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  • 1.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Ultra Wideband Impulse Radio for Wireless Sensing and Identification2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Ubiquitous computing and Internet-of-Things (IoT) implies an untapped opportunity in the realm of information and communication technology, in which a large number of micro-devices with communication and/or computing capabilities, provides connectivity for anything, by anyone at anytime and anywhere. Especially, these devices can be equipped with sensors and actuators that interact with our living environment. Barcode, smart contactless card, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems, wireless sensor network (WSN), and smart mobile phones are some examples which can be utilized in ubiquitous computing. RFIDs and WSN have been recognized as the two promising enablers for realization of ubiquitous computing. They have some great features such as low-cost and small- size implementation, non-line of sight operation, sensing possibilities, data storing ability, and positioning. However, there are several challenges which need to be addressed, such as limited life time for battery powered device, maintenance cost, longer operation range, higher data rate, and operation in dense multipath and multiuser environment. Ultra-Wideband Impulse Radio (UWB-IR) with its huge advantages has been recognized as a great solution for future WSN and RFID. UWB-IR technique has the possibility of achieving Gb/s data rate, hundreds of meter operation range, pJ energy per bit, centimeter accuracy of positioning, and low cost implementation. In this work utilization of UWB-IR in WSN and RFID is investigated. A wireless sensor network based on UWB-IR is proposed focusing on low-cost and low-power implementation. Our contribution is to imply two different architectures in base station and sensor nodes to satisfy power, complexity and cost constraints. For sensor nodes, an autonomous UWB-IR detection is proposed, which detects the UWB signal autonomously and no restrict synchronization is required. It reduces the circuit complexity significantly. The performance in term of bit-error-rate is compared with two other common detection techniques. It is shown that the new detection is more robustness to timing jitter and clock skew, which consequently reduces the clock and synchronization requirements considerably. A novel wireless sensing and identification system, based on remote-powered tag with asymmetric wireless link, is proposed. Our innovative contribution is to deploy two different UWB and UHF communication techniques in uplink and downlink respectively. In the proposed system, tags capture the required power supply from different environmental sources (e.g. electromagnetic wave transmitted by a reader) and transmit data through an ultra-low power impulse UWB link. A new communication protocol is devised based on slotted-aloha anti-collision algorithm. By introducing several improvements including of pipelined communication, adaptive frame size, and skipping idle slots, the system throughput of more than 2000 tags/s is achieved. To prove the system concept a single chip integrated tag is implemented in UMC 0.18μm CMOS process. The measurement results show the minimum sensitivity of -18.5 dB (14.1 μW) and adaptive data rate up to 10 Mb/s. It corresponds to 13.9 meters operation range, considering 4W EIRP, a matched antenna to the tag with 0dB gain, and free space path loss. This is a great improvement in operation range and data rate, compared with conventional passive RFID, which data rate is limited to a few hundreds of Kb/s. System integration in a Liquid-Crystal-polymer (LCP) substrate is investigated. The integration of a tunable UWB-IR transmitter and a power scavenging unit are studied. Our contribution includes embedding and modeling the RF components and antenna in substrate and co-optimizing the chip and package with on-chip versus off-chip passives trade-offs. Simulation results verify the potential of system-on-package solution for UWB integration. The effect of antenna miniaturization in a UWB system is studied. Our focus is to scale down a UWB antenna and optimize the performance through the chip-antenna co-design. A tunable impulse- UWB transmitter is designed in two cases - a conventional 50Ω design and a co-design methodology. The simulation results show that the standard 50Ω design technique can not reach the best condition in all cases, when a real antenna is placed into the system. The performance can be improved significantly when doing codesign. The antennas and UWB transmitter performances are evaluated in a given UWB systems. It is shown that the operation distance at a target performance is reduced with antenna scaling factor and it can be compensated by antenna-transceiver co-design. The result proves the importance of antenna-transceiver codesign, which needs to be addressed in the earliest phases of the design flow.

  • 2.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Mendoza, David S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Radiom, Soheil
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Gielen, Georges
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    A remote-powered RFID tag with 10Mb/s UWB Uplink and -18.5dBm sensitivity UHF downlink in 0.18μm CMOS2009In: Digest of technical papers / IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, ISSN 0193-6530, p. 198-199,199aArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a 10 Mb/s impulse UWB RFID tag in 0.18 mum CMOS is presented. The tag is remotely powered by a UHF signal with a minimum input RF power as low as 14.1 muW. The primary innovation is to employ two different communication links (UWB and UHF) respectively in the uplink and downlink of the tag. This is because the amount of data or instructions from a reader to a tag is small and as a result a conventional UHF-RFID link at 900MHz can be used as the downlink. The UHF signal also provides remote power to the tag. The uplink requires higher data rates and precise positioning capability therefore an l-UWB transmitter is employed.

