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  • 1.
    Hammarström, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Bioteknologi.
    Hellgren, Niklas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Bioteknologi.
    van den Berg, Susanne
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Bioteknologi.
    Berglund, Helena
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Bioteknologi.
    Härd, Torleif
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Bioteknologi.
    Rapid screening for improved solubility of small human proteins produced as fusio proteins in Escherichia coli.2002Ingår i: Protein Science, ISSN 0961-8368, E-ISSN 1469-896X, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 313-321Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A prerequisite for structural genomics and related projects is to standardize the process of gene overexpression and protein solubility screening to enable automation for higher throughput. We have tested a methodology to rapidly subclone a large number of human genes and screen these for expression and protein solubility in Escherichia coli. The methodology, which can be partly automated, was used to compare the effect of six different N-terminal fusion proteins and an N-terminal 6*His tag. As a realistic test set we selected 32 potentially interesting human proteins with unknown structures and sizes suitable for NMR studies. The genes were transferred from cDNA to expression vectors using subcloning by recombination. The subcloning yield was 100% for 27 (of 32) genes for which a PCR fragment of correct size could be obtained. Of these, 26 genes (96%) could be overexpressed at detectable levels and 23 (85%) are detected in the soluble fraction with at least one fusion tag. We find large differences in the effects of fusion protein or tag on expression and solubility. In short, four of seven fusions perform very well, and much better than the 6*His tag, but individual differences motivate the inclusion of several fusions in expression and solubility screening. We also conclude that our methodology and expression vectors can be used for screening of genes for structural studies, and that it should be possible to obtain a large fraction of all NMR-sized and nonmembrane human proteins as soluble fusion proteins in E. coli.

  • 2. Lundbäck, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    van den Berg, Susanne
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Strukturell bioteknik.
    Berglund, Helena
    Eshaghi, Said
    Exploring the activity of tobacco etch virus protease in detergent solutions2008Ingår i: Analytical Biochemistry, ISSN 0003-2697, E-ISSN 1096-0309, Vol. 382, nr 1, s. 69-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease is generally used to remove affinity tags from target proteins. It has been reported that some detergents inhibit the activity of this protease, and therefore should be avoided when removing affinity tags from membrane proteins. The aim of this study was to explore and evaluate this further. Hence, affinity tag removal with TEV protease was tested from three membrane proteins (a Pgp synthase and two CorA homologs) in the presence of 16 different detergents commonly used in membrane protein purification and crystallization. We observed that in the presence of the same detergent (Triton X-100), TEV protease could remove the affinity tag completely from one protein (CorA) but not from another protein (Pgp synthase). There was also a large variation in yield of cleaved membrane protein in different detergents, which probably depends on features of the protein-detergent complex. These observations show that, contrary to an earlier report, detergents do not inhibit the enzymatic activity of the TEV protease.

  • 3.
    Woestenenk, Esmeralda A.
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Hammarström, Martin
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    van den Berg, Susanne
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Härd, Torleif
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Berglund, Helena
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    His tag effect on solubility of human proteins produced in Escherichia coli: A comparison between four expression vectors2004Ingår i: Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics, ISSN 1345-711X, E-ISSN 1570-0267, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 217-229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have compared four different vectors for expression of proteins with N- or C-terminal hexahistidine (His6) tags in Escherichia coli by testing these on 20 human proteins. We looked at total recombinant protein production levels per gram dry cell weight, solubility of the target proteins, and yield of soluble and total protein when purified by immobilized metal ion affinity purification. It was found that, in general, both N- and C-terminal His6 tags have a noticeable negative effect on protein solubility, but the effect is target protein specific. A solubilizing fusion tag was able to partly counteract this negative effect. Most target proteins could be purified under denaturing conditions and about half of the proteins could be purified under physiological conditions. The highest protein production levels and yield of purified protein were obtained from a construct with a C-terminal His tag. We also observe a large variation in cell growth rate, which we determined to be partly caused by the expression vectors and partly by the targets. This variation was found to be independent of the production level, solubility and tertiary structure content of the target proteins.

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