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  • 1. Aaltonen, J.
    et al.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Direct current (DC) resistivity measurements in long-term groundwater monitoring programmes2002In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 662-671Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Augustsson, A.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Uddh T.
    Jarsjö, J.
    Åström, M.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Destouni, G.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, p. 1420-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption.

  • 3. Blomqvist, P
    et al.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Espeby, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Brunberg, A-C
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Litoral produktion och sjöbäckens hydrologi2001Report (Other academic)
  • 4. Cesano, D.
    et al.
    Bagtzoglou, A. C.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Quantifying fractured rock hydraulic heterogeneity and groundwater inflow prediction in underground excavations: the heterogeneity index2003In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Cesano, Daniele
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bagtzouglou, A.
    Parameters regulating groundwater inflows into hard rock tunnels - a statistical study of the Bolmen tunnel in southern Sweden2000In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 153-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflow of groundwater into tunnels has always been a major technical and environmental problem for underground constructions. Predictions of groundwater inflow using analytical and numerical tools have often failed due to generalization and simplification of important parameters, especially in heterogeneous media such as crystalline rocks. In order to identify those parameters that regulate inflows, a systematic statistical analysis has been carried out at a tunnel constructed in the hard crystalline rocks of southern Sweden. The parameters included topographically, technically and geologically important variables in the hard crystalline rocks as well as in the overburden. The study revealed that many factors related to the rock quality, as well as to the overburden-such as the number of fractures, the thickness of the overburden, the soil type and the amount of pregrouting-regulated the leakage. It seems that a clear difference exists between the parameters that regulate the major and the minor leakage. The minor leakage is associated more with the drainage of the rock mass, while the major leakage is clearly associated with different parameters in the overburden. Unless the overburden anal the rock mass are considered as an interrelated system, predictions of groundwater inflows are likely to fail.

  • 6.
    Dehkordi, Seyed Emad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. University of Western Ontario, Canada.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Schincariol, Robert A.
    Effect of groundwater flow in vertical and horizontal fractures on borehole heat exchanger temperatures2015In: Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, ISSN 1435-9529, E-ISSN 1435-9537, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 479-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical closed loop systems, also known as borehole heat exchangers (BHEs), are a popular way of extracting the ground source heat energy. Primary factors affecting the performance of BHEs are the thermal and hydrogeological properties of the subsurface. Groundwater flow is known to potentially influence heat transport and system performance. The effect of groundwater movement is more commonly studied under homogeneous conditions. However, in heterogeneous fractured rocks, BHEs are more common than horizontal or open loops due to lack of sufficient soil layers and productive aquifers. The finite-element modelling shows that fractures can play an important role in BHE functioning. Especially, vertical open fractures (≥1 mm) near the borehole (≤10 m) can have a considerable impact. Although increase in fracture aperture continuously affects the subsurface and BHE temperatures, the increase in its effect progressively lessens. Depending on the distance and aperture, one major fracture influencing the BHE operation performance can be identified; yet a larger number of fractures may govern heat transport (thermal plume outline) and thermal recovery. Individually, horizontal fractures may have less influence than vertical fractures. However, as the density of horizontal fractures increases, their impact can be major, exceeding that of fracture aperture. In particular, we propose that measurements of rock thermal properties be combined with fracture mapping, to better analyse the thermal response testing results and integrate the configuration of fractures in design and layout of the BHE(s). This is particularly valid for (vertical) fractures not intersecting with the borehole.