  • 3.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Radiom, Soheil
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Gielen, Georges G. E.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Miniaturization of UWB antennas and its influence on UWB-transceiver performanceIn: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Shen, Meigen
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Koivisto, Tero
    Univ Turku, Dept Informat Technol.
    Peltonen, Teemu
    Univ Turku, Dept Informat Technol.
    Tjukanoff, Esa
    Univ Turku, Dept Informat Technol.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    UWB radio module design for wireless sensor networks2007In: Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, ISSN 0925-1030, E-ISSN 1573-1979, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 47-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe an impulse-based ultra wideband (UWB) radio system for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. Different architectures have been studied for base station and sensor nodes. The base station node uses coherent UWB architecture because of the high performance and good sensitivity requirements. However, to meet complexity, power and cost constraints, the sensor module uses a novel non-coherent architecture that can autonomously detect the UWB signals. The radio modules include a transceiver block, a baseband processing unit and a power management block. The transceiver block includes a Gaussian pulse generator, a multiplier, an integrator and timing circuits. For long range applications, a wideband low noise amplifier (LNA) is included in the transceiver of the sensor module, whereas in short range applications it is simply eliminated to further reduce the power consumption. In order to verify the proposed system concept, circuit level implementation is studied using 1.5 V 0.18 mu m CMOS technology. Finally, the UWB radio modules have been designed for implementation in liquid-crystal-polymer (LCP) based System-on-Package (SOP) technology for low power, low cost and small size integration. A small low cost, double-slotted, Knight's helm antenna is embedded in the LCP substrate, which shows stable characterization and a return loss better than -10 dB over the UWB band.

  • 5.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chip-package and antenna co-design of a tunable UWB transmitter in System-on-Package with on-chip versus off-chip passives2006In: ESTC 2006: 1st Electronics Systemintegration Technology Conference: Vols 1 and 2, Proceedings, 2006, p. 291-298Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a self-powered CMOS ultra wideband radio transmitter integrated in a Liquid-Crystal Polymer (LCP) based System on Package (SoP) module with an embedded small antenna. Chip-package-antenna co-design is performed for this module in the presence of unwanted packaging parasitic effects and optimizes the transmission efficiency. Our contribution includes new modeling of the RF-package and antenna and co-optimizing the chip and package design with on-chip versus off-chip passives trade-offs. The Sop module consists of an innovative tunable low power CMOS transmitter for IR-UWB communication, a double-slotted small-size embedded UWB antenna, and a power converter. The output amplitude and duration of the transmitter can be tuned to transmit a signal meeting the FCC mask in different pulse repetition rate for long and short range applications. This ability can also be used to compensate the process and temperature variations as well as the parasitic effects of packaging and antenna. The antenna has a return loss of better than -10dB. The power converter consists of a chain of surface mounted shottkey diodes and capacitors, which converts incident electromagnetic waves to DC supply and thus power up the transmitter. The final module is implemented in LCP substrate with integrated passive components and embedded antenna. The chip part is implemented in 0.18um CMOS process.

  • 6.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Radiom, Soheil
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Gielen, Georges
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Impulse UWB Antenna size reduction due to Transmitter-Antenna Co-design2008In: 2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ULTRA-WIDEBAND: VOL 2, PROCEEDINGS, New York: IEEE , 2008, Vol. 2, p. 37-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the benefit of a co-design between a modified small-size Printed Tapered Monopole Antenna (PTMA) and an Impulse Ultra Wideband transmitter Is Investigated for the 3.1-10.6GHz bond. A comparison is given between a 50 Omega design and a co-designed version. The simulation results show that with the co-design method the tunable UWB transmitter can reach the bandwidth regulation for a much smaller antenna.

  • 7.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    An innovative receiver architecture for autonomous detection of ultra-wideband signals2006In: 2006 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS: VOLS 1-11, PROCEEDINGS, 2006, p. 2589-2592Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra wideband radio is an emerging wireless standard that uses sub-nanosecond pulses to transmit data, resulting in several GHz bandwidths. The problem of generating a synchronized template respect to the received signal grows in complexity as the signal bandwidth increases. In this paper, an innovative, low cost, non-coherent receiver architecture is proposed for autonomous detection of ultra wideband signals. The new receiver will self-generate a synchronous template and hence, no transmitter-reference synchronizer is required. We validate its performance via simulations compared with coherent receivers and conventional non-coherent receivers, the new architecture is found much more robust to timing noise and hence greatly facilitates the synchronise problem in UWB receiver.

  • 8.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Mendoza, David S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Enabling Ubiquitous Wireless Sensing by a Novel RFID-Based UWB Module2007In: The First International EURASIP Workshop on RFID Technology, RFID 2007, 24-25 September 2007, Vienna, Austria, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a novel passive CMOS module which uses two different standards in uplink and downlink. It can be used in many applications such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), and ubiquitous wireless sensing. Such as conventional RFID systems, the module captures power supply from received RF signal transmitted by a reader and extracts data and clock by using an envelope detector and PIE encoder. However, in uplink instead of back scattering, an Impulse-UWB transmitter is used to improve the system performance and throughput. The UWB communication offers several advantages to the system. A new communication protocol is proposed for the system based on slotted-ALOHA anti-collision algorithm. The module consisting of a power management unit, an RF narrowband receiver, a clock management unit, an IR-UWB transmitter, and a digital baseband are designed in 0.18 CMOS process.

