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  • 1.
    Anwar, Zahid
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and dryout characteristics of low GWP refrigerants in a vertical mini-channel2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-phase heat transfer in mini/micro-channels is capable of meeting the high cooling demands of modern high heat flux applications. The phase change process ensures better temperature uniformity and control for local hot spots. Furthermore, these compact channels could be helpful in reducing the required charge and material inventories.Environmental concerns—mainly ozone depletion and global warming—have instigated a search for new alternatives in refrigeration industry. While new compounds are being developed to address stringent legislative demands, natural alternatives are also coming into prominence. A limited number of investigators have reported on thermal performance of such alternatives. The current study is therefore focused on saturated flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and dryout characteristics for three low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants (R152a, R600a and R1234yf) in a vertical mini-channel.In this study experiments were carried out by uniformly heating a test section (stainless steel tube with 1.60 mm inside diameter and 245 mm heated length) at 27 and 32 oC saturation temperature with 50-500 kg/m2s mass velocities. The effects of various parameters of interest (like heat flux, mass flux, system pressure, vapor quality, operating media) on flow boiling heat transfer, frictional pressure drop and dryout characteristics were recorded. R134a, which has been widely used in several applications, is utilized as a reference case for comparison of thermal performance in this study.Experimental results for saturated boiling heat transfer showed strong influence of heat flux and system pressure with insignificant contributions from mass flux and vapor quality. Two phase frictional pressure drop increased with mass flux, vapor quality and with reduced operating pressure. The dryout heat flux remained unaffected with variation in saturation temperature, critical vapor quality in most cases was about 85%. The experimental results (boiling heat transfer, two-phase pressure drop and dryout heat flux) were compared with well-known macro and micro-scale correlations from the literature.

  • 2.
    Anwar, Zahid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration. Department of Mechanical, Mechatronics and Manufacturing Engineering (KSK-Campus), University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan .
    Palm, Björn E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and dryout characteristics of R1234yf: Experimental results and predictions2015In: Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, ISSN 0894-1777, E-ISSN 1879-2286, Vol. 66, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and dryout characteristics of R1234yf in a vertical stainless steel test section (1.60mm inside diameter and 245mm heated length) under upward flow conditions are reported in this article. The experiments were carried out at 27 and 32°C saturation temperatures with five mass fluxes in the range of 100-500kg/m2s while the applied heat flux was in the range of 5-130kW/m2. The experiments were carried out with gradual increase of the applied heat flux til completion of dryout. Under similar conditions, tests were repeated with R134a in the same test setup to compare thermal performance of these two refrigerants. The results showed that boiling heat transfer was strongly controlled by the applied heat flux and operating pressure with insignificant dependence on mass flux and vapor quality. The frictional pressure drop increased with mass flux and vapor quality and decreased with increasing saturation temperature as expected. Signs of dryout first appeared at vapor qualities of 85%, with the values generally increasing with increasing mass flux. The effect of varying system pressure was insignificant. The experimental results (boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and dryout heat flux) were compared with the predictions from well-known correlations (for macro and micro-scale channels) from the literature.

  • 3.
    Anwar, Zahid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Dryout characteristics of natural and synthetic refrigerants in vertical mini-channelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Anwar, Zahid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Dryout characteristics of R1234yf in a vertical mini-channel2013In: Eurotherm seminar on convective heat transfer, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports dryout characteristics of R1234yf in a single, uniformly heated vertical stainless steel channel (d=1.6mm, Lh=245mm). Tests were conducted at 27 and 32 oC saturation temperature with 100-500 kg/m2s. Results of various operating parameters (mass flux, vapor quality, saturation temperature) were discussed in detail. Comparison with R134a revealed lower (about 18%) critical heat flux values with R1234yf.  Experimental findings were compared with various macro & micro scale correlations from the literature. Katto- Ohno and Wu’s correlations [7,8] accurately predicted the data from macro and micro scale models respectively.

  • 5.
    Anwar, Zahid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Flow boiling heat transfer of R600a in a uniformly heated smooth vertical minichannel2013In: Proceedings of the 13th UK Heat Transfer Conference Sept. 2-3, 2013, UKHTC2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refrigerant related environmental concerns forced legislative bodies to phase out some types of refrigerants namely CFC’s and HCFC’s and in the near future European legislation will be affecting HFCs as well. Natural refrigerants such as hydrocarbons can thus be expected to be more common as refrigerants in the future. Experimental studies with these fluids are important in understanding their performance and potential. Experimental findings on flow boiling of Isobutane in a uniformly heated, vertical, stainless steel test section (1.6 mm inside diameter and 245mm heated length) are reported in this article. Experiments were conducted at two saturation pressures corresponding to the temperature of 27 and 32 oC, with five mass fluxes in the range 50-350 kg/m2s and at outlet vapour qualities up till dryout conditions. Analysis showed that heat transfer was primarily controlled by the applied heat flux with insignificant effect of mass flux and vapor quality. The experimental results were compared with different macro and micro-scale correlations from the literature, and Owhaib, Liu & Winterton and Mikielewicz correlations quite accurately predicted the heat transfer data.

