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  • 1. Beijer, K.
    et al.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Shaik, S.
    Lindberg, R. H.
    Brunström, B.
    Brandt, I.
    Removal of pharmaceuticals and unspecified contaminants in sewage treatment effluents by activated carbon filtration and ozonation: Evaluation using biomarker responses and chemical analysis2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, p. 342-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traces of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and other chemicals are demonstrated in effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they may affect quality of surface water and eventually drinking water. Treatment of effluents with granular activated carbon (GAC) or ozone to improve removal of APIs and other contaminants was evaluated at two Swedish STPs, Käppala and Uppsala (88 and 103 APIs analyzed). Biomarker responses in rainbow trout exposed to regular and additionally treated effluents were determined. GAC and ozone treatment removed 87–95% of the total concentrations of APIs detected. In Käppala, GAC removed 20 and ozonation (7 g O3/m3) 21 of 24 APIs detected in regular effluent. In Uppsala, GAC removed 25 and ozonation (5.4 g O3/m3) 15 of 25 APIs detected in effluent. GAC and ozonation also reduced biomarker responses caused by unidentified pollutants in STP effluent water. Elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in gills was observed in fish exposed to effluent in both STPs. Gene expression analysis carried out in Käppala showed increased concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP1As and CYP1C3) transcripts in gills and of CYP1As in liver of fish exposed to effluent. In fish exposed to GAC- or ozone-treated effluent water, gill EROD activity and expression of CYP1As and CYP1C3 in gills and liver were generally equal to or below levels in fish held in tap water. The joint application of chemical analysis and sensitive biomarkers proved useful for evaluating contaminant removal in STPs with new technologies.

  • 2. Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Hammaren, Rickard
    Pal, Chandan
    Ostman, Marcus
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Fick, Jerker
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Tysklind, Mats
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Elucidating selection processes for antibiotic resisitance in sewage treatment plants using metagenomics2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 572, p. 697-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) have repeatedly been suggested as hotspots for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A critical question still unanswered is if selection pressures within STPs, caused by residual antibiotics or other co-selective agents, are sufficient to specifically promote resistance. To address this, we employed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of samples from different steps of the treatment process in three Swedish STPs. In parallel, concentrations of selected antibiotics, biocides and metals were analyzed. We found that concentrations of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin in the influent were above predicted concentrations for resistance selection, however, there was no consistent enrichment of resistance genes to any particular class of antibiotics in the STPs, neither for biocide and metal resistance genes. The most substantial change of the bacterial communities compared to human feces occurred already in the sewage pipes, manifested by a strong shift from obligate to facultative anaerobes. Through the treatment process, resistance genes against antibiotics, biocides and metals were not reduced to the same extent as fecal bacteria. The OXA-48 gene was consistently enriched in surplus and digested sludge. We find this worrying as OXA-48, still rare in Swedish clinical isolates, provides resistance to carbapenems, one of our most critically important classes of antibiotics. Taken together, metagenomics analyses did not provide clear support for specific antibiotic resistance selection. However, stronger selective forces affecting gross taxonomic composition, and with that resistance gene abundances, limit interpretability. Comprehensive analyses of resistant/non-resistant strains within relevant species are therefore warranted. 

  • 3. Björlenius, Berndt
    Avloppsreningsverket-hur fungerar det?2005In: Läkemedel och miljö / [ed] Apoteket AB, Stockholm: Apoteket AB , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Co..
    Avloppsverkens förmåga att ta hand om läkemdelsrester och andra farliga ämnen. Rapport 57942008Report (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Company.
    En jämförelse av olika reningsmetoder för avskiljning av läkemedelsrester: Resultat från Stockholm Vattens projekt 2009In: Den Nordiske / Foredrag, Skanderborg: Dansk Vand- og Spildevandsforening , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Company.
    Läkemedelsrester i Stockholms vattenmiljö-förekomst, förebyggande åtgärder och rening av avloppsvatten2010Report (Refereed)
  • 7. Ekman, M.
    et al.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Co.
    Andersson, M.
    Control of the aeration volume in an activated sludge process using supervisory control strategies2006In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 1668-1676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a simulation benchmark of a pre-denitrifying activated sludge process is utilized in order to evaluate a supervisory aeration volume control strategy. The aeration volume control strategy has also been evaluated in a pilot plant at Hammarby Sjostad in Stockholm, Sweden. The main idea has been to let the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in some of the aerated compartments be determined by a higher level controller driven by the DO concentration in other compartments. In this way, only sensors for measuring the DO concentrations are needed for the decision of time varying DO set-points. The high reliability of such sensors implies robust input values for the proposed control strategy. Moreover, it is known that the respiration rate is affected by the content of substrate and nitrogen in the compartments; therefore, the suggested manipulations of the DO set-points are indirectly determined by the current load into the plant. Compared to constant DO control and a supervisory DO set-point control strategy based on ammonium measurements in the last aerobic compartment, the suggested aeration volume control strategy could reduce the effluent nitrate and ammonium concentrations significantly without increasing the aeration energy.