  • 7.
    Dehkordi, Seyed Emad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Schincariol, Robert A.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Impact of Groundwater Flow and Energy Load on Multiple Borehole Heat Exchangers2014In: Ground Water, ISSN 0017-467X, E-ISSN 1745-6584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of array configuration, that is, number, layout, and spacing, on the performance of multiple borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) is generally known under the assumption of fully conductive transport. The effect of groundwater flow on BHE performance is also well established, but most commonly for single BHEs. In multiple-BHE systems the effect of groundwater advection can be more complicated due to the induced thermal interference between the boreholes. To ascertain the influence of groundwater flow and borehole arrangement, this study investigates single- and multi-BHE systems of various configurations. Moreover, the influence of energy load balance is also examined. The results from corresponding cases with and without groundwater flow as well as balanced and unbalanced energy loads are cross-compared. The groundwater flux value, 10−7 m/s, is chosen based on the findings of previous studies on groundwater flow interaction with BHEs and thermal response tests. It is observed that multi-BHE systems with balanced loads are less sensitive to array configuration attributes and groundwater flow, in the long-term. Conversely, multi-BHE systems with unbalanced loads are influenced by borehole array configuration as well as groundwater flow; these effects become more pronounced with time, unlike when the load is balanced. Groundwater flow has more influence on stabilizing loop temperatures, compared to array characteristics. Although borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems have a balanced energy load function, preliminary investigation on their efficiency shows a negative impact by groundwater which is due to their dependency on high temperature gradients between the boreholes and surroundings.

  • 8.
    Earon, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Dehkordi, Seyed Emad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Groundwater Resources Potential in Hard Rock Terrain: A Multivariate Approach2014In: Ground Water, ISSN 0017-467X, E-ISSN 1745-6584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater resources are limited and difficult to predict in crystalline bedrock due to heterogeneity and anisotropy in rock fracture systems. Municipal-level governments often lack the resources for traditional hydrogeological tests when planning for sustainable use of water resources. A new methodology for assessing groundwater resources potential (GRP) based on geological and topographical factors using principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was developed and tested. ANOVA results demonstrated statistically significant differences in classed variable groups as well as in classed GRP scores with regard to hydrogeological indicators, such as specific capacity (SC) and transmissivity. Results of PCA were used to govern the weight of the variables used in the prediction maps. GRP scores were able to identify 79% of wells in a verification dataset, which had SC values less than the total dataset median. GRP values showed statistically significant correlations using both parametric (using transformed datasets) and non-parametric methods. The method shows promise for municipal or regional level planning in crystalline terrains with high levels of heterogeneity and anisotropy as a hydrogeologically and statistically based tool to assist in assessing groundwater resources. The methodology is executed in a geographic information systems environment, and uses often readily available data, such as geological maps, feature maps and topography, and thus does not require expensive and time-consuming aquifer tests.

  • 9.
    Earon, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hydraulic heteroscedasticity and its impacton kinematic porosity in Swedish coastal terrains2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Earon, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Initial Effects of a New Highway Section on Soil and Groundwater2012In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 223, no 8, p. 5413-5432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impacts of 16 different contaminants originating from the E18 Highway (17,510 annual average daily traffic) were studied over the initial months of the highway's operational life. Investigative methods used included electrical resistivity surveying, water chemistry analyses, soil analyses, distribution modeling, and transportation modeling of contaminants. The study conclusively showed a year-round infiltration due to melting of the snowpack from road salt, and a strong preferential, anthropogenic pathway due to increased hydraulic conductivities of road construction materials relative to in situ soils. The resistivity surveys produced values well below the expected values for the highway materials, indicating increased ionic content within the unsaturated zone. Time lapse resistivity modeling showed a clear downwards spreading of contamination from the roadway to subsurface distances greater than 5 m. Elevated concentrations of nearly every studied contaminant relative to baseline values were observed, with many metal concentrations within the snow pack averaging values in excess of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's groundwater limitations. Distribution modeling demonstrated a potential offset of peak values from the road surface due to plowing and splash transport processes, and indicated different distribution behavior during winter months than during summer months. One-dimensional transport modeling demonstrated the importance of adsorption and other retentive factors to the migration of contaminants to groundwater and provided an estimate for potential long-term contaminant concentrations.

