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  • 1. Chen, Xiangrong
    et al.
    Murdany, Deni
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Gubanski, Stanislaw M.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Suwarno, S.
    AC and DC Pre-stressed Electrical Trees in LDPE and its Aluminum Oxide Nanocomposites2016Inngår i: IEEE transactions on dielectrics and electrical insulation, ISSN 1070-9878, E-ISSN 1558-4135, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 1506-1514Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Resistance of pure low density polyethylene (LDPE) and its aluminum oxide nanocomposites (up to 3.0 wt%) to degradation by electrical treeing under AC stress and DC pre-stress is analyzed. The experiments were carried out on wire-plane electrode specimens before and after exposure to thermal and DC electro-thermal ageing at 80 degrees C. The obtained results showed enhanced resistance of the nanocomposites to electrical tree inception under AC stress and the tree inception voltage (TIV) increased with nanoparticles content. It has been shown that there was an improved partial discharge (PD) resistance in the nanocomposites compared to the unfilled LDPE. The results also showed that the AC TIV in the nanocomposites consistently increased with the ageing and especially the DC electro-thermally aged specimens had about 30% higher the AC TIV as compared to the unaged material. This effect is attributed to significantly reduced mobility of charge carriers in the nanocomposites. The DC pre-stressed electrical trees generated in the investigated materials were of filamentary-branch structure and the branch channels content increases with the addition of nanoparticles. The mean tree number of the DC prestressed electrical trees decreased in the LDPE and its nanocomposites while the mean maximum tree length increased with the ageing treatments. It is postulated that material recrystallization and a very high electric field level on the wire electrode during the DC pre-stressed electrical tree test are the main reasons for the observed effects.

  • 2. Hoang, A. T.
    et al.
    Pallon, Love
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Serdyuk, Y. V.
    Gubanski, S. M.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Charge transport in LDPE nanocomposites part I-experimental approach2016Inngår i: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 1-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents results of bulk conductivity and surface potential decay measurements on low-density polyethylene and its nanocomposites filled with uncoated MgO and Al2O3, with the aim to highlight the effect of the nanofillers on charge transport processes. Material samples at various filler contents, up to 9 wt %, were prepared in the form of thin films. The performed measurements show a significant impact of the nanofillers on reduction of material's direct current (dc) conductivity. The investigations thus focused on the nanocomposites having the lowest dc conductivity. Various mechanisms of charge generation and transport in solids, including space charge limited current, Poole-Frenkel effect and Schottky injection, were utilized for examining the experimental results. The mobilities of charge carriers were deduced from the measured surface potential decay characteristics and were found to be at least two times lower for the nanocomposites. The temperature dependencies of the mobilities were compared for different materials.

  • 3. Kang, J.
    et al.
    Li, X.
    Xiong, B.
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Chen, J.
    Yang, F.
    Cao, Y.
    Xiang, M.
    Investigation on the Tensile Behavior and Morphology Evolution of Isotactic Polypropylene Films Polymerized with Different Ziegler-Natta Catalysts2015Inngår i: Advances in Polymer Technology, ISSN 0730-6679, E-ISSN 1098-2329Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stereodefect distribution is very important in determining the morphology and properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP). In this study, two iPPs (PP-A and PP-B) with different uniformities of stereodefect distribution were prepared. The tensile behavior and morphology evolution of their cast films were studied. The morphology study of the cast films showed that compared with PP-B, PP-A with less uniform distribution of stereodefects has smaller spherulites and spheruilitic boundaries and higher degree of crystallinity. In uniaxial tensile measurements, PP-A exhibited higher yield strength and lower elongation at break. When strain was 500%, PP-A exhibits totally transparent appearance and highly oriented structures without cavities, whereas PP-B shows opaque appearance and mass of both nanometer- and micrometer-sized cavities. Moreover, calculation of rigid amorphous fraction (RAF) indicated that PP-B cast film has a higher amount of RAF, which might be the reason for the different morphology evolutions and tensile behaviors of the samples.

