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  • 1.
    Brandt, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Fahlberg, Kristin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Referensscenario för utsläpp av växthusgaser i Stockholms stad fram till 20152007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The follow-up of Stockholm’s Action Programme on Climate Change showed that thegreenhouse gas emission from Stockholm City was reduced between 2000 and 2005.Stockholm City reached it’s emission targets of 2005, i.e. 4,0 tonnes CO2-equivivalent percapita compared to 5,3 tonnes CO2-eq. per capita in the year 2000. Commissioned by the viceMayor Ulla Hamilton the Environmental division examine possibilities to further reducegreenhouse gas emissions to 3,5 tonnes CO2-eq. and/or 3,0 tonnes CO2-eq. per capita by theyear 2015. This report forms a basis for the Environmental division’s statement on thecommission.The report presents a business-as-usual-scenario for the continuing greenhouse gas emissionsin the Stockholm City to the year 2015. Emissions from the heating sector, electricity use andthe transport sector are included in the scenario. Emissions from transportations outside theStockholm City geographical border by the inhabitants of Stockholm i.e. long distance travelby car, train and flight are not included in the scenario. Neither are emissions due toconsumptions of goods and services included. The greenhouse gas emissions in this reportcomprise of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide expressed as CO2-equivalents. Theemissions have a life cycle assessment perspective.The scenario shows that the greenhouse gas emissions reduce by ca 500 kton CO2-eq.between 2005 and 2015 i.e. emissions drops from ca 3 100 kton CO2-eq. in 2005 to 2 580kton CO2-eq. in 2015. This includes effects of reinstatement of the congestion fees and thetwo new Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants in Värtan and Brista. Are these effectsexcluded the total emissions are set to be 340 kton CO2-eq. higher in 2015 (i.e. total of 2 900kton CO2-eq.).The heating sector reduces it’s emissions by ca 360 kton CO2-eq.between 2005 and 2015.Their share of the total emissions falls from 45 % to 39 %. Emissions from the electricity usereduce by ca 50 kton CO2-eq. between 2005 and 2015. Despite a drop in the emissions theirshare of the total emissions increases from 31 % to 34 %. The transport sector also reducesit’s emissions by ca 90 kton CO2-eq. between 2005 and 2015 but still their share of the totalemissions increases from 24 % to 26 % during the same time period.With an increase of the population in Stockholm City by 60 000 the emissions per capitadrops from ca 4,0 tonnes CO2-eq. year 2005 to 3,1 tonnes CO2-eq. year 2015. To reachemission targets set by Stockholm City of 3,0 tonnes CO2-eq. per capita the emissions need toreduce further by 85 kton CO2-eq. in 2015.The energy use for heating and electricity increases by ca 880 GWh between 2005 and 2015(i.e. + 6 %) and the road traffic in Stockholm City increases by 336 million vehicle kilometerbetween 2005 and 2015 (i.e. + 11 %).Two major factors that have a heavy impact on the development of the emissions to 2015 arethe compositions of fuels of both the Nordic electricity mix and the district heating mix. Thescenario shows that 73 % of the total greenhouse gas emission reduction between 2005 and2015 depends on the new CHP plants and also transitions to district heating. The scenarioshows that the two mixes affect approximately 60 % of the total emissions in 2015. Ouranalysis of sensitivity shows that a change in the mixes affects the total greenhouse gas 

    emissions so that the emissions per capita year 2015 increases to 3,4 tonnes CO2-eq.compared to the business-as-usual-scenario.The greater amount of greenhouse gas emission reduction take place in the heating sector, thisis due to large technical investments in the energy system which shows that the next step tofurther reduce greenhouse gas emissions will not come as easy in the transport sector andelectricity use sector.

  • 2.
    Brandt, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Fahlberg, Kristin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Uppföljning av åtgärder inom Stockholms stads Handlingsprogram mot växthusgaser 2000-20052007Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Brandt, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Evaluating climate projects on a city level2007In: Proceedings of the 4th International Society for Industrial Ecology Conference: June 17-20, 2007, Toronto, Canada., 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Brandt, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Årman, Louise
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Shahrokni, Hossein
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Fahlberg, Kristin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Going From a Smart Grid to a Smart City2011In: ISIE 2011 Conference: Science, Systems, and Sustainability, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Johansson, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Ericson, Mårten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Utvärdering och uppföljning av Miljömiljarden2011Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Elusive targets: Methodological considerations for cities' climate targetsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities’ climate targets are dependent on system boundaries and methods of calculations. This article identify, explore and present an overview of methodological considerations of importance in order to facilitate understanding, comparing and setting targets for green house gas emissions and energy use in cities. A survey on how eight European cities set their climate targets is presented. A framework of methodological considerations that are of importance when setting targets for cities is presented. A review of existing GHG accounting protocols, three major sustainable city frameworks and a selection of scientific papers reporting on accounting methodologies was used as a basis for developing the methodological considerations. Four main categories were identified, temporal scope, object for target setting, unit of target, and range of target. For each category there is an in-depth discussion of them in relation to targets for cities. The survey of the European cities showed that there is quite a little awareness of what is, or could be, included in the targets. This makes comparison and benchmarking almost impossible today. It also shows the need for comprehensive and consistent accounting protocols and methodologies.