  • 11.
    Gontier, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Areell sårbarhetsbedömning för grundvattenpåverkan av vägföreningar2003Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Jamali, Imran Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Dehkordi, Seyed Emad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Zou, Liangchao
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Groundwater flow model of a subsurface dam at Lillsved, Stockholm, SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Jamali, Imran Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Shafique, M
    A spatial multi-criteria analysis approach for locating suitable sites for construction of subsurface dams in northern Pakistan2014In: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650, Vol. 28, no 14, p. 5157-5174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pakistan is an agricultural country with an increasing interest for hydropower. Water management problems such as sedimentation and evaporation have been of high concern for surface water reservoirs for many years. Therefore, groundwater storage through subsurface dams could be promising, especially considering the monsoon rainfall and seasonal river flows in Pakistan. The paper aims to develop and test a methodology to locate suitable sites for construction of subsurface dams using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) in the northern parts of Pakistan. For the study, spatial data on geology, slope, land cover, soil depth and topographic wetness index (TWI) was used. Two weighting techniques, i.e. the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the factor interaction method (FIM), were employed and compared. The sensitivity of the two methods as well as of the model parameters was analysed. The suitability map derived from AHP yielded about 3 % (16 km(2)) of the total area as most suitable, about 4 % (22 km(2)) as moderately suitable and about 0.8 % (5 km(2)) as least suitable. The suitability map derived from FIM identified about 2.7 % (14 km(2)) of the total area as most suitable, about 4 % (22 km(2)) as moderately suitable and about 1 % (7 km(2)) as least suitable. The sensitivity analyses suggested that AHP was a more robust weighting technique than FIM and that land cover was the most sensitive factor. The methodology presented here shows promising results and could be used in early planning to locate suitable sites for construction of subsurface dams.

  • 14.
    Jamali, Imran Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Locating suitable sites for the construction of subsurface dams using GIS2013In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 2511-2525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsurface dams constitute an affordable and effective method for the sustainable development and management of groundwater resources when constructed on suitable sites. Such dams have rarely been constructed in crystalline rock areas and to best of our knowledge, geographic information system (GIS) has never been used in any methodology for locating suitable sites for constructing these dams. This paper presents a new methodology to locate suitable sites for the construction of subsurface dams using GIS software supported by groundwater balance modelling in a study area Boda-Kalvsvik, Sweden. Groundwater resources were calculated based on digitized geological data and assumptions regarding stratigraphic layering taken from well archive data and geological maps. These estimates were then compared with future extractions for domestic water supply using a temporally dynamic water balance model. Suitability analyses for subsurface dams were based on calculated topographic wetness index (TWI) values and geological data, including stratigraphic information. Groundwater balance calculations indicated that many of the most populated areas were susceptible to frequent water supply shortages. Of the 34 sub-catchments within the study area: ten were over-extracted, nine did not have any water supply demand at all, one was self-sufficient and the remaining 14 were able to meet the water supply demand with surplus storage capacity. Six suitable sites for the construction of subsurface dams were suggested in the vicinity of the over-extracted sites based on suitability analysis and groundwater balance estimates. The new methodology shows encouraging results for regions with humid climate but having limited natural water storage capacities. The developed methodology can be used as a preliminary planning step for subsurface dam construction, establishing a base for more detailed field investigations.