  • 4. Kang, Jian
    et al.
    Xiong, Bijin
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Cao, Ya
    Chen, Jinyao
    Yang, Feng
    Xiang, Ming
    Understanding in the morphology and tensile behavior of isotactic polypropylene cast films with different stereo-defect distribution2014Inngår i: Journal of polymer research, ISSN 1022-9760, E-ISSN 1572-8935, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 485-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, two iPP resins with similar molecular weight and average isotacticity but different uniformities of stereo-defect distribution were used in the production of cast films. The crystalline morphology and orientation, and tensile behavior during room temperature stretching of the cast films were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), 2D-wide angle X-ray diffraction (2D-WAXD) and 2D-small-angle X-ray scattering (2D-SAXS). It was found that under fixed processing condition, iPP with more uniform stereo-defect distribution (PP2) favors the formation of row nucleated lamellar structure during cast film production, and therefore exhibiting hard-elastic deformation behavior during stretching; meanwhile, the sample with less uniform stereo-defect distribution (PP1) shows un-oriented spherulitical morphology in the cast film, and typical plastic deformation behavior during stretching. The crystallization and rheological analysis on the iPP raw materials revealed that, the uniformity of stereo-defect distribution determines the ability of nucleation and crystallization, and further influences the response of the crystalline morphology to the elongation effect of cast film production process, which is of great importance in the structure-property design in the production of iPP membranes.

  • 5.
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Functional polyethylene-aluminum oxide nanocomposites for insulation materials in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) cables2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Polyethylene – metal oxide particle nanocomposites for future HVDC cable insulation: From interface tailoring to designed performance2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites containing metal oxide nanoparticles are considered as promising candidates for insulating materials in future high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) cables. The significant improvement in dielectric properties compared with unfilled polymer is attributed to the large and active interface between the nanoparticles and the polymer. The nanoparticles may also initiate cavitation under stress and potential accelerated aging risks due to the adsorption and inactivation of the protecting antioxidants. This study is focused on the possibilities of achieving well-balanced performances of the polyethylene nanocomposites for HVDC insulation via tailoring the particle interface in the nanocomposites.

    A facile and versatile surface coating method for metal oxide particles was developed based on silane chemistry. The developed method was successfully applied to 8.5 nm Fe3O4, 25 nm ZnO and 50 nm Al2O3 particles, with the aim to develop uniform coatings that universally could be applied on individual particles rather than aggregates of particles. The surface properties of the coatings were further tailored by applying silanes with terminal alkyl groups of different lengths, including methyl (C1-), octyl (C8-) and octadecyl (C18-) units. Transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis confirmed the presence of uniform coatings on the particle surface and importantly the coatings were found to be highly porous.

    The capacity of metal oxide particles to adsorb relevant polar species (e.g. moisture, acetophenone, cumyl alcohol and phenolic antioxidant) was further assessed due to its potential impact on electrical conductivity and long-term stability of the nanocomposites. The oxidative stability of the nanocomposites was affected by the adsorption of phenolic antioxidants on particles and transfer of catalytic impurities (ionic species) from metal oxide particles to polymer matrix. It was found that carefully coated metal oxide particles had much less tendency to adsorb antioxidants. They could, however, adsorb moisture, acetophenone and cumyl alcohol. The coated particles did not emit any destabilizing ionic species into the polymer matrix. 

    The inter-particle distance of the nanocomposites based on C8-coated nanoparticles showed only a small deviation from the ideal, theoretical value, indicating a good particle dispersion in the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy of strained nanocomposite samples suggested the cavitation mainly occurred at the polymer/nanoparticles interface. The microstructural changes at polymer/nanoparticle interface were studied by small-angle X-ray scattering coupled with tensile testing. The polymer/nanoparticle interface was fractal before deformation due to the existence of the bound polymers at the nanoparticle surface. Extensive de-bonding of particles and cavitation were observed when the nanocomposites were stretched beyond a critical strain. It was found that the composites based on carefully coated particles showed higher strain at cavitation than the composites based on uncoated particles. The composites based on C8-coated nanoparticles showed the largest decrease in electrical conductivity and the lowest temperature coefficient of the electrical conductivity among the composite samples studied.