  • 8. Flyborg, L.
    et al.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Persson, K. M.
    Identification of important physiochemical properties for removal of pharmaceutical residuals in treated wastewater by nanofiltration2013In: AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference and Exposition 2013, 2013, p. 68-73Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Flyborg, L.
    et al.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Water Resource Engineering, Lund University.
    Persson, K.M.
    Can treated municipal wastewater be reused after ozonation and nanofiltration?: Results from a pilot study of pharmaceutical remval in Henriksdal WWTP, Sweden2010In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 1113-1120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of nanofiltration (NF) and ozonation for indirect potable reuse in terms of pharmaceutical residuals. To simultaneously obtain a reasonable retentate volume for further treatment, the tests were performed at a high volume reduction factor (VRF) of 60. The feed to the pilot plant was the effluent from a BNR plant with a final process step of chemical precipitation and rapid sand filtration. Two tests were performed 1) nanofiltration of treated wastewater followed by ozonation and 2) ozonated treated wastewater as feed to NF. Of the 95 pharmaceuticals analysed, three were not removed to the quantification limit, oxazepam in the first test and glibenclamide and ketoprofen in the second. The water quality after the two processes was similar, with an overall removal of pharmaceutical residuals of 99%. There are two advantages of ozonated water as feed to NF-a higher specific flux of 35% and a potential removal of ozonation by-products. The retention of some pharmaceuticals by NF was lower than anticipated, the major removal occurring in the ozonation. A tighter NF or RO is required in order to achieve higher pharmaceutical retention for further treatment of the retentate.

  • 10. Flyborg, L.
    et al.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Ullner, M.
    Persson, K. M.
    A PLS model for predicting rejection of trace organic compounds by nanofiltration using treated wastewater as feed2017In: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 174, p. 212-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a Partial Least Squares Projection of Latent Structures (PLS) model has been developed for predicting the rejection of pharmaceutical residuals by nanofiltration (NF) using treated municipal wastewater as feed. The objective was to provide a practical tool for wastewater reuse facilities for estimating the rejection of emerging organic contaminants based on their physiochemical characteristics. The model was developed by identifying the important physiochemical properties of pharmaceutical residuals for rejection by NF. The investigated pharmaceuticals were those present in the effluent from Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), Sweden. The rejection, at volume reduction factors (VRF) ranging from 2 to 20, was examined in a NF pilot plant at two occasions. The important variables for rejection by NF were, in descending order: polarizability, globularity, ratio hydrophobic to polar water accessible surface area and compound charge. Two studies were performed with a time interval of about a year with different wastewater matrices and age of membranes. For different VRFs, but in the same study, the model produced consistent predicted rejections. For the same VRF, but in the different studies, the regression lines were almost parallel, but with a deviation of about 7% for the predicted values. Most of the compounds were within the 95% prediction interval. The model also proved to be able to predict rejection using data from the literature. This confirms that the predictive PLS model can estimate the rejection albeit, with limitations. Generally the proposed predictive rejection model is most likely valid but the model coefficients need to be determined for each individual WWTP or wastewater reuse facility.

