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  • 1.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Climate Information Crowdsourcing – A Bottom-up Practice for Sustainability and Growth2011In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on e-Society / [ed] Piet Kommers and Pedro Isaías, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a manifestation of globalization of environmental problems. Future challenges include global perspectives and policies addressing growth, sustainability, and equality at the same time. Recent developments within communication technologies, raising mass communication to a global level, may be regarded as an opportunity for new practices. This paper presents a bottom-up activity for sustainability, growth and equality, based on organized performances of citizens on very local level, while contributing to collection of climatic data requested by the global community. By conducting a comparative study between groups of children and adults from Sweden, and a second case of farmers in Sudan, all providing local weather information, this paper argues that crowdsourcing of climate data can make contributions to important climate data, environmental policy-making, sustainability, and public participation, while creating economic value and benefits to traditionally unequal groups, empowered while offering services – collection of environmental data - of value to those who are in power.

  • 2.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Collaborative Observations of Weather: A Weather Information Sharers’ Community of Practice2010In: 6th International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies, WEBIST 2010, 2010, p. 392-399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beside occasional disastrous impacts of weather, weather also affects daily life. Societal and environmental challenges of the future include both providing customized weather information in-time due to users’ needs, and detecting climate change and its impacts on land and ecosystems. The accuracy of weather and climatic information is, however, limited by spatial and temporal borders that need to be overriden. Also, weather information services cannot be fully customized, a problem arising from the spatial inaccuracy of weather forecasts and observations. Here, the role of social media, collective and civic intelligence and crowd sourcing should be investigated. This paper envisions a community of weather-interested users that provide usable observations of weather and environmental change, and presents a web-based interface for this community as a new method to collect weather and climatic information. User-generated weather observations can be processed based on principles of collective intelligence and co-creation, in order to improve, customize and personolize weather information.

  • 3.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    COLLABORATIVE OBSERVATIONS OF WEATHER A Weather Information Sharers' Community of Practice2010In: WEBIST 2010: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WEB INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL 2 / [ed] Filipe, J Cordeiro, J, INSTICC-INST SYST TECHNOLOGIES INFORMATION CONTROL & COMMUNICATION , 2010, p. 392-399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beside occasional disastrous impacts of weather, weather also affects daily life. Societal and environmental challenges of the future include both providing customized weather information in-time due to users' needs, and detecting climate change and its impacts on land and ecosystems. The accuracy of weather and climatic information is, however, limited by spatial and temporal borders that need to be overriden. Also, weather information services cannot be fully customized, a problem arising from the spatial inaccuracy of weather forecasts and observations. Here, the role of social media, collective and civic intelligence and crowd sourcing should be investigated. This paper envisions a community of weather-interested users that provide usable observations of weather and environmental change, and presents a web-based interface for this community as a new method to collect weather and climatic information. User-generated weather observations can be processed based on principles of collective intelligence and co-creation, in order to improve, customize and personalize weather information.

  • 4.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Customization by Sharing Weather Observations: A Study on Winter Road Weather Warnings2009In: 5th World Conference on Mass Customization and Personalization, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weather information is crucial to weather-dependent businesses. Consequences of weather also affect daily life. Societal and environmental savings can be made, if providing weather information in-time due to users’ exact needs. Studies on on-road behaviour show that people usually do not adjust their behaviour to adverse weather, even when acquired information about coming weather events. A new customization model is here suggested to be of major importance for raising the awareness about weather. Along with recent developments on communication technologies, a number of areas of interest for humankind are challenged to move on from traditional ways of collecting, processing and distributing information, realising the opportunities offered by participatory culture. The new customization model provides more reliable and accurate weather information, combining collective intelligence with a new approach within weather service development based on not only the weather information itself but the user’s recent weather experiences. The model was tested as road weather warning messages were provided during winter season 2008/09 to 71 users in Stockholm through SMS, e-mail and the web. The experiment created a community of people with interest in traffic and weather information - a starting point for a future collaborative, user-generated weather observation network.

  • 5.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Customized Weather Warnings - a User-Centred Approach2009In: 16th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), 2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on on-road behaviour show that drivers don’t follow recommendations and weather forecasts. Customization is here suggested to be of major importance for raising the awareness about weather. Along with developments on communication technologies, we are challenged to move on from traditional ways of collecting and distributing information. The paper suggests a weather information customization model for more reliable weather information. Customization was studied as weather warning messages - based on a user-centered perspective and taking the user’s recent observations into account - were provided to 70 drivers in Stockholm through SMS, e-mail and Internet, during winter season 2008/09.