  • 9.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    A novel passive tag with asymmetric wireless link for RFID and WSN applications2007In: 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS: VOLS 1-11, 2007, p. 1593-1596Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a radio-powered module with asymmetric wireless link utilizing ultra wideband radio system for RFID and wireless sensor applications. Our contribution includes using two different standards in uplink and downlink. Such as conventional RFIDs, incoming RF signal transmitted by reader is used to power the internal circuitry and receive the data. However, in upstream link, an IR-UWB transmitter is utilized. Unlike traditional RFID systems, due to great advantages of UWB communication, this tag is very robust to multi-path fading and collision problem and it is more secure against eavesdropping or jamming. The module consists of a power scavenging unit, a RF receiver, an IR-UWB transmitter, digital baseband controller, and an embedded UWB antenna are designed for integration on Liquid-Crystal Polymer (LCP) substrate, using 0.18um CMOS process technology.

  • 10.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Radiom, S.
    Vandenbosch, G.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Gielen, G.
    MICAS-ESAT, Katholieke Univ. Leuven.
    Fully integrated 1.2 pJ/p UWB transmitter with on-chip antenna for wireless identification2010In: Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 2010 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE Press, 2010, Vol. 1, p. 237-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fully CMOS integrated impulse ultra wideband transmitter with monolithically on-chipantenna (OCA) for wireless identification is presented. Both OOK and BPSK modulation schemes are supported by the module. The chip is fabricated in standard 0.18μm CMOS technology. Direct measurement verifies the chip operation and wireless transmission measurement shows 7cm operation range with 1.2 pJ/pulse consumption at 10MPps, which is a huge improvement compared with related reported work with OCA.

  • 11.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Power management and clock generator for a novel passive UWB tag2007In: 2007 International Symposium On System-On-Chip Proceedings / [ed] Nurmi, J; Takala, J; Vainio, O, 2007, p. 82-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a power management and a clock generator for a novel passive UWB tag. It can be used in many applications such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), and ubiquitous wireless sensing. As same as conventional RFID, the tag captures the power from the incoming RF signal, converts to DC and stores it in a relatively big capacitor. A voltage sensor and a regulator provide stable voltage for the whole circuitry during operation mode. A clock circuitry generates a low jitter and low skew clock for ultra wideband transmitter to transmit data. In such passive system the power consumption of each block should be as low as possible. On the other hand, performance degradation across process, voltage, and temperature variation (PVT) is another problematic challenge in low power and low cost circuit implementation. In this work, the power management unit including of an RF power scavenging, a voltage sensor, a low drop out regulator and a clock generator are designed and their performance across PVT variation are analyzed. The module is designed and is fabricated in CMOS 0.18 mu m technology.

  • 12.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University, Sabzevar, Iran.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Low cost and precise localization in a remote-powered wireless sensor and identification system2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low cost and precise localization system based on a remote-powered UWB-RFID tag is presented for wireless identification, sensing, positioning and tracking. Our contribution is to utilize the Impulse Radio Ultra wideband (IR-UWB) communication in aRFID system. Such as conventional RFIDs, a tag captures energy from the received RF signal transmitted by a reader which also carries data and clock. However, instead of backscattering, an Impulse-UWB transmitter is used. By a low power design operation distance of 13.9 meters is achieved. A network consist of several readers provide power and retrieve data from the tags in a wide area. Due to the fine time resolution of the ultra-short pulse in IR-UWB, the UWB receiver in the readers are able to accurately approximate the time of arrival of the signal and based on the time-difference-of-arrival algorithm the position of the tag can be estimated precisely. In the line-of-sight scenario by a two-step acquisition system, ±16.8cm accuracy can be achieved. By a new communication protocol proposed based on slotted-ALOHA anti-collision algorithm, 2000 tags per second can be read. The tag circuitry is designed and implemented in CMOS 180nm technology in a single chip solution.

  • 13. Bao, D.
    et al.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Wang, Q.
    Nejad, Majid Baghaei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Fudan University, China.
    A wirelessly-powered UWB sensor tag with time-domain sensor interface2014In: Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2014, p. 2503-2506Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a wirelessly-powered sensor tag with a time-domain sensor interface for wireless sensing applications. The tag is remotely powered by RF wave. Instead of traditional approaches employing conventional ADCs for quantization and transmitter for data communication, in this work, a Pulse Position Modulator incorporating simple impulse radio UWB (IR-UWB) transmitter is proposed to convert and transmit the analog sensing information in time domain. The analog signal is compared with an adjustable triangular wave for analog to time conversion in signal-varying environments. Then a UWB transmitter converts the PPM signal to very short pulses and sends it back to the reader. The time interval of UWB pulses represents the original input signal in time domain which can be measured on the reader side by a time-to-digital conversion. This approach not only simplifies the ADC design but also relaxes the number of bits transmitted on the tag side. The sensor tag is designed in 180nm CMOS process. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach reduce transmission power consumption by nearly 3 orders of magnitude over traditional approaches, while consuming only 85 μW for 1.5 MS/s sampling rate.