  • 15. Jyväsjärvi, J.
    et al.
    Marttila, H.
    Rossi, P. M.
    Ala-Aho, P.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Nisell, J.
    Backman, B.
    Ilmonen, J.
    Virtanen, R.
    Paasivirta, L.
    Britschgi, R.
    Kløve, B.
    Muotka, T.
    Climate-induced warming imposes a threat to north European spring ecosystems2015In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 4561-4569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in climate change effects on groundwater has increased dramatically during the last decade. The mechanisms of climate-related groundwater depletion have been thoroughly reviewed, but the influence of global warming on groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) remains poorly known. Here we report long-term water temperature trends in 66 northern European cold-water springs. A vast majority of the springs (82%) exhibited a significant increase in water temperature during 1968-2012. Mean spring water temperatures were closely related to regional air temperature and global radiative forcing of the corresponding year. Based on three alternative climate scenarios representing low (RCP2.6), intermediate (RCP6) and high-emission scenarios (RCP8.5), we estimate that increase in mean spring water temperature in the region is likely to range from 0.67 °C (RCP2.6) to 5.94 °C (RCP8.5) by 2086. According to the worst-case scenario, water temperature of these originally cold-water ecosystems (regional mean in the late 1970s: 4.7 °C) may exceed 12 °C by the end of this century. We used bryophyte and macroinvertebrate species data from Finnish springs and spring-fed streams to assess ecological impacts of the predicted warming. An increase in spring water temperature by several degrees will likely have substantial biodiversity impacts, causing regional extinction of native, cold-stenothermal spring specialists, whereas species diversity of headwater generalists is likely to increase. Even a slight (by 1 °C) increase in water temperature may eliminate endemic spring species, thus altering bryophyte and macroinvertebrate assemblages of spring-fed streams. Climate change-induced warming of northern regions may thus alter species composition of the spring biota and cause regional homogenization of biodiversity in headwater ecosystems.

  • 16.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Briel, Annemarie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    On the utilization of hydrological modelling for road drainage design under climate and land use change2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 475, no 15, p. 97-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road drainage structures are often designed using methods that do not consider process-based representations of a landscape's hydrological response. This may create inadequately sized structures as coupled land cover and climate changes can lead to an amplified hydrological response. This study aims to quantify potential increases of runoff in response to future extreme rain events in a 61 km2 catchment (40% forested) in southwest Sweden using a physically-based hydrological modelling approach. We simulate peak discharge and water level (stage) at two types of pipe bridges and one culvert, both of which are commonly used at Swedish road/stream intersections, under combined forest clear-cutting and future climate scenarios for 2050 and 2100. The frequency of changes in peak flow and water level varies with time (seasonality) and storm size. These changes indicate that the magnitude of peak flow and the runoff response are highly correlated to season rather than storm size. In all scenarios considered, the dimensions of the current culvert are insufficient to handle the increase in water level estimated using a physically-based modelling approach. It also appears that the water level at the pipe bridges changes differently depending on the size and timing of the storm events. The findings of the present study and the approach put forward should be considered when planning investigations on and maintenance for areas at risk of high water flows. In addition, the research highlights the utility of physically-based hydrological models to identify the appropriateness of road drainage structure dimensioning.

  • 17.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Nickman, Alireza
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    A method for mapping flood hazard along roads2014In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 133, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways.

  • 18.
    Karlson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Design and evaluation of railway corridors based on spatial ecological and geological criteria2016In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 46, p. 207-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport infrastructure is closely linked to several sustainability issues of main policy relevance, and significant impacts on biodiversity as well as resource use and construction costs relate to the corridor design and location in the landscape. The aim of this study was to develop methods for railway corridor planning, in which corridor design and location would be based on important ecological and geological sustainability criteria. The method, an MCA framework including both spatial and non-spatial MCA, was demonstrated on a railway planning proposition in an urbanising area north of Stockholm, Sweden. Alternative spatial alignments for 6 railway corridors were derived based on criteria representing biodiversity, resource efficiency and costs, developed from ecological and geological knowledge, data and models. The method identified a study area specific positive synergy between ecological and geological sustainability criteria. The evaluation part of the methodology could furthermore identify uncertainties in the input data and assumptions and conflicts between ecological criteria. In order to arrive at a well-informed decision support system, the criteria as well as the decision rules employed could be further elaborated. Other relevant sustainability issues would also need to be integrated, such as cultural landscapes, recreation, and other ecosystem services. Still, arriving at a corridor design informed by the ecological and geological conditions in the planned area, as demonstrated by this study, could improve the sustainability performance of transport infrastructure planning.

