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  • 1.
    Avango, Dag
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Acting artefacts: on the meanings of material culture in Antarctica." In Antarctica and the Humanities2016In: Antarctica and the Humanities / [ed] Peder Roberts, Adrian Howkins and Lize-Marie Van der Watt, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, 159-179 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remains of human activity in Antarctica are generally treated in two different ways – either as unwanted imprints polluting a pristine natural environment, objects alien to the continent which must be removed, or as cultural heritage which needs to be preserved. For this reason artefacts of potentially great importance for understanding and explaining the history of Antarctica are removed, while sites of arguably lesser universal value are preserved as heritage. The objective of this article is to argue for greater caution when assessing what should be treated as trash or heritage in the Antarctic. Before decisions are made to remove remains of human activities there, greater attention should be paid to the fact that these remains may acquire value in the future. Building on theoretical approaches within the fields of industrial heritage studies, history of technology and archaeology, my point of departure is an understanding that material culture can be connected with a multitude of meanings and values, depending on who is reading it and when. Remains of human activities can be ascribed values if there are actors who want to include them as part of their networks and in a historical context that works in their favor.

  • 2.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Actors and actants in the international struggle over Spitsbergen, 1850-19202006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Antarctic stations between whaling, science and geopolitics: the LASHIPA 8 expedition2011In: Polarforskningssekretariatet: årsbok 2010 / [ed] Sofia Rickberg, Stockholm: Swedish Polar Research Secretariat , 2011, 10-13 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Archaeological research on eastern Svalbard2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Assessing Arctic Futures: Voices, Resources, and Governance, Theory, methods and tasks2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Avango, Dag
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Att konstruera naturresurser: industriella framtidsvisioner om Svalbard 1870-19302016In: Ottar, ISSN 0030-6703, Vol. 131, no 2, 41-49 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Constructing industrial futures for Spitsbergen2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Constructing industrial futures for the Arctic2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circumpolar north has become increasingly important as a potential supply area for minerals, fossil energy resources and new shorter routes for international shipping. Allthough mining, oil and gas extraction are not new activities in the Arctic, the prospect of an ice free Arctic ocean may open possibilities for resource extraction in areas where such activities used to be unthinkable. Such visions of the future of the Arctic are not new however, there are several examples in the history of the Arctic of economic actors formulating visions of what the future of the region should be. The objective of this paper is to analyze the production of future visions for the Arctic by actors within large scale natural resource utilization industries historically and their influence on the economy and politics of the region. The paper will focus on actors involved in the coal mining industry in the Arctic archipelago Spitsbergen / Svalbard from 1898-present. The main research questions are: what futures visions have been produced by actors within the Spitsbergen coal mining industry and why? To what extent have these future visions gained influence in different time periods and why? How has companies and governments interacted in order to strengthen political influence and/or control over natural resources?

     

    The paper is based on analyses of sources from two contexts in which companies outlined their visions of the future of Spitsbergen – in written documents and material objects. Companies promoted their visions of the future in the form of narratives published in company prospects, expedition reports, annual reports, articles in professional journals and in correspondence with potential allies such as government bodies. They also formulated their visions by constructing buildings and technological systems in the landscape of Spitsbergen – material representations of potential, real or unlikely futures, economic and / or political.

     

    I will show that the Spitsbergen mining companies used their future visions in order to build actor networks. By constructing narratives about potential futures, they tried to enroll capital owners and political actors in to actor-networks strong enough to realize their visions. In a similar way, actors within politics and science included industry in their future visions in order to push their own agendas. Therefore, although the future visions of Arctic industry had many similar traits, the actors producing the visions often had quit different motives for producing them – economic visions hiding political agendas and strategic considerations. Moreover, the future visions has changed over the course of the 20th century, as result of the changing economic and political contexts on Svalbard and in Europe and the USA.

     

    The results suggest that Arctic future visions produced by industrial companies become influential if the companies share common interests with other influential actors (governments) and if they are able to build strong networks with such actors. Moreover, they show that Arctic future visions are most often elements in strategies aimed at achieving goals outside of the Arctic. The results can be used to deepen our understanding of the mineral and energy projects that underpin contemporary Arctic futures.