  • 14.
    Chen, Cairong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Nejad, Majid Baghaei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Design and implementation of a high efficient power converter for self-powered UHF RFID applications2006In: 2006 Conference on High Density Microsystem Design and Packaging and Component Failure Analysis (HDP '06), Proceedings, 2006, p. 131-133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an investigation of off-chip solution of power converters for passive UHF RFID transponders. The power converter, consisting of a chain of schottky diodes and capacitors, is designed and then implemented on Rogers4350 PCB substrate. The ISM unlicensed frequency bands 915 MHz is used for RF signal. The deembedded measurement results show that with minimum input power of -4.7dBm, the power converter achieves 1.8V/5 mu A output driving capability, which is sufficient for the transponder operation. It corresponds to a 3.6m operating distance when 4-W EIRP radiation is allowed.

  • 15.
    Chen, Cairong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Nejad, Majid Baghaei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Design and implementation of a high efficient power converter for self-powered UHF RFID applications2006In: 2006 International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems, Vols 1 and 2, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2006, p. 393-395Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an investigation of off-chip solution of power converters for passive UHF RFID transponders. The power converter, consisting of a chain of schottky diodes and capacitors, is designed and then implemented on Rogers4350 PCB substrate. The ISM unlicensed frequency bands 915 MHz is used for RF signal. The measurement results show that with minimum input power of -4.7dBm, the power converter achieves 1.8V/ 5 mu A output driving capability, which is sufficient for the transponder operation. It corresponds to a 3.6m operating distance when 4-W EIRP radiation is allowed.

  • 16. Isfahani, S. M. M.
    et al.
    Kazerouni, I. A.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    An ultra-low power multi-tunable triangle wave generator with frequency and amplitude control2010In:  , 2010, p. 236-239Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     ultra-low power adjustable triangle wave generator with a multi tunable amplitude and frequency is introduced in this paper. The proposed circuit consists of a Schmitt trigger and a current source. The overall nonlinearity of the TWG circuit is less than 2% in its current-to-frequency transfer characteristic. The tunable frequency and amplitude range are 10KHz to 40KHz and 0.1V-1.7V respectively. The topology is suitable for VLSI realization and can be used in the WINeR system.

  • 17. Kazerouni, I. A.
    et al.
    Dehrizi, H. G.
    Isfahani, S. M. M.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    A 77 nW bioamplifier with a tunable bandwidth for neural recording systems2010In: IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, Proceedings, APCCAS, 2010, p. 36-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a low-power low-noise amplifier for neural recording and biomedical applications is presented. The frequency band of the amplifier is tunable. It has a gain of 28.3 dB. The low and the high cut-off frequency can be adjusted from 24 mHz to 30.6 Hz and 4.5 kHz to 7.47 kHz, respectively. The circuit is designed in 0.18μm CMOS process, and it consumes only 77.8 nW at 1.8V supply voltage. The simulation results show a 14.3μV input-referred noise corresponding to 1.32 efficiency factor (NEF). It is a great improvement compared with recent presented works in terms on power consumption and NEF which is vital in neural recording applications.

  • 18. Kianpour, I.
    et al.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zeinolabedin, S. M. A.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A subthreshold ultra low power 22fJ/conversion flash ADC for RFID sensing applications2011In: 2011 19th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE), 2011, p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an ultra low power Flash ADC for RFID application is presented. Several techniques are used to further reduce the power consumption and relatively elevate the speed of the ADC. These techniques include a low power Track-and-Latch comparator with no static current, large resisters in the resister string, an optimum encoder with only 2 stages using subthreshold design with the aid of low supply voltage of 0.7v for resister string and 0.5v for all logic blocks. In this ADC by absolute approximation the occupied area is equal with area of 16 resisters in the string. The circuit designed in 0.18μm CMOS technology and simulations show that the 4-bit ADC consumes almost 14.5μW at 40MS/s and 93.8nW at 0.1MS/s; however, it minimally dissipates only 22fJ per each conversion step. The results show that the proposed ADC could seriously compete with other low power ADCs in RFID sensing applications such as SAR ADCs.

  • 19. Kianpour, I.
    et al.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    78 nW ultra-low-power 17 kS/s two-step-successive approximation register analogue-to-digital converter for RFID and sensing applications2012In: IET CIRC DEVICE SYST, ISSN 1751-858X, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 397-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study an ultra-low-power successive approximation register (SAR) analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) for radio frequency identification (RFID) applications is presented. Several techniques are used to further reduce power consumption and relatively elevate the speed of the conventional SAR ADC. These techniques include a low-power comparator with no static current, a dual-stage (resistor-string/capacitive dividing) architecture as digital-to-analogue converter (DAC), and utilising low-power design with the aid of low supply voltages: 0.7 V for DAC, and 0.5 V for SAR block and pulse generator circuitry (PGC). In the DAC architecture fine search will be performed by only two C and 15C capacitors which reduce the silicon area significantly. The circuit designed in 0.18 mu m complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), technology and post-layout simulations show that the 8-bit core ADC consumes almost 78.4 nW at 17.8 kS/s speed whereas the PGC block consumes 84.1 nW. The results show that the proposed ADC has higher speed with almost the same power consumption in comparison to its charge redistribution counterparts.