  • 19.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ali, Imran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Earon, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Comparison of methods for predicting regolith thickness in previously glaciated terrain, Stockholm, Sweden2014In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 226, p. 116-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about regolith thickness is important in several civil and environmental engineering fields. However, subsurface characteristics such as regolith thickness are difficult to determine through surface investigations and maps at regional scales. This paper presents four methods for estimating regolith thickness in a GIS environment for previously glaciated terrain with high frequency of rock outcrops: linear regression (LR) using topographical covariates; inverse distance weighting (IOW) interpolation of regolith thickness point data from well drillings: a trigonometrical approach (TA) developed for this study which uses outcrop slopes and distance between outcrops; and a simplified regolith model (SRM). The SRM is a model modified from TA which estimates the regolith thickness based on outcrops, slopes and the distance to outcrops in eight directions. The methods were compared for three study areas (Tyreso, Vallentuna and Osteraker) in Stockholm County, Sweden. Based on the results in this paper, LR proved to be the most accurate method for regolith thickness estimation, measured through root mean square error values. Whereas IDW was the most accurate method in terms of error within 2 m, which would make it a suitable model if and when large datasets of regolith point data are available. When drilling data is scarce then both the TA and SRM methods can be used for regolith estimations. However, the SRM proved to be a more accurate regolith thickness model compared to TA. SRM shows promising results and could be used at a preliminary stage in engineering projects where little or no data is available prior to detailed field investigations in previously glaciated terrain.

  • 20.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jamali, Imran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Earon, Roberg
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Simplified Regolith Model (SRM): A GIS approach to estimate regolith thickness using outcrop slopes and distance to outcrops2015In: Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 17, EGU2015-10232, 2015, EGU General Assembly, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The impact of expert knowledge on natural hazard susceptibility assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Natural hazard susceptibility assessment for road planning using spatial multi-criteria analysis2017In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 823-851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgements for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) approach using hydrological, geological and land use factors. To utilize SMCA for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was adopted where expert judgements were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods weighted linear combination (WLC) using equal weights and factor interaction method (FIM). Results showed that inundation received the highest susceptibility. Using expert judgement showed to perform almost the same as Equal weighting where the difference in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. The results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through SMCA is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to the selection and use of decision rules and criteria. A natural hazard SMCA could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  • 23.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve W
    Natural hazard susceptibility assessment for road planning using spatial multi-criteria analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to a society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are more difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgements for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) approach using hydrological, geological and land use factors. To utilize SMCA for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was adopted where expert judgements were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods Weighted linear combination (WLC) using equal weights and Factor interaction method (FIM). Results showed that inundation received the highest percentage of susceptibility. Using expert judgement showed to perform almost same as Equal weighting where the difference (i.e. average) in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. Results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through SMCA is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to selection and use of decision rule and criteria. A natural hazard SMCA could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  • 24.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Toller, Susanna
    Life cycle assessment in road infrastructure planning using spatial geological data2017In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1302-1317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to outline and demonstrate a new geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for utilising spatial geological data in three dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) to improve estimates on earthworks during early stages of road infrastructure planning. Methods: This was undertaken by using three main methodological steps: mass balance calculation, life cycle inventory analysis and spatial mapping of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use. The mass balance calculation was undertaken in a GIS environment using two assumptions of geological stratigraphy for two proposed alternative road corridors in Sweden. The estimated volumes of excavated soil, blasted rock and filling material were later multiplied with the GHG emission and energy use factors for these processes, to create spatial data and maps in order to show potential impacts of the studied road corridors. The proposed GIS-based approach was evaluated by comparing with actual values received after one alternative was constructed. Results and discussion: The results showed that the estimate of filling material was the most accurate (about 9 % deviation from actual values), while the estimate for excavated soil and blasted rock resulted in about 38 and 80 % deviation, respectively, from the actual values. It was also found that the total volume of excavated and ripped soils did not change when accounting for stratigraphy. Conclusions: The conclusion of this study was that more information regarding embankment height and actual soil thickness would further improve the model, but the proposed GIS-based approach shows promising results for usage in LCA at an early stage of road infrastructure planning. Thus, by providing better data quality, GIS in combination with LCA can enable planning for a more sustainable transport infrastructure.