  • 9.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Constructing Polar histories through science and industry2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Constructing Svalbard and its natural resources Industrial futures in a contested Arctic space2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic is often envisioned as a future supply area for fossil energy and shipping, a development bound to occur because of the decreasing Arctic Ocean sea ice. In the Assessing Arctic Futures project we have challenged this deterministic future vision, arguing that natural resources are social constructions, constructed within networks of actors who ascribe value to them. Based on a theoretical model developed in this project, I will present cases on the construction of resources in the Svalbard coal mining industry (1898-present). How and why have actors envisioned Svalbard as a place for settlement and extraction? How did they build influence for their visions and why were some of those visions realized? The paper will suggest that explanations of why resource utilization in the Arctic occur (or not) is far more complex than the relative amount of sea ice on the Arctic Ocean.

  • 11.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Constructing Svalbard and its natural resources: industrial futures in a contested Arctic space2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic is often envisioned as a future supply area for fossil energy and shipping, a development bound to occur because of the decreasing Arctic Ocean sea ice. In the Assessing Arctic Futures project we have challenged this deterministic future vision, arguing that natural resources are social constructions, constructed within networks of actors who ascribe value to them.

    Based on a theoretical model developed in this project, I will present cases on the construction of resources in the Svalbard coal mining industry (1898-present). How and why have actors envisioned Svalbard as a place for settlement and extraction? How did they build influence for their visions and why were some of those visions realized? The paper will suggest that explanations of why resource utilization in the Arctic occur (or not) is far more complex than the relative amount of sea ice on the Arctic Ocean.

  • 12.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Constructing the Past of Polar Futures2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Constructing the pasts for Arctic futures2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Constructing the pasts of competing Spitsbergen futures: Russian heritage in action2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Constructing the pasts of polar futures: the Janus face of polar heritage2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Creating sustainable development in the Arctic: abandoned extraction sites as assets for new Arctic futures2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of climate change on polar cultural heritage have received an increasing attention in recent years within the field of heritage research. Less attention has been place on other processes of global change affecting the Arctic, where cultural heritage plays an important role – industrialization and de-industrialization. In recent years the circumpolar Arctic has been affected by a global mining boom, triggered by high world market prices on minerals as well as notions of the Arctic as a future arena for resource extraction in the wake of climate change. This mining boom is affecting communities in much of the Arctic region and holds a central place in debates about sustainable development there. A central item of these discussions focus on the question of how to handle the physical remains of mining sites once the boom is over and the activities have seized. The attitudes to abandoned mining sites differ across the Arctic. In some cases they have been perceived as unwanted legacies of problematic pasts, making land reclamation a preferred strategy. In other cases abandoned mines and associated infrastructures have been re-defined as cultural heritage and have become anchor points for local identities and a resource for new economies.

    The objective of this paper is to present a research project aiming to explain these differences in order to understand under which circumstances abandoned large-scale resource extraction sites can be turned into resources for new futures in post-industrial Arctic communities. The focus is on the European Arctic, but in a circumpolar and bi-polar comparative perspective. The main questions are: how have different groups of actors interpreted and used physical remains of abandoned resource extraction operations, and why? Which policies are needed to turn abandoned resource extraction sites into resources for constructing new futures in the Arctic? By addressing these questions, the field of heritage studies can make an important contribution to the discussion on sustainable futures in the Arctic.

  • 17.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Creating sustainable development in the Arctic: abandoned extraction sites as assets for new futures2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of climate change on polar cultural heritage have received an increasing attention in recent years within the field of heritage research. Less attention has been place on other processes of global change affecting the Arctic, where cultural heritage plays an important role – industrialization and de-industrialization. In recent years the circumpolar Arctic has been affected by a global mining boom, triggered by high world market prices on minerals as well as notions of the Arctic as a future arena for resource extraction in the wake of climate change. This mining boom is affecting communities in much of the Arctic region and holds a central place in debates about sustainable development there. A central item of these discussions focus on the question of how to handle the physical remains of mining sites once the boom is over and the activities have seized. The attitudes to abandoned mining sites differ across the Arctic. In some cases they have been perceived as unwanted legacies of problematic pasts, making land reclamation a preferred strategy. In other cases abandoned mines and associated infrastructures have been re-defined as cultural heritage and have become anchor points for local identities and a resource for new economies.

    The objective of this paper is to present preliminary results from a research project aiming to explain these differences in order to understand under which circumstances abandoned large-scale resource extraction sites can be turned into resources for new futures in post-industrial Arctic communities. The focus is on the European Arctic, but in a circumpolar and bi-polar comparative perspective. The main questions are: how have different groups of actors interpreted and used physical remains of abandoned resource extraction operations, and why? Which policies are needed to turn abandoned resource extraction sites into resources for constructing new futures in the Arctic? By addressing these questions, the field of industrial heritage studies can make an important contribution to the discussion on sustainable futures in the Arctic.