  • 20. Kianpour, I.
    et al.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University, Sabzevar, Iran.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A subthreshold 8-bit 78.4nw 17.8 kS/s 0.18um SAR ADC for RFID sensing applications2011In: 2011 19th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering, ICEE 2011, 2011, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an ultra low power SAR ADC for RFID application is presented. Several techniques are used to further reduce the power consumption and relatively elevate the speed of the ADC. These techniques include a low power comparator with no static current, a dual-stage (Resistor-string / capacitive dividing) architecture as digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and using subthreshold design with the aid of low supply voltage of 0.7v for DAC and 0.5v for SAR block and Pulse Generator Circuit (PGC). In this DAC architecture fine search will be performed by only two C and 15C capacitors which reduce the silicon area significantly. A new FOM is also proposed for better verification of ADCs with power in W and nW range. The circuit designed in 0.18um CMOS technology and post layout simulations show that the 8-bit core ADC, consumes almost 78.4nW at 17.8kS/s speed and the PGC block which is designed in subthreshold region consumes 84.1nW. The results show that the proposed ADC has higher speed with almost the same power consumption in comparison with its charge redistribution counterparts.

  • 21. Kianpour, I.
    et al.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    An 8-bit 166nw 11.25 kS/s 0.18um two-step-SAR ADC for RFID applications using novel DAC architecture2010In: 28th Norchip Conference, NORCHIP 2010, 2010, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SAR ADCs have been mostly used for moderate-speed, moderate-resolution applications that power consumption is one of the major concerns (e. g. RFID). Furthermore two-step ADCs are classified as high-speed, low to moderate-accuracy ADC. In this paper an ultra low power two-step-SAR ADC for RFID application is presented. Several techniques are used to further reduce the power consumption and relatively elevate the speed of the ADC. These techniques include a low power comparator with no static current and a dual-stage (Resistor-string / capacitive dividing) architecture as digital-to-analog converter (DAC). In this DAC architecture fine search will be performed by only two C and 15C capacitors which reduced the silicon area significantly. The circuit designed in 0.18um CMOS technology and simulations show that the 8-bit ADC, consumes almost 166nW at 11.25kS/s. The results show that the proposed ADC has higher speed with almost the same power consumption in comparison with its charge redistribution counterpart.

  • 22.
    Nejad, Majid Baghaei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Chen, Cairong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hanuu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    An innovative semi-UWB passive transponder for wireless sensor and RFID applications2006In: 2006 International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems, Vols 1 and 2, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2006, p. 310-315Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a self-powered CMOS impulse-based ultra wideband radio system for RFIDs and Wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. It is integrated in a Liquid-Crystal Polymer (LCP) based System on Package (SoP) module with an embedded small antenna. Our contribution includes using two different standards in up and downstream link. In downstream link, due to demand of low complex, low cost and low power circuit, a very simple and extremely low power pulse width demodulator is used to extract the data from received RF signal. An IR-UWB transmitter is used to transmit the data in upstream link. Power supply is taken from the received RF electromagnetic wave with help of a Schottky diode voltage multiplier. Unlike traditional wireless systems, due to great advantages of UWB communication this Transponder does not suffer from multipath fading, collision problem and multi-user interference. The front-end circuit consists of the power converter; PWM receiver, IR-UWB transmitter, and embedded UWB antenna are designed for integration on Liquid-Crystal Polymer (LCP) substrate.

  • 23. Nilsaz, A. S.
    et al.
    Parashkoh, M. K.
    Ghauomy-zadeh, H.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Low power 0.18 um CMOS ultra wideband inductor-less LNA design for UWB receiver2010In: IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, Proceedings, APCCAS, 2010, p. 855-858Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an inductor-less low-noise amplifier (LNA) design for ultra-wideband (UWB) receivers and microwave access covering the frequency range from 0.4 to 5.7 GHz using 0.18-μm CMOS. Simulation results show that the voltage gain reaches a peak of 18.94 dB in-band with an upper 3-dB frequency of 5.7 GHz. The IIP3 is about 3 dBm and the noise figure (NF) ranges from 3.15-3.86 dB over the band of interest. Input matching is better than -8.79dB and the LNA consumes 5.77mW at 1.8V supply voltage. A figure of merit is used to compare the proposed design with recently published wideband CMOS LNAs. The proposed design achieves a superior voltage gain and tolerable NF, with the additional advantage of removing the bulky inductors. It is shown that the designed LNA without on-chip inductors achieves comparable performances with inductor-based designs.

  • 24.
    Niu, Yuechao
    et al.
    KTH.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Design of a Digital Baseband Processor for UWB Transceiver on RFID Tag2007In: 21st International Conference on Advanced Networking and Applications Workshops/Symposia, Vol 2, Proceedings, IEEE Computer Society, 2007, Vol. 2, p. 358-361Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a novel digital baseband processor designed for UWB transceiver on RFID tag. It is a low power and low voltage (1.8V) full digital ASIC which is implemented in 0.18 mu m CMOS technology. The processor receives serial signals (consist of data and commands) from the RF Receiver, and based on received command carries out various functions such as receive data and write to the memory, compare data, send data, set/reset tag, kill tag and etc. The processor mainly consists of eight sub modules: Receive Buffer, Transmit Buffer, Random Number Generator (RNG), Slot Counter, Memory Controller, Reset Counter, Comparator, Controller.