  • 25.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Toller, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Life cycle assessment in road infrastructure planning using spatial geological dataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Toller, Susanna
    Swedish Transport Agency.
    Towards a better planning process: Can geological data be useful?2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Knutsson, Gert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Livets källa2008In: Geologiskt Forum, ISSN 1104-4721, no 57, p. 11-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Knutsson, Gert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Radon concentrations in drilled wells in the Stockholm region of Sweden2002In: Bulletin. Norges geologiske undersøkelse, ISSN 0332-5768, no 439, p. 79-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Lundmark, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Analysis of groundwater levels in urban areas2002In: Nordic Hydrological Conference / [ed] Killingtveit, A.,, Nordic Hydrological Programme , 2002, p. 849-858Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Underground constructions in urban areas often lead to environmental impact such as decline of the groundwater levels, which in turn may give subsidence of ground, decay of foundations and sometimes impact on vegetation. Measuring of groundwater levels is an important part of the monitoring programmes at major soil and rock construction projects in urban areas. The aim of the research project has been to define the required measurement period before the start of the construction project and to define the impact on the groundwater levels using non-equivalent measurements from monitoring programmes in an urban area. In this paper various statistical methods, such as a modified double mass method and a stepwise regression method, are used for the analyses of the groundwater levels. The project was carried out in relation to the major ring road construction project in the Stockholm area (Norra Länken). The research project shows that observation tubes within urban areas often have a strongly complex fluctuation pattern of groundwater levels, which requires several years of pre-construction measurements in order to be useable in a monitoring programme. Tubes in more natural terrains, parks etc, usually require a measurement period of 15-18 month, using monthly measurements. The methods used also rely on a careful selection of reference sites.

  • 30.
    Lundmark, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chloride deposition and distribution in soils along a deiced highway: assessment using different methods of measurement2007In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 182, no 1-4, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison was made of the ability of three different methods to describe the deposition and distribution of chloride from deicing salt in the roadside environment along a highway: direct sampling of airborne deposition (including snow ploughing) in containers; soil sampling and analysis of chloride content in the topsoil; and direct current resistivity measurements. Each method showed a distribution with significant decreasing values with increasing distance from the road. Two transport mechanisms, splash and spray, were identified when describing the airborne deposition. A mathematical model that includes these two transport mechanisms was adopted, and the total amount of airborne deposition on the ground 0-100 m from the road was estimated to approximately 45% of the salt applied on the road. The main part of the chloride spread by air and ploughing ended up within 10 m from the road. The soil sampling and resistivity measurements also showed the highest impact within this distance. The variation in chloride content in the soils reflected a poorer drainage ability of fine-grained soils compared to more coarse-grained soils. The resistivity measurements represented an integrated value of the differences in geology, water content and salinity. The increase in resistivity with distance from road in the topsoil was interpreted to reflect the distribution of chloride from deicing salt.

  • 31.
    Lundmark, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Spatial pattern of deicing salt deposition: a comparison of different methods of measurementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Lång, Lars-Ove
    et al.
    SGU.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mellqvist, Elin
    SGU.
    Ojala, Lena
    SGU.
    Maxe, Lena
    SGU.
    Thorsbrink, Magdalena
    SGU.
    Miljöuppföljning av grundvatten i kustområden - statusbeskrivning och diskussionsunderlag2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Nickman, Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    The impact of roads on hydrological responses: A case study in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A method engaged for simulating and assessing the alterations excreted by road topography within watersheds and estimating the road effects on hydrologic responses. The method uses Geographic Information System (GIS) to allocate and eliminate roads from the elevation data. HEC-HMS was used to model surface and near surface hydrological responses of watersheds with roads and without roads in response to three storms with different intensities. A detailed study of the simulated flow duration curves showed differences between 20 watersheds for three different storms based on a digital elevation data with and without roads. To compare flow duration curves, L-moment ratios were calculated and their variation compared. An increase in peak flow and reduced delay occurred with increased storm intensity. Variations of the L-moment ratios were larger in larger watersheds. However, the impact of the roads was much smaller and only possible to identify by detailed examination of statistical descriptors. The results are useful to gain a better estimating of the effect of road topography in hydrological processes and responses especially in high storm intensities.