  • 18.
    Avango, Dag
    Arctic Centre, University of Groningen .
    Cultural heritage as actants in the struggle over the Polar Areas and their natural resources2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last centuries, company's and national governments have competed for control over natural resources and territories in the Arctic and Antarctic. This struggle has taken place both through diplomacy and through activities in the Polar landscapes, such as the setting up of scientific stations or the establishment of industrial settlements. The aim of this presentation is to discuss the role of cultural heritage sites in the struggle for control over the polar areas and their natural resources, with a particular focus on industrial heritage. The analyses will deal with a number of historical sites in a highly contested region in the South Atlantic – South Georgia and the Falkland Islands / Malvinas, all studied within the framework of the IPY project LASHIPA (Large scale historical exploitation of polar areas, ID 10). What has been the role of historical sites in the struggle between Argentina and Great Britain in this region? What histories have been ascribed to the historical sites by the competing actors and why? How has the rivalry affected interpretations of the historical remains? What are the political implications of heritage management in contested regions in the Arctic and Antarctica? In order to answer these questions I will use actor network theory. With this approach I will analyse the strategies of competing actors to enrol historical places and remains as actants in their actor networks, by using and producing historical narratives. The contents of these narratives have naturally differed, but have been related to broader genres about nation, discovery, science and technology, giving them strength and legitimacy. The historical narratives and actants have had different purposes, defending national prestige, creating a sense connectedness to distant polar places, as well as increasing influence over territories and natural resources.

  • 19.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Det industriella kulturarvet som källa2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Gruvindustriella lämningar på östra sidan av Grønfjorden, Svalbard2005Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Heritage in action: historical remains in polar conflicts2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Heritage in action: Historical remains in Polar conflicts2013In: Science, Geopolitics and Culture in the Polar Region: Norden Beyond Borders, Ashgate, 2013, 329-356 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Heritage in Action: Industrial heritage in sovereignty conflicts2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the role of cultural heritage in international disputes over polar areas, through the lens of heritage sites in the Arctic and Antarctic.

    Over the last centuries, entrepreneurs and states have competed for control over territories and resources in the Arctic and Antarctic. Previous research has analyzed this struggle on different arenas – in diplomacy and in the Polar landscapes, where scientific research and resource utilization has served as bases for claims to political influence or exclusive extraction rights. Less is known about the role of the historical remains of these activities, in current sovereignty controversies in the Arctic and Antarctic. What is the role of heritage sites in the competition for influence and resources in the Polar Regions?

    The paper analyzes industrial heritage sites in two contested areas in the Polar Regions – the Antarctic Peninsula and South Georgia in the Antarctic, and Svalbard in the Arctic – sites remaining from large scale whaling and mining in the 20th century. The analysis is based on extensive industrial archaeological field research conducted in the Arctic and Antarctic within the framework of the International Polar Year project LASHIPA (Large Scale Historical Exploitation of Polar Areas).

    The cases analyzed shows that industry heritage sites have been used in the struggle between the main competitors for sovereignty in those regions, through practical re-use, by narration and through heritage management. The results show that industrial heritage sites in the Polar Regions can play a significant role in competitions for political influence and resources there. By enrolling the heritage sites into actor networks, competing stakeholders populate sparsely populated places with allied actors and actants. In these networks, the heritage sites can play different roles, defending national prestige, attracting tourists, creating a sense connectedness to distant polar places, as well as legitimizing claims for influence over territories and natural resources.

  • 24.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Human dimensions in the International Polar Year 2007-20082008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Humanister i fält: Från svenska fjällen till Antarktis: industri, geopolitik och ursprungs befolkningar2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Humanities & Social Science Research in the Polar Areas: research problems and projects2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Industrial Heritage for Geopolitics2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Industrial heritage in the polar areas as sources for historical research2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, two large research projects have sought to explain the historical development of large scale resource extraction in the polar areas, from the 17th century until present day. Both projects have combined history and archaeology through archival research and archaeological field work at abandoned industrial sites in the Arctic and Antarctic. The approach has a theoretical motivation based in Actor Network Theory; actors appropriate resources and political influence by using rhetoric and material culture, which requires the study of written sources as well as material remains. In this paper I will discuss how these research projects have addressed three of its main research problems using this theoretical-methodological approach: the interests motivating Arctic and Antarctic industry, the design of technology and settlements in polar environments, and international competition over natural resources and polar territories.

