, Johan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Thormann, Wolfgang
    University of Bern, Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases.
    Emmer, Åsa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Microfluidic Isoelectric Focusing of Amyloid Beta Peptides Followed by Micropillar-Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry2016In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method for preconcentration and purification of the Alzheimer’s disease related amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides by isoelectric focusing (IEF) in 75 nL microchannels combined with their analysis by micropillar-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is presented. A semiopen chip-based setup, consisting of open microchannels covered by a lid of a liquid fluorocarbon, was used. IEF was performed in a mixture of four small and chemically well-defined amphoteric carriers, glutamic acid, aspartyl-histidine (Asp-His), cycloserine (cSer), and arginine, which provided a stepwise pH gradient tailored for focusing of the C-terminal Aβ peptides with a pI of 5.3 in the boundary between cSer and Asp-His. Information about the focusing dynamics and location of the foci of Aβ peptides and other compounds was obtained using computer simulation and by performing MALDI-MS analysis directly from the open microchannel. With the established configuration, detection was performed by direct sampling of a nanoliter volume containing the focused Aβ peptides from the microchannel, followed by deposition of this volume onto a chip with micropillar MALDI targets. In addition to purification, IEF preconcentration provides at least a 10-fold increase of the MALDI-MS-signal. After immunoprecipitation and concentration of the eluate in the microchannel, IEF-micropillar-MALDI-MS is demonstrated to be a suitable platform for detection of Aβ peptides in human cerebrospinal fluid as well as in blood plasma.

  • 7.
    Mikkonen, Saara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Rokhas, Maria Khihon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Jacksén, Johan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Emmer, Åsa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Sample preconcentration in open microchannels combined with MALDI-MS2012In: Electrophoresis, ISSN 0173-0835, E-ISSN 1522-2683, Vol. 33, no 22, p. 3343-3350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a method for preconcentrating samples in 1 cm long, 50-150 μm wide open microchannels is presented. Platinum electrodes were positioned at the channel ends, voltage was applied, and charged analyte was preconcentrated at the oppositely charged side during continuous supply of sample. The preconcentration was initially studied in a closed system, where an influence on the analyte position from a pH gradient, generated by water electrolysis, was observed. In the open channel, the analyte distribution after preconcentration was evaluated using MALDI-MS with the channel as MALDI target. MALDI matrix was applied with an airbrush or by electrospray matrix deposition and by using the latter technique higher degrees of crystallization in the channels were obtained. After preconcentrating a 1 nM cytochrome c solution for 5 min, corresponding to a supplied amount of 1.25 fmol, a signal on the cathodic channel end could be detected. When a solution of cytochrome c trypsin digest was supplied, the peptides were preconcentrated at different positions along the channel depending on their charge.

  • 8.
    Mikkonen, Saara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Thormann, Wolfgang
    Emmer, Åsa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Computer simulations of sample preconcentration in carrier-free systems and isoelectric focusing in microchannels using simple ampholytes2015In: Electrophoresis, ISSN 0173-0835, E-ISSN 1522-2683, Vol. 36, no 19, p. 2386-2395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, electrophoretic preconcentration of protein and peptide samples in microchannels was studied theoretically using the 1D dynamic simulator GENTRANS, and experimentally combined with MS. In all configurations studied, the sample was uniformly distributed throughout the channel before power application, and driving electrodes were used as microchannel ends. In the first part, previously obtained experimental results from carrier-free systems are compared to simulation results, and the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide and impurities in the sample solution are examined. Simulation provided insight into the dynamics of the transport of all components under the applied electric field and revealed the formation of a pure water zone in the channel center. In the second part, the use of an IEF procedure with simple well defined amphoteric carrier components, i.e. amino acids, for concentration and fractionation of peptides was investigated. By performing simulations a qualitative description of the analyte behavior in this system was obtained. Neurotensin and [Glu1]-Fibrinopeptide B were separated by IEF in microchannels featuring a liquid lid for simple sample handling and placement of the driving electrodes. Component distributions in the channel were detected using MALDI- and nano-ESI-MS and data were in agreement with those obtained by simulation. Dynamic simulations are demonstrated to represent an effective tool to investigate the electrophoretic behavior of all components in the microchannel.

  • 9.
    Rokhas, Maria Khihon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Mikkonen, Saara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Beyer, J.
    Jacksén, Johan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Emmer, Åsa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    CE analysis of single wood cells performing hydrolysis and preconcentration in open microchannels2014In: Electrophoresis, ISSN 0173-0835, E-ISSN 1522-2683, Vol. 35, no 2-3, p. 450-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, monosaccharides from pulp samples and single wood fibers were analyzed with CE, using indirect detection due to the lack of chromophores on the monosaccharides. The hydrolysis degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose into monosaccharides was performed using TFA, either in bulk scale or in microscale. In the microscale, one single wood fiber was hydrolyzed in an open microchannel manufactured on a silicon microchip with the dimensions 50 μm × 50 μm (length 1 or 3 cm). The low monosaccharide amounts derived from a single fiber implied that a preconcentration step was necessary to increase the detectability. Thus, an electromigration preconcentration of the hydrolyzed samples was performed within the microchannel, which resulted in a significantly enhanced signal intensity of the monosaccharides. In addition to the experimental study, computer simulations were performed regarding the preconcentration step of monosaccharides. The results from these simulations correlated well with the experimental results.

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