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  • 1. Dussauge, I.
    et al.
    Gribbe, Johan
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Kaijser, Arne
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Lundin, Per
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Peralta, Julia
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sjöblom, G.
    Thodenius, B.
    Precursors of the IT Nation: Computer use and control in swedish society, 1955–19852011In: 3rd IFIP WG 9.7 Conference on History of Nordic Computing, HiNC 2010, Springer-Verlag New York, 2011, p. 425-432Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a presentation of a research project that aims at writing the history of computing in Sweden in the mainframe age from a user perspective. Rather than beginning with the history of hardware, this project takes as its point of departure the way in which actors in different sectors of society used computer technology in order to achieve a higher degree of control over crucial processes, whether through electronic data processing systems, process control or technical/scientific computation.

  • 2.
    Gribbe, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Att modellera slagfältet: Tidig databehandling vid FOA, 1954–66: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 15 oktober 20072007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”Att modellera slagfältet” [Modelling the battlefield] was held at The National Museum of Science and Technology in Stockholm on 15 October 2007 and was led by Magnus Hagwall. Different aspects of the early use of electronic computers to analyze and study military problems at the National Defence Research Establishment (FOA) were discussed at the seminar, particularly the use of computers to carry out simulations of combat scenarios and weapons effects against different targets. Special attention was paid to the time period from 1954, when the introduction of BESK first made computer simulations possible, to 1966 when the IBM 7090 mainframe computer at FOA was replaced. Operations research provided new problems for computer programming. The design of computer models for submarine hunt, armored combat and ground-to-air combat developed at FOA in the late 1950s and 1960s were discussed at the seminar. Other problems brought up were the development of computer models to study the effects of artillery shells against airplanes and armored tanks. The use of FORTRAN to develop programs for IBM 709 and IBM 7090 was described. The design of the information handling system CORSAIR was touched upon. Moreover, the seminar discussed the use of IBM 7090 mainframe computers to develop programs for meteorological analysis. The critical importance of fast input and output facilities for meteorological applications was underlined. Finally, the reliability of large computer models to study battle-field scenarios was debated.

  • 3.
    Gribbe, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Controlling the Battlefield: Computing and Operational Command in the Swedish Armed Forces, 1966-19892011In: History of nordic computing 3, 2011, p. 22-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 1960s, the Swedish Defence Staff initiated the development of a computerized command and control system that was later to be known as the LEO-system. From the mid-1970s to 1989, more than two hundred million SEK were spent on the project, which involved private computer consultants and with military staff officers acting as project leaders and customers. In the end, however, only the intelligence application was introduced and put into operational use in the Swedish intelligence service during the 1990s. This paper will tell the story of the LEO-system and outline some of the reasons behind its failure. It is based on a witness seminar held at the Swedish Armed Forces Headquarters in Stockholm on January 15, 2008.

  • 4.
    Gribbe, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    JA 37:Pilot och system: transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 11 december 20072008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”JA 37 – Pilot och system” was held at the National Museum of Science and Technology in Stockholm on 11 December 2007 and was led by professor Karl Johan Åström. Different aspects of the use of Information Technology in the development of real time control systems in the fighter version of Viggen (JA 37) were discussed and debated, with special emphasis on integration of the systems surrounding the pilot. The critical importance of close cooperation between development engineers and test pilots, primarily at the customer FMV and the main contractor Saab, at LM Ericsson and Svenska Radiobolaget, and test pilots at Saab and the Swedish Air Force was underlined. This also included the emerging use of mission and task analysis, system simulators and early flying experimentation and test beds. The basic arcitechture of the airborne system with a central computer to which most of the major sub-systems and equipment was connected was carried over from the Attack Viggen System (AJ 37) with its single digital computer. The total system functionality and capability was vastly improved due to the introduction of digital computers in all major subsystems, an inertial platform, built-in test and data recording systems for maintenance, mission performance feedback and training purposes. A major undertaking was the development of an integrated Electronic Display System with three major displays: a Head-up Display (SI), a Tactical Situation Display (TI), including an all electronically generated map function, and a Radar/ Target Display (MI). In particular the development of the Tactical Indicator (TI), made possible by new solid state technology, facilitated more autonomous fighter tactics than possible with previous radar based command and control system. The all important challenge for the JA 37 project was the development of the pulse dopper radar PS-46/A, a task carried out by LM Ericsson with support from Hughes Aircraft Company and guidance from FMV. Special attention was paid to the use of digital computers for highspeed signals processing. Moreover, the critical design choice of medium pulse repetition frequency was debated. Finally, software development tools and methodology were discussed.