  • 11. Gunnarsson, L.
    et al.
    Adolfsson-Erici, M.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Co..
    Rutgersson, C.
    Förlin, L.
    Larsson, D.G.J.
    Comparison of six different sewage treatment processes-Reduction of estrogenic substances and effects on gene expression in exposed male fish2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 19, p. 5235-5242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treated sewage effluents often contain a mixture of estrogenic compounds in low concentrations. The total combined activity of these, however, may be sufficiently high to affect the reproduction of aquatic vertebrates. The introduction of advanced treatment technologies has been suggested as a way to remove micro-contaminants, including estrogenic substances. In this study, one municipal influent was treated with six different processes in parallel on a semi-large scale in order to assess their potential to reduce substances that could contribute to estrogenic effects in male fish. The effluent from a conventional, activated sludge treatment line was compared to a similarly treated effluent with a final sand-filtering step. The addition of ozonation (15 g O3/m3), a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) or both in combination was also evaluated. There was also a separate treatment line that was based on a membrane bioreactor. A small battery of hepatic estrogen-responsive genes was measured in the exposed fish using quantitative PCR. Concentrations of steroid estrogens and estrogenic phenols in the effluents were measured by GC-ECNI-MS. The ozonated effluents were the only tested effluents for which all measured biological effects in exposed fish were removed. Chemical data suggested that the MBBR technology was equally effective in removing the analyzed estrogens; however, elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes suggested that some estrogenic substances were still present in the effluent. The membrane bioreactor removed most of the measured estrogens and it reduced the induction of the estrogen-responsive genes. However, fish exposed to this effluent had significantly enlarged livers. Given that the same influent was treated in parallel with a broad set of technologies and that the chemical analyses were combined with an in vivo assessment of estrogenic responses, this study provides valuable input into the assessment of advanced treatment processes for removing estrogenic substances.

  • 12.
    Kårelid, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Larsson, Gen
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Effects of recirculation in a three-tank pilot-scale system for pharmaceutical removal with powdered activated carbon2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 193, no May, p. 163-Environmental Impact Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Slab Frame BridgesArticle, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The removal of pharmaceutically active compounds by powdered activated carbon (PAC) in municipal wastewater is a promising solution to the problem of polluted recipient waters. Today, an efficient design strategy is however lacking with regard to high-level overall, and specific, substance removal in the large scale. The performance of PAC-based removal of pharmaceuticals was studied in pilot-scale with respect to the critical parameters; contact time and PAC dose using one PAC product selected by screening in bench-scale. The goal was a minimum of 95% removal of the pharmaceuticals present in the evaluated municipal wastewater. A set of 21 pharmaceuticals was selected from an initial 100 due to their high occurrence in the effluent water of two selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Sweden, whereof candidates discussed for future EU regulation directives were included. By using recirculation of PAC over a treatment system using three sequential contact tanks, a combination of the benefits of powdered and granular carbon performance was achieved. The treatment system was designed so that recirculation could be introduced to any of the three tanks to investigate the effect of recirculation on the adsorption performance. This was compared to use of the setup, but without recirculation. A higher degree of pharmaceutical removal was achieved in all recirculation setups, both overall and with respect to specific substances, as compared to without recirculation. Recirculation was tested with nominal contact times of 30, 60 and 120 min and the goal of 95% removal could be achieved already at the shortest contact times at a PAC dose of 10–15 mg/L. In particular, the overall removal could be increased even to 97% and 99%, at 60 and 120 min, respectively, when the recirculation point was the first tank. Recirculation of PAC to either the first or the second contact tank proved to be comparable, while a slightly lower performance was observed with recirculation to the third tank. With regards to individual substances, clarithromycin and diclofenac were ubiquitously removed according to the set goal and in contrast, a few substances (fluconazole, irbesartan, memantine and venlafaxine) required specific settings to reach an acceptable removal.

  • 13.
    Kårelid, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Larsson, Gen
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Pilot-scale removal of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater: Comparison of granular and powdered activated carbon treatment at three wastewater treatment plants2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 193, no -1, p. 491-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorption with activated carbon is widely suggested as an option for the removal of organic micropollutants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in wastewater. In this study adsorption with granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) was analyzed and compared in parallel operation at three Swedish wastewater treatment plants with the goal to achieve a 95% PhAC removal. Initially, mapping of the prevalence of over 100 substances was performed at each plant and due to low concentrations a final 22 were selected for further evaluation. These include carbamazepine, clarithromycin and diclofenac, which currently are discussed for regulation internationally. A number of commercially available activated carbon products were initially screened using effluent wastewater. Of these, a reduced set was selected based on adsorption characteristics and cost. Experiments designed with the selected carbons in pilot-scale showed that most products could indeed remove PhACs to the target level, both on total and individual basis. In a setup using internal recirculation the PAC system achieved a 95% removal applying a fresh dose of 15–20 mg/L, while carbon usage rates for the GAC application were much broader and ranged from <28 to 230 mg/L depending on the carbon product. The performance of the PAC products generally gave better results for individual PhACs in regards to carbon availability. All carbon products showed a specific adsorption for a specific PhAC meaning that knowledge of the target pollutants must be acquired before successful design of a treatment system. In spite of different configurations and operating conditions of the different wastewater treatment plants no considerable differences regarding pharmaceutical removal were observed.