  • 6.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Governmental Services and Social Media: When Weather Becomes Global2010In: IADIS International Conference e-Society / [ed] Piet Kommers and Pedro Isaías, 2010, p. 103-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first weather services commenced 150 years ago as small networks of telegraphic stations exchanged weather information in order to provide storm warnings. For larger scale operations, development of weather services and meteorology as a science, larger investments were necessary. The weather industry was shaped by the industrial information economy and for a long period of time dominated by governmental services, with the governmental sector as the sole investor. Eventually a new role – that of service providers – developed. However, different data access policies developed in the U.S. and Europe, resulting in widely different roles of the same agents, impacting local weather markets. Social media technology and changed communication practices of the 21st century, with millions of potential weather observation points, is here hypothesized to impact governmental services while re-shaping the market for weather and alert services. Additionally, the weather information market is transforming from a high entry barrier market to offering more sophisticated tools and data at low cost. The rise of new, and in particular social, media will inevitably impact the roles of different agents of the present weather market. The paper performs an analysis of the weather market and its societal benefits under different conditions and role distributions, and finally develops several future scenarios following from the inclusion of social media as an agent in the weather market.

  • 7.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    "Share weather": Design and evaluation of a new concept for sharing weather information2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Already centuries ago, humans had observed the weather in their everyday lives, seeking ways to understand, comprehend, and predict it. Until the present day, weather has had tremendous impacts on our lives and with climate change human civilizations as well. With new media technologies weather constitutes a part of the information services used by many residents of modern cities, people and businesses worldwide.

    The rise of Web 2.0, a cyberspace where individuals may connect and interact under new premises, bridging the size of weather systems, creates new opportunities to share, and potentially improve, weather information. This thesis develops a concept “share weather”, based on individuals who share local weather information using interactive media technologies. The concept is empirically tested in eight papers, and, finally, evaluated in the summary of the compilation thesis. Since it explores a new research field, the thesis develops a framework for studying “share weather” based on several theories on motivation and participation in networks. Key issues are associated with accuracy of user-generated observations of weather, methods and design used to employ them, and estimating the potential levels of user contributions. The focus of this thesis lies on motivation theory and design of a “share weather” artifact.

    Drawing on prior research on online networks, a model for studying “share weather” is constructed by merging several theories, with the aim of studying the problem from both the individual perspective, and the relationships and structures created by ties and interactions. In addition, the thesis attempts to thoroughly investigate the context of “share weather”, in order to contribute new knowledge to research on online networks, whereas a sustainability perspective is added and associated with the information domain. In order to test the feasibility of the “share weather” concept, several empirical studies based on a mixture of qualitative and quantitative analysis and design research science methodology were conducted during 2008-2011. The studies included six surveys and 17 interviews, involving four different user groups: over 440 traffic-interested individuals who received a weather service, 60 schoolchildren, 20 patients at a dental clinic, and 50 students. A separate study on African farmers was also analyzed.

    The findings of this thesis confirmed that, in online networks, individuals are often driven by intrinsic rewards, but this thesis highlights the strong effects of interactions and reciprocity of receiving useful information (weather forecasts) as rewards. In order to capture the range of drives of different instrumentality that might occur, in particular in networks for knowledge creation, a holistic approach can be recommended, where a larger scale of instrumentality is applied when studying online networks for knowledge creation.

    Other results, acquired by studying accuracy of user-generated observations, pointed at the powerful abilities possessed by all humans when they perceive weather through their senses. Sharing weather information can be realized using simple methods based on the human eye and perception. Collection methods, based on pictures and predefined text messages inspired by methods used previously in history, can easily be integrated with different interactive media technologies: web, mobile technology, and SMS.

    Based on the empirical results and design research methodology, the thesis concludes that “share weather” can contribute to improved weather information. Moreover, it is also suggested that “share weather” might serve some additional goals. The environmental challenges of the future imply that weather will become even more important and that active participation and information sharing is requested at all levels. Based on learning and social processes that can be activated in online networks, “share weather” might potentially contribute to increased public participation in environmental issues.

  • 8.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Social Media and Weather Surface Observing Technologies and Systems: Expanding the Synoptic Network through Web 2.02010In: World Meteorological Organization Technical Conference on Meteorological and Environmental Instruments and Methods of Observation, 2010Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Trust-Networks for Changing Driver Behavior During Severe Weather2011In: 18th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vulnerability of modern cities to severe weather, decreased traffic safety and efficiency, challenge conventional weather service providers while raising new demands on robustness of the society and weather information services. In this paper, some results from studies of a network for sharing weather information, are presented. The network, based on one meteorology expert and 440 volunteers interested in weather due to their daily dependence on traffic conditions, was used as a channel for providing early warnings on severe weather events predicted to occur in Stockholm. In several experiments performed in 2010, the participants’ behavior and evaluation of the service were measured through answers provided in several questionnaires on habits and behavior, additionally including users’ own weather reports provided on request of the expert. Based upon the acquired results, this paper suggests that social networks are a convenient channel and the best available method for efficient distribution and dissemination of weather alerts to the broad public.