  • 34.
    Nickman, Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Simulating the impact of roads on hydrological responses: examples from Swedish terrain2016In: Hydrology Research, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 767-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the potential impacts of road topography on hydrologic responses at the watershed scale were simulated. The method considered used a geographic information system to identify road embankment locations and subsequently remove them from the baseline elevation data. Starting from both the 'with' and 'without' road elevation model, the surface and near-surface hydrological responses for 20 watersheds in Sweden were modeled in HEC-HMS under three different storm intensities. Flow duration curves (FDCs) were used to compare hydrologic responses for the different modeling scenarios under the various storm intensities. Specifically, L-moment ratios of the FDCs were calculated and their variation compared. Results showed an increase in peak flow amounts and reduction in time to peak with increased storm intensity. In addition, variations of the L-moment ratios were larger in larger watersheds. However, the impact of the roads on the modeled hydrologic responses was much smaller than anticipated and only identifiable through detailed examination of the L-moment statistical descriptors. Our findings not only highlight the potential impacts of road topography on watershed-scale hydrology (especially concerning high intensity storms) but also provide a methodology for detecting the even rather small changes that could manifest, for example, under coupled road network and climatic changes.

  • 35.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Estimating groundwater resources in hardrock areas - a water balance approach2002In: Bulletin. Norges geologiske undersøkelse, ISSN 0332-5768, no 439, p. 15-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Några hydrogeologiska undersökningsmetoder för bestämning av grundvattenbildning och grundvattenströmning2004In: Kunskapsläget på kärnavfallsområdet 2004, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2004, p. 209-251Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Prediction of the impact on groundwater in soil by tunnel construction in hard rock using GIS2000In: Nordic Hydrological Conference 2000 / [ed] Nilsson, T., Uppsala: Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, 2000, p. 441-448Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Prognosticering av grundvattenpåverkan i jord vid byggande i berg - exempel från Hallandsås2001In: SveBeFo Bergmekanikdag i Stockholm 14 mars 2001 / [ed] Franzén, T., SveBeFo , 2001, p. 173-187Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Prognosticering av grundvattenpåverkan i jord vid byggande i berg – exempel från Hallandsås.2001In: Bergmekanikdag, Stockholm: Stiftelse Bergteknisk Forskning (SveBeFo) , 2001, p. 173-187Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Physics.
    Salinization of groundwater in coastal areas2005In: Groundwater under Threat / [ed] Johansson, B., Sellberg, B., The Swedish Research Council Formas , 2005, p. 45-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Olofsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Physics.
    Andersson, Erika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Groundwater quality problems in housing areas in hard rock: an example from eastern Sweden2005In: Proceedings of the Fennoscandian 3rd Regional Workshop on Hardrock Hydrogeology / [ed] Rönkä, E., Niini, H., Suokko, T., Edita Publishing Oy, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project was to analyse the infl uence of small-scale sewage treatment on the

    groundwater quality in areas with scarcity of freshwater. The content of chloride, nitrate,

    heterotrophic bacteria and coliforms was analysed in 42 wells at the island of Ramsö, eastern

    Sweden. Statistical analyses were carried out as well as calculations of chloride vulnerability

    and a groundwater balance calculation. The study showed that the groundwater quality

    was affected by the type and location of the sewage systems in various natural conditions

    and that it is possible to develop a model for nitrate contamination on drilled wells taking

    several signifi cant natural and technical factors into consideration.