  • 5.
    Gribbe, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    LEO: Databehandling och operativ ledning inom försvaret, 1972-89: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Högkvarteret i Stockholm den 15 januari 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”LEO: Computing and Operational Command in the Swedish Armed Forces, 1972–89” was held at the Armed Forces Headquarter in Stockholm on 15 January 2008 and was led by Göran Tode. During the seminar, the development of the computerized command system LEO was discussed. After a major reorganisation of command structure in the late 1960s, the defence staff decided to develop a computerized command system to help central and regional headquarters conduct wartime operations. Each headquarter was to have one terminal system, with a number of work stations, containing information about all aspects of the battlefield. Information about friendly and enemy forces, fuel and ammunition supplies was to be stored in a central data base and a secure messaging system was to provide fast and reliable communications. Additional applications were developed to handle computations and simulations of transports and mobilization. Different aspects of this development were discussed at the seminar. Limitations in computer graphics and presentation technology was observed as a major technological problem in the early phase of the project. Other problems brought up concerned the considerable passive resistence from users and senior commanders, when new computer technology was introduced in old organizational structures. In addition to this, security started to emerge as a critical problem in the early 1980s when highly classified information about war plans, communications and intelligence were concentrated into a single computer system. Measures to control access of information in the system and to guarantee electronic security were discussed and debated. Moreover, the decision in 1979 to purchase mainframe computers from Norsk Data was covered at the seminar. The development of tools and methodology for COBOL programming was mentioned. Finally, the implementation of the system in central and regional staff headquarters in the late 1980s was also discussed.

  • 6.
    Gribbe, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    NIBS: Utvecklingen av Näckens informationsbehandlingssystem, 1966-82: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 14 januari 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”NIBS: The Development of the Näcken Information Handling System, 1966–82” was held at the National Museum of Science and Technology in Stockholm on 14 January 2008 and was led by Nils Bruzelius. During the seminar, the development of the computerized command and control system of the Näcken-class submarines was discussed. A major feature of the system was the computerization of the calculation of target data, which made possible the automatic and simultaneous tracking and monitoring of ten different targets. Different aspects of this development were covered at the seminar, in particular the development of mathematical models for target calculation. The computing algorithm was formulated by researchers at FOA, and implemented in close cooperation with consultants from Teleplan. Moreover, the computerization of other systems related to the handling and controlling of the submarine, a task carried out by Kockums in Karlskrona, was discussed. The critical importance of digital computing in the magnetic mine protection system was underlined. In purchasing the computer system, separate technical specifications for hardware and computer software was formulated. The role of government intervention in the purchase of the central computer was discussed and debated. Finally, the technical and tactical testing of the submarine system was covered, with special emphasis on the computerized information handling systems.

  • 7.
    Gribbe, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Stril 60: Teknik, vetenskap och svensk säkerhetspolitik under det kalla kriget2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis presents a historical study of the development of the semi-automatic control and reporting system Stril 60 for the Swedish air force during the 1950s. The theoretical points of reference are taken from a literature on socio-technological systems combined with models of social networks and their importance to the development of society.  In a wider and more general sense, the thesis also deals with the Swedish policy of neutrality during the cold war which is investigated from a history of science and technology perspective. Through an investigation of the establishment of the system, informal networks within the public administration which have contributed to the shaping of Swedish security policy beyond the official government rhetoric are reconstructed. The policy of neutrality gave rise to complicated and often informal structures of decision-making, especially concerning military relations with the western powers. Considerations and decisions which did not give rise to ordinary archive material, sometimes have left technological footprints which has made it possible to uncover important dimensions of the Swedish policy of neutrality through studying the military systems, their planning and actual structure. While official foreign policy aimed at creating an official image of Sweden and Swedish territory as a political and strategic free zone in the cold war, defense policy originated from the opposite scenario, namely that the possibilities not to take part in a new war in Europe was small and that the only possibility to escape defeat and occupation was to receive help from the western powers, which set the rules for Swedish war planning and military system building during the period.

  • 8.
    Gribbe, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Tidig flygradar: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 15 april 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar “Tidig flygradar” [Early airborne radar] was held at Tekniska museet [the National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 15 April 2008 and was led by Gunnar Lindqvist. During the seminar, the development and use of airborne radar systems in the Swedish air force during the 1950s and 1960s was discussed and debated. The use of airborne radar in the night fighters Mosquito and Venom, and its impact on fighter tactics, was covered in detail. The technical collaboration between the French electronics firm CSF, the radar division of the Royal Swedish Air Board and LM Ericsson was underlined as a crucial factor behind the successful introduction of the first Swedish built radar systems in the strike and night fighter versions of Lansen. Development of the Lead collision course fire control system, and integration between radar and guided missiles, were critical undertakings in the development of airborne radar systems in the first Swedish supersonic fighter Draken. The subsequent efforts to modify the radar systems to counter electronic jamming were touched upon. Finally, the development of the PS-37 radar, developed in collaboration between the Royal Swedish Air Board and LM Ericsson for use in the strike version of Viggen, was covered in detail.

1 - 8 of 8
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