  • 29.
    Avango, Dag
    Arctic Centre, University of Groningen, Nederländerna.
    Industriarv i polartrakterna – forskningsmöjligheter och bevarandeproblem2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Industriminnesforskning på Svalbard: tolkningar av kulturlandskapet vid Sveagruvan2004In: Arktisk gruvdrift II. Teknik, vetenskap och historia i norr / [ed] Jernkontoret, Bergshistoriska utskottet, Stockholm: Jernkontoret, Bergshistoriska utskottet , 2004, 1-22 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Industry, Geopolitics and Environment in the Polar Areas2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Kampen om naturresurserna2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    LASHIPA 6: Archaeological field investigations of whaling stations at South Georgia2010In: Polarforskningssekretariatet: årsbok 2009 / [ed] Sofia Rickberg, Stockholm: Swedish Polar Research Secretariat , 2010, 31-33 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    LASHIPA: preliminary results and future research problems2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Avango, Dag
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Mistra Arctic Sustainable Development2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Narratives of Science and Industry in the struggle over the Polar Areas and their Natural Resources2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    National report for Sweden2006In: Patrimoine de l'industrie, ISSN 1296-7750, Vol. 15, 227-237 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Natural resources and industrial geopolitics2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Polar industries and their consequences: the LASHIPA project and IPY 2007-20082006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Propecting camps for mineral resources and Arctic politics: The LASHIPA 9 expedition2011In: Polarforskningssekretariatet: årsbok 2010 / [ed] Sofia Rickberg, Stockholm: Swedish Polar Research Secretariat , 2011, 30-35 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Report on the ICOMOS Advisory Mission to Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape (C1099) 18th-20th March 20142014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Heritage Committee decision 37 COM 7B.43 (37th session, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 2013) requested the State Party (Mapungubwe world heritage site, South Africa) to submit a minor boundary modification for the buffer zone of Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape, that clarifies the policies for protecting the property with respect to mining in the buffer zone and in relation to “off-set benefits”. Acting upon this request, the State Party worked on a revision of the buffer zone through 2013 and, as a part of this process, invited an ICOMOS Advisory Mission to the Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape. ICOMOS responded in favour of the invitation and sent ICOMOS expert Dr. Dag Avango to visit the proposed Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape buffer zone from 18-20 March 2014. This publication is the final report of Dag Avango's mission, describing the buffer zone of the World Heritage Site, the consequences of reducing it and reccomendations on how ICOMOS should act on the issue.

  • 42.
    Avango, Dag
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Resource Extraction and Sustainable Arctic Communities2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Rituals and symbols in the struggle over Spitsbergen and its natural resources2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Rituals and symbols in the struggle over the Polar Areas and their natural resources: cases from Spitsbergen2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Avango, Dag
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Spetsbergen och sveriges roll i den globala resurskolonialismen2015In: Ymer, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 135, 151-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den västerländska kolonialismen nådde sin höjdpunkt under perioden 1870-1930. Under denna period etablerades stora delar av Europa och Nordamerika som industriella centrum, och flera av dess stater tillskansade sig kolonier i syfte att få tillgång till naturresurser och exportmarknader. Vilken roll hade Sverige i denna globala resurskolonialism? En vanligt förekommande berättelse är att landet aldrig egentligen medverkade. Kolonialismen var de stora imperiernas arena – Storbritannien, Frankrike, Tyskland, Ottomanska imperiet, Ryssland och USA – medan Sverige höll sig på sidan om. Att även svenska aktörer medverkade på den koloniala arenan, utanför Sveriges gränser, har visserligen länge varit känt, men deras verksamhet har ofta skrivits in romantiserande berättelser om enskilda äventyr, snarare än som delar av en större berättelse om kolonialism. I projektet Sverige och den globala resurskolonialismen har vi ifrågasatt denna bild av Sveriges plats i världen genom att studera tre områden där svenska aktörer var verksamma i ett kolonialt sammanhang – Afrika, Centralasien och Arktis. Syftet med föreliggande artikel är att bidra till en ny förståelse av Sveriges roll i den globala kolonialismen (utanför landets gränser) kring förra sekelskiftet, genom att undersöka hur och varför svenska aktörer agerade på den Arktiska ögruppen Spetsbergen. Artikeln fokuserar på två större svenska försök att etablera gruvkolonier där under perioden 1870-1930 – Kap Thordsen och Sveagruvan. Vilka svenska aktörer ledde och medverkade i dessa projekt, hur och varför? Hur utvecklades projekten och varför? Vilka konsekvenser fick de svenska Arktiska gruvkolonierna? Vilka slutsatser kan vi dra om Sveriges roll i den globala kolonialismen utifrån de svenska kolonierna i Arktis?