  • 25.
    Pang, Zhibo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    The TouchMe System: RFID Solution for Interactive Package with Mediated Service2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RFID Based Intelligent Sensing (RBIS) is a promising technology strategy for upcoming Internet of Things (IoT) which will boom up numbers of innovative applications in next decades. In order to introduce IoT applications to human daily life and get the value chain fully-formed, we must change the application model of RBIS from object-centric to user-centric and extend the business values from enterprise-centric to consumer-centric. In this paper, a user-centric model of RBIS for IoT applications is proposed based on generalization and abstraction of numbers of possible application scenarios. By extending the traditional two-role model (Reader and Tag) into three-role model (Mediator, Object and Visitor), a new role of Visitor is introduced to identify the human activities. Based on that, user-centric data gathering, personalized service delivery and privacy protection are enabled where the core-values of IoT applications lie in. An event-driven mechanism is introduced to improve the efficiency of communication and data processing in the system especially for long term monitoring of sparse events. The proposed model has been verified by implemented prototype system, the TouchMe system, including the hardware, software, interactive package boxes, and a novel passive RFID tag chip as the next generation solution. Experimental results approve that the proposed model clarifies the application requirements, technical architectures and added values of IoT applications. It is possible to establish feasible practical IoT services based on the proposed model in the future.

  • 26.
    Radiom, S.
    et al.
    MICAS-ESAT, Katholieke Univ. Leuven.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Vandenbosch, G.
    MICAS-ESAT, Katholieke Univ. Leuven.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Gielen, G.
    MICAS-ESAT, Katholieke Univ. Leuven.
    Far-field RF powering system for RFID and implantable devices with monolithically integrated on-chip antenna2010In: 2010 IEEE RADIO FREQUENCY INTEGRATED CIRCUITS RFIC SYMPOSIUM, 2010, p. 113-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fully integrated far-field powering system for RFID and implantable devices with monolithically fully integrated on-chip antenna in 0.18ÎŒm CMOS is presented. The chip receives power, clock and data wirelessly through RF signal at all the three ISM bands of 915 MHz, 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz. Measurements show a minimum input power of -19.41 dBm at 900MHz for chip operation, corresponding to 15.7 meter of operation range with an off-chip 0dB gain antenna. On the other hand, with its on-chip antenna at 5.8 GHz, the chip can be powered-up up to 7.5 cm distance. This is a huge improvement in terms of operation distance compared with other reported similar works with on-chip antenna as well as the off-chip antennas.

  • 27. Radiom, Soheil
    et al.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Mohammadpour-Aghdam, Karim
    Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Gielen, Georges G. E.
    Far-Field On-Chip Antennas Monolithically Integrated in a Wireless-Powered 5.8-GHz Downlink/UWB Uplink RFID Tag in 0.18-mu m Standard CMOS2010In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, ISSN 0018-9200, E-ISSN 1558-173X, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 1746-1758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses two antennas monolithically integrated on-chip to be used respectively for wireless powering and UWB transmission of a tag designed and fabricated in 0.18-mu m CMOS technology. A multiturn loop-dipole structure with inductive and resistive stubs is chosen for both antennas. Using these on-chip antennas, the chip employs asymmetric communication links: at downlink, the tag captures the required supply wirelessly from the received RF signal transmitted by a reader and, for the uplink, ultra-wideband impulse-radio (UWB-IR), in the 3.1-10.6-GHz band, is employed instead of backscattering to achieve extremely low power and a high data rate up to 1 Mb/s. At downlink with the on-chip power-scavenging antenna and power-management unit circuitry properly designed, 7.5-cm powering distance has been achieved, which is a huge improvement in terms of operation distance compared with other reported tags with on-chip antenna. Also, 7-cm operating distance is achieved with the implemented on-chip UWB antenna. The tag can be powered up at all the three ISM bands of 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz, with off-chip antennas, and 5.8 GHz with the integrated on-chip antenna. The tag receives its clock and the commands wirelessly through the modulated RF powering-up signal. Measurement results show that the tag can operate up to 1 Mb/s data rate with a minimum input power of -19.41 dBm at 915-MHz band, corresponding to 15.7 m of operation range with an off-chip 0-dB gain antenna. This is a great improvement compared with conventional passive RFIDs in term of data rate and operation distance. The power consumption of the chip is measured to be just 16.6 mu W at the clock frequency of 10 MHz at 1.2-V supply. In addition, in this paper, for the first time, the radiation pattern of an on-chip antenna at such a frequency is measured. The measurement shows that the antenna has an almost omnidirectional radiation pattern so that the chip's performance is less direction-dependent.