  • 7.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Towards a comprehensive system of methodological considerations for cities' climate targets2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 62, p. 1276-1287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate targets for cities abound. However, what these targets really imply is dependent on a number of decisions regarding system boundaries and methods of calculation. In order to understand and compare cities' climate targets, there is a need for a generic and comprehensive framework of key methodological considerations. This paper identifies eight key methodological considerations for the different choices that can be made when setting targets for GHG emissions in a city and arranges them in four categories: temporal scope of target, object for target setting, unit of target, and range of target. To explore how target setting is carried out in practice, the climate targets of eight European cities were analysed. The results showed that these targets cover only a limited part of what could be included. Moreover, the cities showed quite limited awareness of what is, or could be, include in the targets. This makes comparison and benchmarking between cities difficult.

  • 8.
    Pandis Iverot, Sofie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    The potential of the infrastructural system of Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm, Sweden2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 59, p. 716-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent the integrated infrastructural system in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, also named the Hammarby Model, reduces the metabolic flows of the district, and to what extent the district is self-sufficient, in terms of generated energy. Furthermore, the paper aspires to help create a deeper understanding of the system in order to guide the implementation of similar models in other districts, creating more sustainable cities. The method has been to quantify the local mass and energy flows of the model, using the secondary energy generated within Hammarby Sjöstad as basis when creating the system boundaries of the calculations. The findings demonstrate that the Hammarby Model reduces the metabolic flows of Hammarby Sjöstad but that the district is far from self-sufficient in terms of secondary energy. The conclusions of the paper are that the development of integrated infrastructural systems is one way to help create more sustainable cities. However, in order to reduce metabolic flows even further, the efficiency of the system must be improved by integrating more renewable energy sources. At the same time less energy has to be used in the households.

  • 9.
    Rytterbro, Jon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Robért, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Are future renewable energy targets consistent with current planning perspectives?2011In: Environmental Economics, ISSN 1998-6041, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 93-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local examples of how renewable energy targets can be fulfilled in the transport sector without compromising individualmobility will be critical as we approach peak-oil and tougher emission caps in the future. Globally, frontier cities that demonstratebest practice solutions might have an advantage when the situation becomes more acute and the urge for disseminatingknow-how between cities increases. The issue is complex, since sustainable traffic planning and renewable energy supplyneed to encompass a multi-stakeholder process, involving potential shifts in individual travel behavior, the development offuture vehicle technologies, and requirements on more efficient energy supply chains. One prediction can be made: the transitionto a non-carbon society will place immense pressure on the limited, solar, wind and bio energy assets.One attempt to create a local sustainable city district with zero net contribution to fossil fuel emissions is the ‘StockholmRoyal Seaport’ (SRS) in Sweden. Here, many of the key elements of a sustainable transport system are beingplanned for, such as optimum public transport provision, optimal biking/walking conditions, condensed city planningwith a mixture of dwellings and office buildings equipped with virtual meeting technologies. Given this assumed‘ideal’ situation for a sustainable transport system and the long-term target of 100% renewable energy use by 2030, thisstudy analyzes the questions: ‘Is this target within reach, assuming various levels of more sustainable travel patterns?’and if not, ‘What else is needed in order to meet target fulfilment?”The analysis, which is based on a combined forecasting/backcasting approach, comes to the conclusion that eventhough the SRS district in many respects could be regarded as ‘ideal’ for target fulfilment and bio-fuel assets in Swedenare favourable, feasible strategies to actually meet the requirements for a non-fossil energy supply are lackingunless the limits on the proportion of renewable energy assets allocated to transport are exceeded. These conclusionswill hopefully work as an eye-opener on current planning perspectives and feed the discussion on how to guide developmenttowards meeting the unavoidable renewable energy targets that must be fulfilled.

  • 10.
    Sun, Qie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    System Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Abatement on the Municipal Level2007In: Proceedings of Research for Sustainable Development: The Social Challenge with Emphasis on Conditions for Change, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 10 of 10
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