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  • 1.
    Calil Kores, Cristine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Ismail, Nur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Geskus, Dimitri
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Dijkstra, M.
    Bernhardi, Edward H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Temperature dependence of the resonance line of optically pumped distributed-feedback lasers2018In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, OSA - The Optical Society , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We characterize experimentally and theoretically a distributed-feedback laser resonator subject to a thermal chirp. The total accumulated phase shift determines the resonance wavelength. The reflectivities (outcoupling losses) at the resonance wavelength govern the resonance linewidth.

  • 2.
    Calil Kores, Cristine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics. Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ismail, Nur
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Geskus, Dimitri
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Dijkstra, Meindert
    Bernhardi, Edward
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics. Visiting scientist .
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics. Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK.
    Temperature dependence of the spectral characteristics of distributed-feedback resonators2018In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 4892-4905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We characterize the spectral response of a distributed-feedback resonator when subject to a thermal chirp. An Al2O3 rib waveguide with a corrugated surface Bragg grating inscribed into its SiO2 top cladding is experimentally investigated. We induce a near-to-linear temperature gradient along the resonator, leading to a similar variation of the grating period, and characterize its spectral response in terms of wavelength and linewidth of the resonance peak. Simulations are carried out, showing good agreement with the experimental results and indicating that the wavelength of the resonance peak is a result only of the total accumulated phase shift. For any chirp profile we are able to calculate the reflectivities at the resonance wavelength, and this information largely explains how the linewidth of the resonance changes. This result shows that the increase in linewidth is governed by the increase of the resonator outcoupling losses. 

  • 3.
    Ismail, Nur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Calil Kores, Cristine
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Geskus, Dimitri
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    The Fabry-Pérot resonator: Spectral line shapes, generic and related Airy distributions, linewidths, finesses, and performance at low or frequency-dependent reflectivity2016In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 24, no 15, p. 16366-16389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We systematically characterize the Fabry-Pérot resonator. We derive the generic Airy distribution of a Fabry-Pérot resonator, which equals the internal resonance enhancement factor, and show that all related Airy distributions are obtained by simple scaling factors. We analyze the textbook approaches to the Fabry-Pérot resonator and point out various misconceptions. We verify that the sum of the mode profiles of all longitudinal modes is the fundamental physical function that characterizes the Fabry-Pérot resonator and generates the Airy distribution. Consequently, the resonator losses are quantified by the linewidths of the underlying Lorentzian lines and not by the measured Airy linewidth. Therefore, we introduce the Lorentzian finesse which provides the spectral resolution of the Lorentzian lines, whereas the usually considered Airy finesse only quantifies the performance of the Fabry-Pérot resonator as a scanning spectrometer. We also point out that the concepts of linewidth and finesse of the Airy distribution of a Fabry-Pérot resonator break down at low reflectivity. Furthermore, we show that a Fabry-Pérot resonator has no cut-off resonance wavelength. Finally, we investigate the influence of frequency-dependent mirror reflectivities, allowing for the direct calculation of its deformed mode profiles.

  • 4.
    Ismail, Nur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Kores, Cristine Calil
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Geskus, Dimitri
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Mode profiles and Airy distributions of Fabry-Perot resonators with frequency-dependent mirror reflectivity2017In: Laser Resonators, Microresonators, and Beam Control XIX / [ed] Kudryashov, AV Paxton, AH Ilchenko, VS, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2017, Vol. 10090, article id UNSP 1009011-1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We thoroughly investigate the Fabry-Perot resonator, avoid approximations, and derive its generic Airy distribution, equaling the internal resonance enhancement, and all related Airy distributions, such as the commonly known transmission. We verify that the sum of the mode profiles of all longitudinal modes is the fundamental physical function characterizing the Fabry-Perot resonator and generating the Airy distributions. We investigate the influence of frequency-dependent mirror reflectivities on the mode profiles and the resulting Airy distributions. The mode profiles then deviate from simple Lorentzian lines and exhibit peaks that are not located at resonant frequencies. Our simple, yet accurate analysis greatly facilitates the characterization of Fabry-Perot resonators with strongly frequency-dependent mirror reflectivities.