  • 6.
    Anwar, Zahid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Flow boiling of R1234yf in a uniform smooth vertical minichannel2013In: Science et Technique du Froid. Comptes Rendus/Refrigeration Science and Technology. Proceedings, 2013, Vol. 3, Institut International du Froid , 2013, p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes experimental findings on flow boiling heat transfer with R1234yf in a smooth, vertical stainless steel tube of 1.6 mm inner diameter and 245 mm heated length. Tests were conducted at two saturation pressures corresponding to saturation temperatures of 27 and 32 °C. Other operating parameters were: mass flux 100-500 kg/m²s with heat flux 3-65 kW/m² while quality change was up to 60%. The heat transfer coefficient appeared to be a strong function of the applied heat flux and insignificant effect of mass flux and quality was observed. Increase in saturation temperature/pressure increased the heat transfer performance. Experiments were repeated with R134a in the same test section to compare the two fluids, almost similar results were duplicated with R134a. Experimental results were compared with different correlations, Tran et al. (1996), Gungor and Winterton (1986) and Martín-Callizo et al. (2007) correlations accurately predicted the data.

  • 7.
    Anwar, Zahid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Flow boilingheat transfer and dryout characteristics of R600a in a vertical mini-channelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Anwar, Zahid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Rahmatollah, Khodabandeh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Dryout characteristics of R1234yf in a uniformly heated vertical mini-channel2013In: UK Heat Transfer Conference, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two phase heat transfer in small channels has many practical applications like, miniature heatexchangers, high powered electronics, miniature refrigeration system. Flow boiling in these compactchannels offers many potential advantages like, cope with high heat flux, less fluid inventory,compactness in size. It is well known that two phase heat transfer is drastically reduced when theheater surface becomes partially dry, for any reason. Moving beyond the point where this happensresults in a sharp increase in the temperature of the heated surface and eventually leads towardsburnout. So the upper operational limit (from safety and efficiency point of view) is extremelyimportant to be able to predict.Experimental findings on dryout of Isobutane in a uniformly heated, vertical, stainless steel testsection (1.6 mm inside diameter and 245mm heated length) are reported in this article. Experimentswere conducted at two saturation pressures corresponding to temperatures of 27 and 32 oC, with fivemass fluxes in the range 50-350 kg/m2s and with vapor fractions at the outlet up till dryout conditions.Analysis showed that the dryout heat flux increased with increasing mass flux, while no effect ofvarying the operating pressure was observed. Experimental results were compared with differentcorrelations from the literature, Wu [5], Mikielewicz [6], Callizo [3] and Katto-Ohno [4] correlationsquite satisfactorily predicted the data.

  • 9.
    Bitaraf Haghighi, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Nikkam, Nader
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Anwar, Zahid
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Lumbreras, Itziar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Behi, Mohammadreza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Mirmohammadi, Seyed A.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Poth, Heiko
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Cooling performance of nanofluids in a small diameter tube2013In: Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, ISSN 0894-1777, E-ISSN 1879-2286, Vol. 49, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports convective single-phase heat transfer performance in laminar flow for some selected nanofluids (NFs) in an open small diameter test section. A 0.50 mm inner diameter, 30 cm long stainless steel test section was used for screening single phase laminar convective heat transfer with water and five different water based NFs. Tested NFs were; Al2O3 (two types), TiO2 (two types) and CeO2 (one type), all 9 wt.% particle concentration. The effective thermal conductivity of the NFs were measured with Transient Plane Source (TPS) method and viscosity were measured with a rotating coaxial cylindrical viscometer. The obtained experimental results for thermal conductivity were in good agreement with the predicted values from Maxwell equation. The local Shah correlation, which is conventionally used for predicting convective heat transfer in laminar flow in Newtonian fluids with constant heat flux boundary condition, was shown to be valid for NFs. Moreover, the Darcy correlation was used to predict the friction factor for the NFs as well as for water. Enhancement in heat transfer for NFs was observed, when compared at equal Reynolds number, as a result of higher velocity or mass flow rate of the NFs at any given Reynolds number due to higher viscosity for NFs. However, when compared at equal pumping power no or only minor enhancement was observed.

  • 10.
    Haghighi, Ehsan Bitaraf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Anwar, Zahid
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Lumbreras, Itziar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Mirmohammadi, Seyed Aliakbar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Behi, Mohammadreza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Screening Single Phase Laminar Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in a Micro-tube2012In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 395, article id 012036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano scale solid particles dispersed in base fluids are a new class of engineered colloidal solutions called nanofluids. Several studies reported enhancement of heat transfer by using nanofluids. This article reports convective single-phase heat transfer coefficients in an open 30 cm long, 0.50 mm internal diameter stainless steel test section. The setup is used for screening single phase laminar convective heat transfer with water and three different nanofluids: water based Al2O3, ZrO2, and TiO2 (all with 9 wt% of particles). A syringe pump with adjustable pumping speed is used to inject fluids into the test section. Thirteen T-type thermocouples are attached on the outer surface of the test section to record the local wall temperatures. Furthermore, two T-type thermocouples are used to measure inlet and outlet fluid temperatures. A DC power supply is used to heat up the test section and a differential pressure transducer is used to measure the pressure drop across the tube. Furthermore, the effective thermal conductivities of these nanofluids are measured using the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method at a temperature range of 20 - 50 degrees C. The experimental average values of heat transfer coefficients for nanofluids are compared with water. Enhancement in heat transfer of nanofluids is observed only when compared at constant Reynolds number (Due to higher viscosity for nanofluids, higher velocity or mass flow rate is required for nanofluids to reach the same Reynolds number). The other methods of comparison: equal mass flow rate, volume flow rate, pressure drop and pumping power did not show any augmentation of the heat transfer coefficient for the tested nanofluids compared to water.

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