  • 28. Radiom, Soheil
    et al.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Aliakbarian, Hadi
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.
    Gielen, George
    Miniaturization of UWB Antennas and its Influence on Antenna-Transceiver Performance in Impulse-UWB Communication2013In: Wireless personal communications, ISSN 0929-6212, E-ISSN 1572-834X, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 2913-2935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a co-design methodology and the effect of antenna miniaturization in an impulse UWB system/transceiver is presented. Modified small-size printed tapered monopole antennas (PTMA) are designed in different scaling sizes. In order to evaluate the performance and functionality of these antennas, the effect of each antenna is studied in a given impulse UWB system. The UWB system includes an impulse UWB transmitter and two kinds of UWB receivers are considered, one based on correlation detection and one on energy detection schemes. A tunable low-power Impulse UWB transmitter is designed and the benefit of co-designing it with the PTMA antenna is investigated for the 3.1-10.6 GHz band. A comparison is given between a 50 design and a co-designed version. Our antenna/transceiver co-design methodology shows improvement in both transmitter efficiency and whole system performance. The simulation results show that the PTMA antenna and its miniaturized geometries are suitable for UWB applications.

  • 29. Radiom, Soheil
    et al.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Gielen, Georges
    Antenna Miniaturization Influence on the Performance of Impulse Radio UWB system2008In: Proceedings of the 1st European Wireless Technology Conference, EuWiT 2008, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2008, p. 362-365Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the effect of antenna miniaturization in a UWB system is presented. Modified small-size printed tapered monopole antennas are designed in different scaling sizes. In order to evaluate the antennas performance and their functionality, the performance of three kinds of UWB systems, Correlation Detection, Energy Detection and Transmitted Reference UWB, is studied in the presence of each antenna in the AWGN channel. The simulation results show that our designed antenna and its miniaturized geometries are suitable for UWB applications.

  • 30.
    Sarmiento, David M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Nejad, Majid Baghaei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Low power tunable CMOS I-UWB transmitter design2007In: 2007 Norchip, 2007, p. 116-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an on-chip tunable Impulse-Ultra Wide Band Transmitter is presented. It is capable of modifjing the power emission to comply with the FCC regulations at different pulse rates up to 300 NMz using two external controls. The maximum power consumption is 1.2 mW and 142 mu W at 300 NMz and 10 AM PRF respectively with a leakage current of 100 nA. The prototype has been designed in 0.18 UMC technology and placed in a QFN lead-less package.

  • 31.
    Sarmiento M., David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, H.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University, Sabzevar, Iran .
    A 9.2pJ/pulse UWB-IR transmitter with tunable amplitude for wireless sensor tags in 0.18um CMOS2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a transmitter design for Ultra Wideband Impulse Radio (UWB-IR) communications. The design is targeted towards the implementation of passive Wireless Sensor Tags (WST) where micro-power consumption is required. The transmitter has been implemented in UMC 0.18μm CMOS and placed inside a QFN lead-less package. It complies with the FCC regulations for Pulse Rate Frequencies (PRF) up to 10MHz using OOK modulation. It is capable of adjusting the Power Spectral Emissions (PSE) modifying the transmitted pulse amplitude to always achieve the best BER/Power performance depending on the application demands. The power emission tunability has been validated implementing a complete communication link using a low sensitivity non-coherent energy receiver. Measurements show a maximum power consumption of 92uW@10MHz PRF having a maximum energy/pulse of 9.2 pJ.

  • 32.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Duo, Xinzhong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Nejad, Majid B.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Rodriguez Duenas, Saul
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Ismail, Muhammed
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    On-chip versus off-chip passives in radio and mixed-signal system-on-package design2006In: ESTC 2006 - 1st Electronics Systemintegration Technology Conference, New York: IEEE , 2006, p. 221-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal total solution for new radio architecture and implementation requires accurate trade-offs for off-chip versus off-chip passives. In this paper, a complete and systematic design methodology for RF blocks in SoP (system-on-package) versus SoC (system-on-chip) is presented. This methodology explores trade-offs between Performance and cost when different on-chip or off-chip passives are used. For a better presentation, the method and design techniques are demonstrated through four multi-band/multi-standard radio design examples with various technologies and different circuit topologies. Our study reveals that, in order to obtain cost benefits in RF-SoPs, small RF chips should be merged as larger chips and the integration density of each RF chip should be high enough. Our study also indicates that in a complex chip like a multi-band radio, moving passives off chip could achieve further cost savings and significant performance improvements. These are general conclusions but, our method offers a detailed analysis which can give quantitative measurements of cost savings and performance improvements in off-chip versus off-chip passives in RF SoP design.

  • 33.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Nejad, Majid B.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Rodriguez, Saul
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zhang, Lu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Chen, Cairong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    System-on-flexible-substrates: Electronics for future smart-intelligent world2006In: 2006 Conference on High Density Microsystem Design and Packaging and Component Failure Analysis (HDP '06), Proceedings, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2006, p. 29-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present architecture, circuit implementation and integration issues of embedded smart systems on flexible substrates for future ubiquitous intelligent world. The work is exampled by several concepts of innovative, self-powered, Ion I g-range interconnected radio-frequency identification and sensor networks in warehouse and intelligent goods distribution systems. Two types of RFID concepts are designed for this network. The first one is a self-powered, ultra-low power UWB RFID. A power scavenging system is designed which can draws energy from the 802.11 access point and its surrounding electromagnetic waves. In the second demonstration, we developed a chipless passive RFID based on time-domain reflection principle. As this RFID is chipless and needs only interconnections and antenna, it is potentially fully printable on flexible substrate such as a paper board. Finally, some implementation and experimental results are presented.