  • 14. Lundström, E.
    et al.
    Adolfsson-Erici, M.
    Alsberg, T.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Company.
    Eklund, B.
    Lavén, M.
    Breitholtz, M.
    Characterization of additional sewage treatment technologies: Ecotoxicological effects and levels of selected pharmaceuticals, hormones and endocrine disruptors2010In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 73, no 7, p. 1612-1619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, two conventional (with and without sand filter) and four additional (moving bed biofilm reactor, ozone, moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone and a membrane bio reactor) treatment technologies were operated in small-scale at Hammarby Sjostad sewage treatment plant, Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were tested with five short-term ( <= 7 days exposure) ecotoxicological tests, and analyzed for a number of target analytes, comprising pharmaceuticals, natural hormones and industrial chemicals. Overall, the tested effluents generated few adverse effects at lower concentrations ( < 50% sewage effluent), and no major differences were observed between any of the treatments. The effluent treated with the moving bed biofilm reactor resulted in the lowest effects in the ecotoxicological tests. The most efficient treatment technology with regard to the pharmaceutical residues was the ozone treatment, which however caused negative effects in some of the ecotoxicological tests.

  • 15. Lundström, E.
    et al.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Company.
    Brinkmann, M.
    Hollert, H.
    Persson, J.-O.
    Breitholtz, M.
    Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies: Population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes2010In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 298-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since conventional treatment technologies may fail in removing many micro-pollutants, there is currently a focus on the potential of additional treatment technologies for improved sewage treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different effluents from Henriksdal Sewage Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were; conventionally treated effluent (chemical phosphorous removal in combination with an activated sludge process, including biological nitrogen removal and a sand filter), with additional treatments individually added to the conventional treatment; active carbon filtration, ozonation at 5 mg l(-1), ozonation at 15 mg l(-1), ozonation at 5 mg l(-1) + moving bed biofilm reactor and irradiation with ultraviolet radiation + hydrogen peroxide. The evaluation was done by characterizing and comparing the effluents using a Lefkovitch matrix model based on a life cycle test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes, combined with analysis of juvenile development and survival over time. The conventionally treated effluent resulted in the most negative effects, leading to the conclusion that all additional treatments in the present study created effluents with less negative impacts on the copepod populations. The ozone treatments with the low dose treatment in particular, resulted in the overall least negative effects. Moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone did not improve the quality of the effluent in the sense that slightly more negative effects on the population abundance were seen for this treatment technology compared to ozonation alone. The active carbon treatment had more negative effects than the ozone treatments, most of which could possibly be explained by removal of essential metal ions. The effluent which was treated with ultraviolet radiation + hydrogen peroxide resulted in few developmental and survival effects over time, but still showed negative effects on the population level. Matrix population modeling proved a useful tool for biologically characterizing and comparing the effluents. Basing the assessment either on the individual level data (development and survival over time or total reproductive output) or the population level data (lambda values and projected population abundances) would not have resulted in the same conclusions as combining both analyses. The juvenile development and survival over time allowed for closer monitoring of the important molting process, whereas the population modeling provided an integrated measure of potential effects at the population level. If the dilution of the effluent in the recipient is considered, the biological effects recorded in the present study were not of substantial significance for the copepod populations, regardless of treatment technology.

  • 16. Minten, J.
    et al.
    Adolfsson-Erici, M.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Company.
    Alsberg, T.
    A method for the analysis of sucralose with electrospray LC/MS in recipient waters and in sewage effluent subjected to tertiary treatment technologies2011In: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 357-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the analysis of the artificial sweetener sucralose in sewage water and recipient water was developed. Extraction and clean up was performed with solid-phase extraction utilising Oasis HLB columns. Detection was made by liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. However, 'pseudo MRM' was used, a technique where the two quadrupoles monitor the same m/z. The sodium adduct of sucralose was used for quantification, since lower detection limits were obtained as compared to the sucralose quasi-molecular ion in negative ion mode. The two ions with highest intensity in the chlorine isotope pattern were monitored. The reduction of matrix effects with this approach is discussed. The method limit of quantification (MLOQ) for sewage water was 0.2 mu g L(-1), whereas for recipient water MLOQ was 0.02 mu g L(-1). The method was used to analyse effluent samples from an experimental sewage treatment plant (STP) to assess the efficiency of tertiary treatment techniques for removal of sucralose. Filtration through activated carbon was shown to be efficient, while ozonation, advanced oxidation techniques and membrane bioreactors were less efficient. Analyses of receiving waters showed low dilution of sucralose emitted from the STPs.