  • 10.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Trust-networks for changing driver behaviour during severe weather2013In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 415-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on on-road behaviour imply that designing user-centred services is important for raising awareness about severe weather and adverse road conditions. Along with the developments of new communication technologies and practices, the research area of ITS is challenged to move on from traditional ways of collecting and distributing traffic weather information. This study presents two methods for potential improvements and personalisation of traffic weather information. The methods were demonstrated and evaluated by 440 respondents in Stockholm. Weather alerts were sent by SMS 12-48 h, up to a week, prior to the occurrence of severe weather events during 2008-2010. The service was personalised because of assumptions regarding perception and memory of weather, including user's recent observations. The second aspect of potential improvement was the introduction of a social network component, including user-generated local weather observations. The impact of the service was evaluated in a longitudinal study through a series of questionnaires on user behaviour and evaluation of the service. The combination of the two methods proved efficient as the amount of changed decisions was of considerable amplitude. A correlation between time of exposure and changed decisions implies that social components and interactivity may be a powerful tool in traffic weather services and ITS.

  • 11.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Who wants to "share weather"?: The impacts of off-line interactions on online behavior2014In: 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 1884-1893Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous experience on how individuals share user-generated content through online communities suggests that a larger fraction of the content is created by a strikingly small minority of the users. Findings on communities of widely different character within the wide spectrum of different content types being created online point at the importance of intrinsic motivation for active online participation. On the other hand, the impact of previous interactions, weak ties, and trust, is also acknowledged. This paper investigates how previous interactions off-line might impact individual behavior online. The paper studies a "share weather" network and contributions of different individuals who received benefits in terms of forecasts with the option of voluntarily improving the content of a weather service used by others. The relationship between the amount of previous interactions and the content they contributed is discussed, while borrowing ideas from both social network theory and individual-centered approaches based on uses and gratifications.

  • 12.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Why share weather?: Motivational model for “share weather” online communities and three empirical studies2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of “weatherwikis”- web 2.0 platforms for sharing weather information between individuals – is faced with several challenges. While some studies confirm satisfactory reliability of user-generated weather information, sources of motivations to contribute are yet unexplored. This paper provides a theoretical framework for weatherwikis, based on social capital theory, and three empirical studies that explore different contextual sources of motivation, of which compensation and ideology may be considered most interesting with the background of current motivational theories on networks of practice. The paper provides some results that, in contrast to established theories and findings on motivations driving networks of practice, suggest that extrinsic motivations may be essential, beside the recognized importance of social acceptance (e.g. enjoyment).

  • 13.
    Elevant, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Web Weather 2.0: Improving Weather Information with User-generated Observations2013In: AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1944-3900, E-ISSN 1944-3900, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 28-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing web weather 2.0, this paper suggests that active participation by civil society may arise through sharing of environmental data through observations of weather and other measurable variables in the environment performed by individuals. Collecting data from individuals is here suggested for improving weather data currently used by weather research centers and practitioners. Extending these current sets of weather data by using web 2.0 may address some issues stated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) regarding spatial and temporal resolutions of meteorological data including knowledge on different processes between the air and other environmental systems. To test the concept of web weather 2.0, the usability of weather data collected from individuals and the expected quantities of such data need to be determined. In addition, collection methods should be developed. Aiming at the design of an artifact that can meet these needs, this paper presents some important steps of the design process of a “share weather” system, including several demonstrations and experiments performed on different user groups, i.e. school children performing weather observations as a part of their daily tasks and education, and adults interested in weather due to their daily dependence on traffic conditions. This paper provides new knowledge about user-generated observations of weather, including quality and motivation to contribute, and guidance on how future systems for collection of environmental data from individuals may be created. After testing the feasibility of the designed “share weather” artifact, we conclude that the potential role of individuals in producing valuable information beneficial to society should be considered within several branches of environmental sciences as well as policy-making.

  • 14.
    Elevant, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Turpeinen, Marko
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Improving Weather and Climatic Information Quality with User-generated Observations2011In: 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS-44 2010, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest that active participation by civil society may arise through sharing of environmental data – observations of weather and other measurable variables in the environment, performed by individuals. A general model illustrating individual time resources is introduced, in order to map the two studied groups, i.e. school children and adults interested in weather due to their daily dependence on traffic conditions, and to further generalize the results to other groups in the society, regarding the potential role of the individual to produce valuable information beneficial to the society.

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