  • 7.
    Liu, Dongming
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Hoang, A. T.
    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Pallon, Love K. H.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gubanski, S. M.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Influence of Nanoparticle Surface Coating on Electrical Conductivity of LDPE/Al2O3 Nanocomposites for HVDC Cable Insulations2017Inngår i: IEEE transactions on dielectrics and electrical insulation, ISSN 1070-9878, E-ISSN 1558-4135, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 1396-1404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    LDPE/metal oxide nanocomposites are promising materials for future high-voltage DC cable insulation. This paper presents data on the influence of the structure of the nanoparticle coating on the electrical conductivity of LDPE/Al2O3 nanocomposites. Al2O3 nanoparticles, 50 nm in size, were coated with a series of silanes with terminal alkyl groups of different lengths (methyl, n-octyl and n-octadecyl groups). The density of the coatings in vacuum was between 200 and 515 kg m(-3,) indicating substantial porosity in the coating. The dispersion of the nanoparticles in the LDPE matrix was assessed based on statistics for the nearest-neighbor particle distance. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites was determined at both 40 and 60 degrees C. The results show that an appropriate surface coating on the nanoparticles allowed uniform particle dispersion up to a filler loading of 10 wt.%, with a maximum reduction in the electrical conductivity by a factor of 35. The composites based on the most porous octyl-coated nanoparticles showed the greatest reduction in electrical conductivity and the lowest temperature coefficient of electrical conductivity of the composites studied.

  • 8.
    Liu, Dongming
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Hoang, A.T
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Pallon, Love
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gubanski, Stanislaw
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ohlsson, Richard
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gedde, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Influence of nanoparticle surface coating on electrical conductivity of polyethylene/aluminium oxide nanocomposites for HVDC cable insulations2016Inngår i: IEEE transactions on dielectrics and electrical insulation, ISSN 1070-9878, E-ISSN 1558-4135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Liu, Dongming
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Pallon, Love K. H.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Zhang, P.
    Diaz, A.
    Holler, M.
    Schneider, K.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Yu, Shun
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gedde, Ulf W
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Cavitation in strained polyethylene/aluminium oxide nanocomposites2017Inngår i: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 87, s. 255-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The incorporation of metal oxide (e.g. Al2O3) nanoparticles has a pronounced positive effect on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as an insulating material for high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) cables, the electrical conductivity being decreased by one to two orders of magnitude and charge species being trapped by the nanoparticles. The risk of debonding between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix leading to electrical treeing via electrical discharges in the formed cavities was the motivation for this study. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray ptychographic tomography were used to study a series of LDPE nanocomposites which contained Al2O3 nanoparticles treated with silanes having terminal alkyl groups of different lengths (methyl, octyl and octadecyl). When specimens were subjected to a tensile strain (a typical specimen stretched beyond the onset of necking consisted of three zones according to SEM of specimens that were studied after removal of the external force: an essentially cavitation-free zone with low local plastic strain, a transitional zone in which local plastic strain showed a marked increase and the revealed concentration of permanent cavities increased with increasing plastic strain and a highly strained zone with extensive cavitation), the cavitation occurred mainly at the polymer-nanoparticle interface according to SEM and X-ray ptychographic tomography and according to SEM progressed with increasing plastic strain through an initial phase with no detectable formation of permanent cavities to a period of very fast cavitation and finally almost an order of magnitude slower cavitation. The polymer/nanoparticle interface was fractal before deformation, as revealed by the profile of the Porod region in SAXS, presumably due to the existence of bound polymers at the nanoparticle surface. A pronounced decrease in the interface fractal dimension was observed when the strain exceeded a critical value; a phenomenon attributed to the stress-induced de-bonding of nanoparticles. The strain-dependence of the interface fractal dimension value at low strain levels between composites containing differently treated nanoparticles seems to be an indicator of the strength of the nanoparticle-polymer interface.