  • 42.
    Olofsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Fleetwood, Åke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Vatten och avlopp i skärgårdsmiljö - problem och möjligheter2000In: Skärgårdsmiljöer - nuläge, problem och möjligheter. / [ed] von Numers, Mikael, Åbo: Nordiska Ministerrådets Skärgårdssamarbete , 2000, p. 75-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Olofsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Henkel, Herbert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Knutsson, Stigh
    KASAM, Kärnavfallsrådet.
    Stigh, Jimmy
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Några geologiska, geodynamiska och geofysiska undersökningsmetoder vid lokalisering av underjordsanläggningar i hårt berg2004In: Kunskapsläget på kärnavfallsområdet 2004, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2004, p. 139-207Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Olofsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Knutsson, Gert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Grundvatten i hårt berg – en analys av kunskapsläget2001In: Kunskapsläget på kärnavfallsområdet 2001, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2001, p. 113-189Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Olofsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jernberg, H.
    Rosenqvist, A.
    Tracing leachates at waste sites using geophysical and geochemical modelling2006In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 720-732Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Olofsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Karlberg, L
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olsson, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Naturresurskunskap för samhällsbyggande: Kurskompendium för Samhällsbyggnadsprocessen2006Other (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Olofsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Physics.
    Lundmark, Annika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Grundvattenförorening vid trafikolyckor: Utveckling av ny bedömningsmetodik2010Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Olofsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lundmark, Annika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Monitoring the impact of de-icing salt on roadside soils with time-lapse resistivity measurements2009In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 217-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring systems along roads are needed to facilitate decisions on improving protection of water resources and decreasing the impact of road-related pollutants on the roadside environment. This paper presents a monitoring system using permanently installed electrodes and monthly measurements of resistivity at a motorway in Sweden with heavy loads of de-icing salt. A significant increase in resistivity in the vadose zone with increasing distance from the road was shown in both sand and glacial till areas during the whole year. By measuring temporal variations in a less affected environment further from the road, a distinction could be made between more natural variations and variations due to de-icing salt and melting of roadside snowbanks. The highest resistivities occurred in October-November and the lowest in January-March, while the more natural resistivities showed an opposing temporal variation. The difference was up to 35% on a log-scale in the sand area during the latter period. Hence, the time-lapse resistivity measurements clearly showed a strong influence of de-icing salt on roadside soils and groundwater during winter and spring. The measurement system and the analysis methods proved useful for monitoring both the spatial and seasonal variation in resistivity.

  • 49.
    Olofsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Rasul, Hedi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lundmark, Annika
    Spread of Water-Borne Pollutants at Traffic Accidents on Roads2017In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 228, no 9, article id 323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accidents sometimes lead to the spread of hazardous compounds to the environment. Accidental spills of hazardous compounds on roads in the vicinity of vulnerable objects such as water supplies pose a serious threat to water quality and have to be assessed. This study compared three different assessment methods, electrical resistivity measurements, analytical flow calculations, and 1D and 2D dynamic flow modeling, to describe rapid transport processes in the road shoulder and roadside verge after a major spill. The infiltration and flow paths of water-borne substances were described during simulated discharge of pollutants on different road types. Full-scale tracer tests using sodium chloride were carried out at nine different road locations in Sweden. Analysis of grain size distribution and infiltrometer tests were carried out at the road shoulder and verges. The pathways and travel times were traced using resistivity measurements and 3D inverse modeling. The resistivity measurements were compared to analytical flow calculations and 1D and 2D dynamic modeling. All measurement sites were highly heterogeneous, which caused preferential flow. Vertical flow velocities of 1.4-8.6 x 10(-4) m/s were measured. The results of the analytical calculations and flow modeling were of the same order of magnitude. The measurements showed that almost all infiltration goes directly into the road embankment, hence the composition and structure of the built-up road must be considered. The non-destructive resistivity measurements and 3D modeling provided useful information for clarifying the infiltration and flow pattern of water-borne compounds from road runoff.

  • 50.
    Olofsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Rönkä, Esa
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    Small-scale Water Supply in Urban Hard Rock Areas2007In: Urban Water Management: is there a best practice? / [ed] Elzbieta Plaza, The Baltic University Press , 2007, , p. 48p. 21-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
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