  • 34.
    Zheng, Lirong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Nejad, Majid Baghaei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mendoza, David Sarmiento
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhang, Zhi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Future RFID and Wireless Sensors for Ubiquitous Intelligence2008In: 26th Norchip Conference, Norchip, 2008, p. 142-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Next generation RFID towards ubiquitous wireless sensing and identification requires high network throughput along with long operation range and ultra low energy consumption. In this paper, we review future RFID for ubiquitous intelligence and their technology needs from system to device perspectives. As a promising enabling technology, ultra wideband radio (UWB) and its use in various RFID implementations are investigated. A special focus on an UWB/UHF hybrid passive RFID and sensor system with asymmetric wireless links is studied as an example. Unlike conventional RFID systems relying on backscattering and narrowband radio, UWB is introduced as the uplink for tag to reader communication. It enables a high network throughput (2000 tag/sec), high data bandwidth (100MHz pulse rate), under ultra low power and low cost constraint. The hardware implementation in silicon level is also presented. Finally, applications of the system in intelligent warehouse and fresh food tracker are introduced.

  • 35.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    An efficient passive RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing using impulse UWB radio2007In: Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, ISSN 0932-383X, Vol. 124, no 11, p. 397-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing requires both energy and system efficiency. This paper describes an efficient passive RFID system using impulse ultra-wideband radio (IR-UWB), at a 10 m operation range. Unlike conventional passive RFID systems which rely on backscatter and narrowband radio, IR-UWB is introduced as the uplink (communication from a tag to a reader). By utilizing a specialized communication protocol and a novel ALOHA-based anti-collision algorithm, such semi-UWB systems enable a high network throughput (2000 tag/sec) under the low power and low cost constraint. A low power tag design for proof of concept is finally presented.

  • 36.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    An efficient passive RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing using impulse UWB radio2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing requires both energy and system efficiency. This paper describes an efficient passive RFID system using impulse ultra-wideband radio (IR-UWB), at a 10m operation range. Unlike conventional passive RFID systems which rely on backscatter and narrowband radio, IR-UWB is introduced as the uplink (communication from a tag to a reader). By utilizing a specialized communication protocol and a novel ALOHA-based anti-collision algorithm, such Semi-UWB architecture enables a high network throughput (2000 tag/sec) under the low power and low cost constraint. A tag design for proof of concept is finally presented.

  • 37.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Baseband design for passive semi-UWB wireless sensor and identification systems2007In: Proceedings - 20th Anniversary IEEE International SOC Conference / [ed] Sezer, S; Chen, SJ; Marshall, A; Tran, T, 2007, p. 313-316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a digital baseband design for passive sensor and identification systems using asymmetric wireless links with ultra wideband (UWB) radio. As opposed to traditional wireless sensor and identification systems using halfduplex communication in narrowband frequency, impulse-LTWB is applied as an uplink in the proposed system. A novel baseband protocol is devised to improve the system efficiency in the multitag environment while maintaining the power constraint. By utilizing adaptive slotted ALOHA anti-collision algorithm, 1000 tags can be processed within 5OOms. The contributions also include the development of a low-power digital baseband processor for passive tags. The simulation is successful and the FPGA prototype is operational. The chip is implemented for ASIC and it Kill be fabricated and tested Kith the front-end in IP6M UMC 0. 18 mu m process.

  • 38.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Shao, Botao
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhai, Chuanying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Design and demonstration of passive UWB RFIDs: Chipless versus chip solutions2012In: RFID-Technologies and Applications (RFID-TA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, p. 6-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews recent research on Ultra-Wideband (UWB) techniques for the next generation Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) towards the Internet-of-Things (IoT), conducted by Vinn iPack Center at KTH, Sweden. First, we introduce an inkjet printed chipless UWB RFID for ultra-low cost applications such as item-level tracking. The identification number is coded by variations of the impedance over the transmission line, resulting in the OOK modulated data by means of pulse reflections in time domain. Prototypes were fabricated and measured for 4-bit tag and 8-bit tag, respectively. Thanks to the employment of fully printing process and paper substrates, the tag is potentially ultra-low cost in volume production. Second, a wirelessly powered RFID tag with an active UWB transmitter is studied for advanced applications such as wireless positioning and sensing. The tag is powered by UHF continuous waves, whereas it uses an UWB pulse generator to transmit data to the reader. It ensures the improved coverage and accurate positioning over traditional backscattering UHF tags. UWB readers, positioning, and sensing are also discussed in a system perspective. The two solutions reveal that UWB is a viable alternative to existing passive RFIDs adapting both low-cost applications and high-performance sensing and positioning applications.

1 - 38 of 38
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