  • 10.
    Liu, Dongming
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Pallon, Love
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Zhang, Peng
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY).
    Diaz, Ana
    Paul Scherrer Institut.
    Holler, Mirko
    Paul Scherrer Institut.
    Schneider, Konrad
    Leibniz Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Yu, Shun
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gedde, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Cavitation in strained polyethylene/aluminium oxide nanocomposites2016Inngår i: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Liu, Dongming
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gedde, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Influence of nanoparticle surface treatment on particle dispersion and interfacial adhesion in low-density polyethylene/aluminium oxide nanocomposites2015Inngår i: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 66, s. 67-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of silsesquioxane coating of aluminium oxide nanoparticles on their dispersion and on the interfacial strength between nanoparticles and polymer matrix in low-density polyethylene composites was studied. The surface chemistry of the nanoparticles was tailored from hydroxyl groups to alkyl groups with different lengths by reacting methyltrimethoxysilane (C1), octyltriethoxysilane (C8) or octadecyltrimethoxysilane (C18) with aluminium oxide nanoparticles. The core–shell structure of the coated nanoparticles was assessed by transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The inter-particle distance of the nanocomposite based on C8-coated nanoparticles showed only a small deviation from the ideal value, indicating a very good particle dispersion in the polymer. The interfacial adhesion between nanoparticles and matrix was determined by stretching nanocomposite specimens in a tensile testing machine to strains well beyond the yield point. A drop in the stress–strain curve indicated the onset of cavitation and necking in the nanocomposites. Samples stretched to different strain levels were studied by scanning electron microscopy and the cavitation was found to be confined to particle interfaces. The composite based on C18-coated nanoparticles showed the highest strain at cavitation/necking suggesting a high interfacial adhesion between nanoparticles and polymer.

  • 12.
    Liu, Dongming
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Pallon, Love K. H.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Gedde, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Morphology and properties of silica-based coatings with different functionalities for Fe3O4, ZnO and Al2O3 nanoparticles2015Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, nr 59, s. 48094-48103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile single-step method for obtaining 2–3 nm thick silsesquioxane coatings on metal oxide nanoparticles using different carbon-functional silane precursors is presented. Iron oxide nanoparticles 8.5 nm in diameter were used as a model to evaluate the possibilities of forming different uniform carbon-functional coatings, ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic in character. Electron microscopy showed that all the coated nanoparticles could be described as core-shell nanoparticles with single Fe3O4 cores and carbon-functional silsesquioxane shells, without any core-free silicone oxide phase. Steric factors strongly influenced the deposited silicon oxide precursors with octyl-, methyl- or aminopropyl functionalities, resulting in coating densities ranging from 260 to 560 kg/m3. The methyl-functional coatings required several layers of silsesquioxane, 3–4, to build up the 2 nm structures, whereas only 1-2 layers were required for silsesquioxane with octyl groups. Pure silica coatings from tetraethoxysilanes were however considerably thicker due to the absence of steric hindrance during deposition, allowing the formation of 5–7 nm coatings of ca. 10 layers. The coating method developed for the iron oxide nanoparticles was generic and successfully transferred and up–scaled 30 and 325 times (by volume) to be applicable to 25 nm ZnO and 45 nm Al2O3 nanoparticles.