  • 5.
    Kores, Cristine C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Geskus, Dimitri
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Ismail, Nur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Dijkstra, Meindert
    Bernhardi, Edward H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    The linewidth of distributed feedback resonators: the combined effect of thermally induced chirp and gain narrowing2017In: Laser Resonators, Microresonators, and Beam Control XIX / [ed] Kudryashov, AV Paxton, AH Ilchenko, VS, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2017, article id UNSP 1009014-1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed-feedback (DFB) laser resonators are widely recognized for their advantage of generating laser emission with extremely narrow linewidth. Our investigation concerns ytterbium-doped amorphous Al2O3 channel waveguides with a corrugated homogeneous Bragg grating inscribed into its SiO2 top cladding, in which lambda/4 phase-shift provides a resonance and allows for laser emission with a linewidth as narrow as a few kHz. Pump absorption imposes a thermal chirp of the grating period, which has implications for the spectral characteristics of the resonator. Thermal effects on the spectral response of a DFB passive resonator were investigated via simulations using Coupled Mode Theory by considering (i) a constant deviation of the grating period or (ii) a chirp with a linear profile. We report an increase of the resonance linewidth up to 15%. This result is due to two factors, namely changes of the grating reflectivity at the resonance frequency up to 2.4% and of the shift of resonance frequency up to 61 pm due to an accumulated phase shift imposed on the grating by the chirp profile. The linewidth decrease due to gain is on the order of 106, which is a much larger value. Nevertheless, according to the Schawlow-Townes equation the linewidth increase of the passive resonator due to a thermal chirp quadratically increases the laser linewidth.

  • 6.
    Kores, Cristine C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Mutter, Patrick
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Kianirad, Hoda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Canalias, Carlota
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation in periodically poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4 ridge waveguide2018In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 26, no 25, p. 33142-33147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 10.8 mu m wide ridge waveguide was fabricated by diamond-blade dicing in an ion-exchanged periodically poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4 sample. The waveguide was used to generate blue second harmonic light at 468.8 nm in the TM(00 )mode through first order Type I quasi-phase matching, exploiting the large d(33) coefficient of the crystal. It was evaluated using a cw Ti:Sapphire laser, and 6.7 mu W of blue light was generated with 5.8 mW of fundamental radiation at 933.8 nm coupled through the waveguide. The results presented here pave the way for efficient nonlinear processes in a waveguide format. (C) 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

  • 7.
    Kores, Cristine Calil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Geskus, Dimitri
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Ismail, Nur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Dijkstra, M.
    Bernhardi, E. H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Characterization of Ultranarrow-Linewidth Distributed-Feedback Resonators Below Laser Threshold2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Kores, Cristine Calil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Ismail, N.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Geskus, D.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Dijkstra, M.
    Univ Twente, MESA Inst, Opt Sci, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands..
    Bernhardi, E. H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics. Univ Surrey, Adv Technol Inst, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey, England..
    Temperature Dependence of Spectral Characteristics of Distributed-Feedback Resonators2018In: FIBER LASERS AND GLASS PHOTONICS: MATERIALS THROUGH APPLICATIONS / [ed] Taccheo, S Mackenzie, JI Ferrari, M, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2018, article id 106830BConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectral response of a distributed-feedback resonator with a thermal chirp is investigated. An Al2O3 channel waveguide with a surface Bragg grating inscribed into its SiO2 top cladding is studied. A linear temperature gradient along the resonator leads to a corresponding variation of the grating period. We characterize its spectral response with respect to wavelength and linewidth changes of the resonance peak. Simulated results show good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the resonance wavelength is determined by the total accumulated phase shift. The calculated grating reflectivities at the resonance wavelength largely explain the observed changes of the resonance linewidth. This agreement demonstrates that the linewidth increase is caused by the increase of resonator outcoupling losses.

  • 9.
    Kores, Cristine Calil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Ismail, Nur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Bernhardi, E. H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Distributed phase shift and lasing wavelength in distributed-feedback resonators2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Kores, Cristine Calil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Ismail, Nur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Bernhardi, E. H.
    KTH.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics. Univ. of Surrey (United Kingdom) .
    Lasing wavelength in dielectric distributed-feedback lasers with a distributed phase shift2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed-feedback waveguide lasers based on Bragg-grating resonators generate ultranarrow-linewidth emission. Oscillation at the center of the reflection band ensures maximum reflectivity, hence minimum laser linewidth. The required μ/2 phase shift is often introduced by a distributed change in effective refractive index, e.g. by adiabatically widening the waveguide. Despite careful design and fabrication, the experimentally observed resonance wavelength deviates, thereby placing the resonance and laser emission at a position with lower reflectivity inside the reflection band. This effect is usually incorrectly attributed to fabrication errors. Here we show theoretically and experimentally that the decay of light intensity during propagation from the phase-shift center into both sides of the Bragg grating due to (i) reflection by the periodic grating and (ii) the adiabatic refractive-index change causes an incomplete accumulation of designed phase shift, thereby systematically shifting the resonance to a shorter wavelength. Calculations are performed based on the characteristic-matrix approach. Experimental studies are carried out in a distributed-feedback channel-waveguide resonator in amorphous Al2O3 on silicon with a distributed phase shift introduced by adiabatic widening of the waveguide according to a sin2 function. Calculations and experiments show good agreement. Considering in the design the overlap integral between distributed phase shift and light intensity provides the desired performance.