  • 17.
    Ottoson, Jakob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hansen, A.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Company.
    Norder, H.
    Stenström, T.A.
    Removal of viruses, parasitic protozoa microbial indicators and correlation with process indicators in conventional and membrane processes in a wastewater pilot plant2006In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1449-1457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate variations in the occurrence and removal of enterovirus and norovirus genomes, Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts and the most commonly used faecal indicators in a Swedish wastewater pilot plant. Paired samples were taken from the inlet and outlet of each treatment line: tertiary filtration, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and upflow anaerobic sludge blankets (UASB). (Oo)cysts and indicators were enumerated using standard methods and viruses using RT-PCR. Giardia cysts and enteroviruses were constantly detected, mean numbers 10(3.11) cysts and 10(4.0) PCR units L-1, respectively. Oocysts were found in 5/19 samples, mean number 5 L-1. Noroviruses were found in 6/7 influent samples, with an average titre of 10(3 28) L-1, during winter, but only in 2/15 in the rest of the year (mean 200 L-1). MBR treatment removed indicators more efficiently than did the other two lines, with 5 log removal of E. coli. Human virus genome removal did not differ between the MBR and tertiary treatment line. Microorganism removal in UASB was significantly lower for all the organisms studied. E. coli, enterococci and Cl. perfringens removal was correlated (p < 0.05) with enterovirus genome removal, with R-values around 0.4. However, values for removal of indicators were more strongly correlated to each other. Removal of viruses based on enumeration using RT-PCR probably underestimates infectious virion removal.

  • 18. Samuelsson, L.M.
    et al.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Company.
    Förlin, L.
    Larsson, D.G.J.
    Reproducible H-1 NMR-based metabolomic responses in fish exposed to different sewage effluents in two separate studies2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 1703-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treated sewage effluents contain complex mixtures of micropollutants, raising concerns about effects on aquatic organisms. The addition of advanced treatment steps has therefore been suggested. However, some of these could potentially produce effluents affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. Here, 1H NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) metabolomics of fish blood plasma was used to explore potential responses not identified by more targeted (chemical or biological) assays. Rainbow trout was exposed in parallel to six differently treated effluents (e.g., conventional activated sludge, addition of sand filter, further addition of ozonation and/or a moving bed biofilm reactor or a separate membrane bioreactor line). Multivariate data analysis showed changes in the metabolome (HDL, LDL, VLDL and glycerol-containing lipids, cholesterol, glucose, phosphatidylcholine, glutamine, and alanine) between treatment groups. This formed the basis for postulating a hypothesis on how exposure to effluent treated by certain processes, including ozonation, would affect the metabolic profiles of exposed fish. The hypothesis withstood testing in an independent study the following year. To conclude, 1H NMR metabolomics proved suitable for identifying physiological responses not identified by more targeted assays used in parallel studies. Whether these changes are linked to adverse effects remains to be tested.

  • 19. Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Brunström, Björn
    Fick, Jerker
    Gunnarsson, Lina
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Sumpter, John P.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Rudén, Christina
    Improving Environmental Risk Assessment of Human Pharmaceuticals2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 5336-5345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents 10 recommendations for improving the European Medicines Agency's guidance for environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceutical products. The recommendations are based on up-to-date, available science in combination with experiences from other chemical frameworks such as the REACH-legislation for industrial chemicals. The recommendations concern: expanding the scope of the current guideline; requirements to assess the risk for development of antibiotic resistance; jointly performed assessments; refinement of the test proposal; mixture toxicity assessments on active pharmaceutical ingredients with similar modes of action; use of all available ecotoxicity studies; mandatory reviews; increased transparency; inclusion of emission data from production; and a risk management option. We believe that implementation of our recommendations would strengthen the protection of the environment and be beneficial to society. Legislation and guidance documents need to be updated at regular intervals in order to incorporate new knowledge from the scientific community. This is particularly important for regulatory documents concerning pharmaceuticals in the environment since this is a research field that has been growing substantially in the last decades.

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