  • 13.
    Liu, Dongming
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Pallon, Love K. H.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Sanchez, Carmen Cobo
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Interactions between a phenolic antioxidant, moisture, peroxide and crosslinking by-products with metal oxide nanoparticles in branched polyethylene2016Inngår i: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 125, s. 21-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyethylene composites based on metal oxide nanoparticles are emerging materials for use in the insulation of extruded HVDC cables. The short-term electrical performance of these materials is adequate, but their stability for extended service needs to be assessed. This study is focussed on the capacity of the nanoparticles to adsorb polar species (water, dicumyl peroxide and byproducts from peroxide-vulcanisation, acetophenone and cumyl alcohol) that have an impact on the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites, the oxidative stability by adsorption of phenolic antioxidants on the nanoparticles and the potential transfer of catalytic impurities from the nanoparticles to the polymer. The adsorption of water, dicumyl peroxide, acetophenone, cumyl alcohol and Irganox 1076 (phenolic antioxidant) on pristine and coated (hydrophobic silanes and poly(lauryl methacrylate)) Al2O3, MgO and ZnO particles ranging from 25 nm to 2 gm was assessed. Composites based on low-density polyethylene and the particles mentioned (<= 12 wt.%) were prepared, the degree of adsorption of Irganox 1076 onto the particles was assessed by OIT measurements, and the release of volatile species at elevated temperature was assessed by TG. The concentration of moisture adsorbed on the particles at 25 degrees C increased linearly with both increasing hydroxyl group concentration on the particle surfaces and increasing relative humidity. Dicumyl peroxide showed no adsorption on any of the nanoparticles. Acetophenone and cumyl alcohol showed a linear increase in adsorption with increasing concentration of hydroxyl groups, but the quantities were much smaller than those of water. Irganox 1076 adsorbed only onto the uncoated nanoparticles. Uncoated ZnO nanoparticles that contained ionic species promoted radical formation and a lowering of the OIT. This study showed that carefully coated pure metal oxide nano particles are not likely to adsorb phenolic antioxidants or dicumyl peroxide, but that they have the capacity to adsorb moisture and polar byproducts from peroxide vulcanisation, and that they will not introduce destabilizing ionic species into the polymer matrix. Low contents of dry, equiaxed ZnO and MgO particles strongly retarded the release of volatile species at temperatures above 300 degrees C.

  • 14.
    Liu, Dongming
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Wu, Qiong
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Farris, Stefano
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cellulose nanofibril core-shell silica coatings and their conversion into thermally stable nanotube aerogels2015Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, nr 30, s. 15745-15754Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile water-based one-pot reaction protocol for obtaining 20 nm thick uniform silica coatings on cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) is herein presented for the first time. The fully covering silica shells result in the thermal stability of the CNFs improved by ca. 70 degrees C and 50 degrees C under nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres, respectively. Heating of the core-shell hybrid fibres to 400 degrees C results in complete degradation/removal of the CNF cores, and demonstrates an inexpensive route to large-scale preparation of silica nanotubes with the CNFs used as templates. The key to a uniform condensation of silica (from tetraethyl orthosilicate) to cellulose is a reaction medium that permits in situ nucleation and growth of the silica phase on the fibrils, while simultaneously matching the quantity of the condensed silica with the specific surface area of the CNFs. Most coatings were applied to bundles of 2-3 associated CNFs, which could be discerned from their negative imprint that remained inside the silica nanotubes. Finally, it is demonstrated that the coated nanofibrils can be freeze-dried into highly porous silica/cellulose aerogels with a density of 0.005 g cm(-3) and how these hybrid aerogels preserve their shape when extensively exposed to 400 degrees C in air (>6 h). The resulting material is the first reported silica nanotube aerogel obtained by using cellulose nanofibrils as templates.

  • 15. Murdany, D.
    et al.
    Chen, X.
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymerteknologi.
    Gedde, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Suwarno, Suwarno
    Gubanski, S. M.
    Electrical treeing in polyethylene-alumina-filled nanocomposites for HVDC applications2015Inngår i: Proceedings - 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics: Bridging the Knowledge between Academic, Industry, and Community, ICEEI 2015, 2015, s. 213-216Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical tree formations under DC pre-stress followed by an application of voltage pulses of opposite polarities were observed in low density polyethylene and its nanocomposite filled with 1.0 wt% and 3.0 wt% alumina nanoparticles. A special wire-plane electrode geometry were manufactured for the test. The obtained experimental results indicate that the addition of the nanoparticles has a positive impact on the resistance to electrical treeing. In addition to the reported above results, a thermal ageing and electro-thermal experiment is presently being conducted and the results comparing the treeing behavior after it will also be presented.

