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  • 1.
    Chuanfeng, Liu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Membrane Distillation and Applications for Water Purification in Thermal Cogeneration: A Pre-study2005Report (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Kullab, Alaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Liu, Chuanfeng
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Solar desalination using membrane distillation: Technical evaluation case study2005In: Proceedings of the Solar World Congress 2005: Bringing Water to the World, Including Proceedings of 34th ASES Annual Conference and Proceedings of 30th National Passive Solar Conference, 2005, p. 2732-2737Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising desalination technology offering advantages of robustness, scalability, and improved environmental performance as compared to established methods. The aim of this research is to explore the potential of a small scale or stand-alone MD desalination system. The system under consideration consists of an air-gap membrane distillation (AGMD) unit integrated with non-concentrating solar thermal collectors. Scale-up of the MD unit was accomplished via experimental data obtained from an AGMD test facility, and trials were conducted with various feedstock TDS levels, temperatures, and flow rates. Laboratory data obtained from these and other studies demonstrate that MD unit performance is relatively insensitive to variations in feedstock qualities (e.g. pH, TDS levels). Solar data gathered from a case study (Gaza, Palestine) was employed in system simulations. The analysis shows that the system is capable of producing up to 8.5m3/hr of high quality water (< 10 ppm TDS). The power consumption was 150 kWh/m3 (with primary heat recovery), pointing to the need for further studies in ways to utilize low-grade waste heat.

  • 3.
    Liu, Chuanfeng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Applying Membrane Distillation in High-Purity Water Production for Semiconductor Industry2006In: Ultrapure Water: the definitive journal of high-purity water, ISSN 0747-8291, Vol. AprilArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While modern ultrapure water (UPW) systems are relatively well developed for semiconductor manufacturing, there is still room for improvement with regards to enhanced reliability, reduced environmental impact, and cost reductions. Membrane distillation (MD) is one promising alternative for high-purity water production that has several advantages compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and other technologies. In short, MD is a thermally driven process utilizing a hydrophobic membrane to produce high-purity water from a contaminated feedstock. Previous studies have shown that MD produces water with equal or superior quality to RO; in addition MD is relatively insensitive to process variations (e.g. pH, TDS levels, etc.), thus opening up the possibility of recycling rinse water. Low-temperature heat sources (i.e. under 100 °C) may be employed, thus allowing MD to be readily integrated into existing processes or even on-site cogeneration.

     

    This paper explores the viability of MD for high-purity water production in a typical semiconductor chip fabrication plant. A brief literature review is included along with water quality analysis reports on typical MD product water. System simulations are employed to highlight possible scenarios with cogeneration. Results show that the specific energy consumption in the case study is around 440 kWh/m3 (thermal) and 0.9 kWh/m3 (electrical).  The specific capital cost is around $1.2-1.5/ m3 for the MD facility. These findings provide a strong impetus towards demonstration trials and other follow-on research and development activities.

  • 4.
    Liu, Chuanfeng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    The use of membrane distillation in high-purity water production for the semiconductor industry2006In: Ultrapure Water, ISSN 0747-8291, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 32-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) was investigated as a promising technology for water purification in the semiconductor industry. The AGMD facility considered includes one membrane module, consisting of 10 plastic cassettes stacked together, resulting in 9 feed channels and 9 permeate channels. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were employed with a porosity of 80% and a thickness of 0.2 micron (μm). The width of air gap of AGMD is 2 mm. During the experimental period, the pilot plant was operated in three kinds of flow conditions (e.g., 1.36 cubic meters per hour [m/h], 3.04 m3/h, and 2.72 m/h). For simplicity, identical flowrates were maintained for both hot and cold streams. When conducting the experiments, run-time data included pure water production rate, cold- and hot-side temperatures, conductivity of pure water, total dissolved solids (TDS), and pH. Results from laboratory trials were scaled up for use in system simulations featuring MD integrated with distributed heat and power generation from natural gas-fired engines.

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