    Exemplen från Spetsbergen visar att den svenska medverkan på den koloniala arenan drevs av ett nätverk av aktörer inom vetenskap, politik och industri. De hade olika men överlappande intressen – en önskan att nyttiggöra svensk polarforskning för ekonomisk utveckling, att försörja nationen med svensk istället för importerad energi och att ge Sverige en ledande ställning i skandinavisk utrikespolitik. Med dessa motiv möjliggjorde aktörerna satsningarna genom ett intimt samarbete. De svenska gruvkolonierna avvecklades dock efter relativt kort tid. Detta berodde dels på problem med själva gruvdriften, dels på ogynnsamma marknadsförhållanden, dels på skiftande prioriteringar i svensk energi- och utrikespolitik. De svenska gruvkolonierna på Spetsbergen visar att svenska aktörer hade såväl ambitioner som förmåga att etablera kolonier utanför landets gränser, men endast på platser som de stora koloniala imperierna inte intresserade sig för. Detta gav ett fönster för aktörer från mindre stater som Sverige och Norge att ta land och resurser i anspråk. 

  • 46.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sustainable Communities and the Legacies of Mining in the Nordic Arctic2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Sustainable use of resources in the Polar Regions: conclusions2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Sveagruvan och Svalbardtraktaten: samarbete och konflikt i kamp om ingenmansland2005In: Daedalus 2005: Tekniska museets årsbok / [ed] Anne Louise Kemdal, Helene Sjunnesson, Lars Paulsson, Stockholm: Tekniska museet , 2005, 65-90 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), History of Science and Technology.
    Sveagruvan: svensk gruvhantering mellan industri, diplomati och geovetenskap 1910-19342005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the development of a mining industry in Spitsbergen and its relationship to Swedish scientific polar research. The empirical focus is the history of Swedish coal mining on Spitsbergen between 1910 and 1934 and the mining activities at Sveagruvan 1917-1925. The aim of the thesis is to explain why this coal-mining project was started, why it was developed and why it was terminated. It critically examines a linear model that has been used to explain the development of this mining project, i.e. the idea that scientific research leads on to technological development and industrial activities in a linear sequence.

    A theoretical and methodological framework called Actor Network Theory (ANT) is used to describe and analyse the Swedish coal-mining project. In the construction of an actor network human as well as non-human actors are involved, shaping the project and influencing its results. If an industrial project shall be successful, the project leadership must maintain control over both the local and global parts of the network and maintain a flow of resources between them.

    The actors that initiated the Swedish coal-mining project on Spitsbergen in 1910 wanted it to fulfil both economic and political needs. Investors from the iron- and steel industry wanted Swedish coal for the production of coke for blast furnaces. At the same time the Swedish government wanted to stop Norwegian attempts to take control over Spitsbergen – at the time a no-mans land. By opening up Swedish coalfields on Spitsbergen, Sweden would strengthen its position in future international negotiations on the legal status of this Arctic Archipelago.

    Over time, the motives for the project were changed. This was a result of shifting economic and political priorities. The quality of the coal resources was not suitable for coke production, but good enough for steam production. There was also a shift in focus from foreign policy to the politics of energy after the Svalbard treaty was signed in 1920.

    With the use of the theoretical model of the thesis, an attempt is made to prove that the project failed for three main reasons. First, the actors financing the project did not deliver the necessary resources to maintain the industrial activities. Second, the Swedish coalmine Sveagruvan did not deliver enough resources to maintain the support of the politicians and the private investors. Third, the project managers failed to maintain their control over the project.

    In the thesis it is shown that the linear model can be questioned, in this case with regard to the idea that the coal-mining project was a product of Swedish polar science. No doubt the input of geo-scientific knowledge from Swedish polar scientists was important, but so were other forms of knowledge and other actors. The linear model was a useful instrument, however, in the construction of history – a history valuable as a tool to enrol investors and to defeat political enemies. In the last-mentioned sense, the model was used to create a prestigious Swedish history of Spitsbergen – a history that gave Swedish citizens credit for the industrial development of the Arctic Archipelago.

  • 50.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    The Greening of Arctic Mining Landscapes: The Politics of Industrial Heritage at Svalbard2014Conference paper (Refereed)
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