  • 11.
    Kores, Cristine Calil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Ismail, Nur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Bernhardi, E. H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics. Univ. of Surrey (United Kingdom).
    Spectral behavior of integrated distributed-feedback resonators utilizing a distributed phase shift2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bragg-grating-based distributed-feedback waveguide resonators, with a discrete phase shift introduced inside the Bragg grating, exhibit within their grating reflection band a Lorentzian-shaped resonance line with an ultranarrow linewidth. If the phase shift is π/2, the resonance is located at the center of the reflection band, i.e., at the Bragg wavelength, where the grating reflectivity is maximum, hence the resonance linewidth is minimum. Alternatively, the required π/2 phase shift is often introduced by a distributed change in effective refractive index, e.g. by adiabatically widening the waveguide. Despite careful design and fabrication, the experimentally observed resonance wavelength deviates from the designed one. Besides deviations owing to fabrication errors, a fundamental, systematic shift towards shorter wavelengths occurs. We show theoretically and experimentally that the decay of light intensity during propagation from the phase-shift center into both sides of the Bragg grating due to (i) reflection by the periodic grating and (ii) the adiabatic refractive-index change causes an incomplete accumulation of designed phase shift by the oscillating light, thereby systematically shifting the resonance to a shorter wavelength. Calculations are performed based on the characteristic-matrix approach. Experimental studies are carried out in distributed-feedback channel-waveguide resonators in an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film on silicon with a distributed phase shift introduced by adiabatic widening of the waveguide according to a sin2 function. Calculations and experiments show good agreement. Considering in the design the overlap integral between distributed phase shift and light intensity provides a performance that is much closer to the desired value.

  • 12.
    Kores, Cristine Calil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Ismail, Nur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Bernhardi, Edward H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Accumulation of distributed phase shift in distributed-feedback lasers2018In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, OSA - The Optical Society , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In distributed-feedback lasers, a distributed phase shift of /2, seemingly placing the resonance at the Bragg wavelength, is not accumulated because of light confinement and asymmetry, leading to a systematic resonance shift to shorter wavelengths.

  • 13.
    Kores, Cristine Calil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Ismail, Nur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Bernhardi, Edward H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Accumulation of Distributed Phase Shift in Distributed-Feedback Resonators2019In: IEEE Photonics Journal, ISSN 1097-5764, E-ISSN 1943-0655, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1500109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed-feedback waveguide lasers based on Bragg-grating resonators generate ultranarrow-linewidth emission. Oscillation at the center of the reflection band ensures maximum reflectivity, hence minimum linewidth. The required pi/2 phase shift is often introduced by a distributed change in effective refractive index, e.g., by widening the waveguide. Despite careful design and fabrication, the experimentally observed resonance wavelength deviates from the designed wavelength. Even when thermally induced chirp or fabrication errors are negligible, this deviation is still present. Here, we show theoretically and experimentally that this deviation is of fundamental nature. The decay of light intensity during propagation from the phase-shift center into both sides of the Bragg grating due to reflection by the periodic grating and the refractive index change causes an incomplete accumulation of designed phase shift, thereby systematically shifting the resonance to a shorter wavelength. Considering the overlap integral between the distributed phase shift and light intensity in the design provides the desired performance.

  • 14.
    Kores, Cristine Calil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Ismail, Nur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Geskus, Dimitri
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Dijkstra, M.
    Bernhardi, Edward H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Frequency and linewidth dependence of distributed-feedback resonators on thermal chirp2017In: 2017 19th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), IEEE Computer Society, 2017, article id 8025100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of the spectral characteristics of distributed-feedback (DFB) laser resonators with thermally chirped distributed mirrors. Such DFB resonators have the interesting capability of producing a linewidth as narrow as a few kHz. The investigated devices are ytterbium-doped amorphous Al2O3 channel waveguides with a periodic Bragg grating inscribed into its SiO2 top cladding. The resonance in the spectral response of the resonator results from a distributed λ/4 phase-shift produced by increasing the waveguide width. Its frequency is determined by the period of the Bragg grating, whereas its linewidth is determined by the intrinsic losses and the outcoupling losses of the resonator. When such a device is optically pumped to achieve gain and eventually lasing, the grating period becomes thermally chirped, thereby influencing the spectral characteristics of the resonator. We investigate experimentally and via simulations the frequency and linewidth of the resonance in the presence of a thermally induced linear chirp on the grating profile. Experiments and simulations show good quantitative agreement.

  • 15.
    Kores, Cristine Calil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Ismail, Nur
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Geskus, Dimitri
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Dijkstra, M.
    Bernhardi, Edward H.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Pollnau, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Spectral broadening in distributed-feedback resonators due to thermal chirp2018In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, Optical Society of America, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the spectral response of an unpumped distributed-feedback waveguide resonator, subject to thermal chirp. Experimental and simulated results indicate that such chirp causes an increase in outcoupling losses and, therefore, in the resonance linewidth.

1 - 15 of 15
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