  • 16.
    Pallon, Love K. H.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Yu, Shun
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Diaz, Ana
    Holler, Mirko
    Chen, Xiangrong R.
    Gubanski, Stanislaw
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Three-Dimensional Nanometer Features of Direct Current Electrical Trees in Low-Density Polyethylene2017Inngår i: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 1402-1408Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical trees are one reason for the breakdown of insulating materials in electrical power systems. An understanding of the growth of electrical trees plays a crucial role in the development of reliable high voltage direct current (HVDC) power grid systems with transmission voltages up to 1 MV. A section that contained an electrical tree in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been visualized in three dimensions (3D) with a resolution of 92 nm by X-ray ptychographic tomography. The 3D imaging revealed prechannel-formations with a lower density with the width of a couple of hundred nanometers formed around the main branch of the electrical tree. The prechannel structures were partially connected with the main tree via paths through material with a lower density, proving that the tree had grown in a step-by-step manner via the prestep structures formed in front of the main channels. All the prechannel structures had a size well below the limit of the Paschen law and were thus not formed by partial discharges. Instead, it is suggested that the prechannel structures were formed by electro-mechanical stress and impact ionization, where the former was confirmed by simulations to be a potential explanation with electro-mechanical stress tensors being almost of the same order of magnitude as the short-term modulus of low-density polyethylene.

  • 17.
    Pallon, Love
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Yu, Shun
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Diaz, Ana
    Paul Scherrer Institute.
    Holler, Mirko
    Paul Scherrer Institute.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Chen, Xiangrong
    Chalmers University of Technology .
    Gubanski, Stanislaw
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Three-dimensional nanometre features of direct current electrical trees in low-density polyethyleneManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Hoang, Tuan A
    Chalmers.
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Pallon, Love K H
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gubanski, Stanislaw
    Chalmers.
    Olsson, Richard T
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Highly Efficient Interfaces in Nanocomposites Based on Polyethylene and ZnO Nano/Hierarchical Particles: A Novel Approach toward Ultralow Electrical Conductivity Insulations.2016Inngår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, nr 39, s. 8651-8657Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyethylene nanocomposites based on functionalized ZnO nano/hierarchical particles with highly effective interfacial surface area are presented, for the next generation of ultralow transmission-loss high-voltage DC insulating materials.

  • 19.
    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Ström, Valter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Aqueous synthesis of (21̅0) oxygen terminated defect free hierarchical ZnO particles and their heat treatment for enhanced reactivity2016Inngår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 32, nr 42, s. 11002-11013Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A controlled aqueous growth of 1 µm flower-shaped ZnO particles with a hierarchical subset of exposed nano-sheets represented by {21̅0} crystal faces, followed by annealing at temperatures up to 1000 °C, is presented. The flower-shaped particles showed superior photocatalytic performance compared to the crystal faces of 20 nm ZnO nanoparticles. The photocatalytic reaction rate of the flower-shaped particles before annealing was 2.4 times higher per m2 compared with that of the nanoparticles with double specific surface area. Crystal surface defects and nano-sized pores within the flower-shaped particles were revealed by porosity measurement and electron microscopy. A heat treatment at 400 °C was found to be optimal for removal of nanoporosity/surface defects and impurities while retaining the hierarchical superstructure. The heat treatment resulted in a photo-degradation efficiency that increased by an additional 43 %, although the specific surface area decreased from 16.7 to 13.0 m2g-1. The enhanced photocatalytic effect remained intact under both acidic and alkaline environments owing to the {21̅0} crystal surfaces, which were less prone to dissolution than the nanoparticles. The photocatalytic performance relied on primarily three factors: the removal of surface impurities, the oxygen termination of the {21̅0} crystal faces, and the promotion of charge carrier lifetime by removal of lattice defects acting as recombination centres. The synthesis presented is an entirely hydrocarbon- and surfactant free ('green') preparation scheme, and the formation of the flower-shaped particles was favored solely by optimization of the reaction temperature after the correct nitrate salts precursor concentrations had been established.

  • 20.
    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Pallon, Love K. H.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Martinez Abad, A.
    Lagaron, J. -M
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Ström, Valter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Teknisk materialfysik.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Water-based synthesis and cleaning methods for high purity ZnO nanoparticles - comparing acetate, chloride, sulphate and nitrate zinc salt precursors2014Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, nr 67, s. 35568-35577Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A low temperature (60 degrees C) aqueous synthesis method of high purity ZnO nanoparticles intended as fillers for ultra-low electrical conductivity insulations is described. Particles were prepared under identical conditions from different zinc salts based on nitrate, chloride, sulphate or acetate to compare their abilities to form high yields of sub-50 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The acetate salt gave uniform 25 nm ZnO particles with a conical prism shape. The chloride and sulphate derived particles showed mixed morphologies of nanoprisms and submicron petals, whereas the nitrate salt yielded prisms assembled into well-defined flower shapes with spiky edges. The micron-sized flower shapes were confirmed by Xray diffraction to consist of the smaller prism units. Photoluminescence spectroscopy showed emission in the blue-violet region with little variation depending on precursor salt, suggesting that the spectra were dependent on the primary nanoprism formation and rather independent of the final particle morphology. Microscopy revealed that the salt residuals after the reaction showed different affinity to the particle surfaces depending on the type of salt used, with the acetate creating ca. 20 nm thick hydrated shells; and in falling order of affinity: chloride, sulphate and nitrate. An acetate ion shielding effect during the synthesis was therefore assumed, preventing nanoparticle fusion during growth. Varying the concentrations of the counter-ions confirmed the shielding and only the acetate anions showed an ability to stabilize solitary nanoprisms formation in reaction yields from 2 to 10 g L-1. Ultrasonic particle surface cleaning was significantly more efficient than water replacement, resulting in a stable aqueous dispersion with a high zeta potential of 38.9 mV at pH 8.

  • 21.
    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Pallon, Love K. H.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Hoang, Tuan Anh
    Gubanski, Stanislaw
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Polyethylene Nanocomposites for the Next Generation of Ultralow-Transmission-Loss HVDC Cables: Insulation Containing Moisture Resistant MgO Nanoparticles2016Inngår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 8, nr 23, s. 14824-14835Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of MgO nanoparticles in polyethylene for cable insulation has attracted considerable interest, although in humid media the surface regions of the nanoparticles undergo a conversion to a hydroxide phase. A facile method to obtain MgO nanoparticles with a large surface area and remarkable inertness to humidity is presented. The method involves (a) low temperature (400 degrees C) thermal decomposition of Mg(OH)(2), (b) a silicone oxide coating to conceal the nanoparticles and prevent interparticle sintering upon exposure to high temperatures, and (c) heat treatment at 1000 degrees C. The formation of the hydroxide phase on these silicone oxide-coated MgO nanoparticles after extended exposure to humid air was assessed by thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The nanoparticles showed essentially no sign of any hydroxide phase compared to particles prepared by the conventional single-step thermal decomposition of Mg(OH)(2). The moisture-resistant MgO nanoparticles showed improved dispersion and interfacial adhesion in the LDPE matrix with smaller nanosized particle clusters compared with conventionally prepared MgO. The addition of 1 wt % moisture-resistant MgO nanoparticles was sufficient to decrease the conductivity of polyethylene 30 times. The reduction in conductivity is discussed in terms of defect concentration on the surface of the moisture-resistant MgO nanoparticles at the polymer/nanoparticle interface.

1 - 21 of 21
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