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  • 1. Andersson, A. E.
    et al.
    Andersson, D. E.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Location and spatial clustering of artists2014In: Regional Science and Urban Economics, ISSN 0166-0462, E-ISSN 1879-2308, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 128-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys of artists' location choices show that they disproportionately reside in large cities. This paper introduces a model that attempts to explain this urban preference. The model includes four factors: access to other artists; access to consumer demand; access to service jobs; and housing affordability. These four factors are combined in a spatial equilibrium model. An equilibrium spatial distribution of artists is derived from the model and is correlated with the actual distribution among Swedish municipalities. Subsequently, the model is used for an econometric estimation of factor effects. The results show that access to other artists and local access to service jobs are important localization factors. Educated labor used as a proxy for consumer demand has a significant effect on artists' location choices.

  • 2. Andersson, David Emanuel
    et al.
    Andersson, Åke E.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Unemployment in European regions: structural problems versus the Eurozone hypothesis2015In: Journal of Economic Geography,, ISSN 1468-2702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unemployment rates differ dramatically across European regions. This article analyses these differences by integrating institutional and spatial perspectives into a unified dynamic framework distinguishing between slow and fast processes of change. The framework forms the basis for an econometric model that is used to analyse labour market differences among European Nomenclature des unités territoriales statistiques 2 regions. The results of random-effects models indicate that four key factors—all of which are of the slowly changing type—explain a large part of the variation in unemployment as well as employment rates. Flexible labour market regulations and above-average levels of interpersonal trust are institutional factors that reduce unemployment. Accessibility factors such as inter-regional transport connectivity and local access to skilled workers have similarly substantial effects. Whether a region belongs to the Eurozone or not seems to be less important.

  • 3.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Björn, Hårsman
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Entrepreneurship and Arts Related EducationIn: Journal of Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, , p. 32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to improve understanding of the observed high level of entrepreneurship among arts graduates. Specifically, the entrepreneurship rates of university graduates in the arts, architecture and engineering are compared. The occupational choice model applied has three options: wage employment, owning and a combination of the two.

    The utility function governing the choice includes income as well as an indicator of the disutility resulting from differences between the skills required and the skills supplied. The model implies that an alternative providing a better match might be preferred to one providing a higher income. Using Swedish data, this paper shows that the possibility of using artistic skills has stronger impact on the choice of occupation than income considerations.

  • 4.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Entrepreneurship among university graduates2010In: 50th Anniversary of European Congress of the Regional Science Association Jönköping, Sweden, 19-23 August, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to shed light upon entrepreneurship among university graduates. We are interested in differences across educational areas and among universities regarding entrepreneurial selection and performance. The paper differs from similar studies in two respects. In order to broaden the common definitions used to measure entrepreneurship we suggest a typology making it possible to differentiate between various types of entrepreneurs. Secondly, we differentiate between both level of education, area of education and university of graduation. In order to capture some of the uncertainties related to the choice among our entrepreneurial categories we use individual time series income data.Using cross-section data on Swedish graduates we examine the impact of university on entrepreneurial choice and performance of graduates from 44 Swedish universities. A separate analysis is done for graduates of 5 education fields to control for heterogeneity of education. The results suggest that entrepreneurial preferences differ by education fields, that graduates of some universities are more entrepreneurial than others. We also find that the preferences for different entrepreneurial occupations differ across universities. As to the university effect on graduates’ earnings we find significant university effect for only a small group of universities, which differ by field of education and entrepreneurial category.

  • 5.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    University choice and entrepreneurship2014In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 42p. 729-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at shedding light upon the impact of universities on graduates' entrepreneurial choice. Previous studies analyze the relationship between the choice of university and labor market success of graduates in terms of their subsequent wages, employability or over-education, whereas the possible link between the choice of university and entrepreneurial choice is neglected. Using 1998-2008 data on graduates from Swedish higher education institutions, the paper finds significant variation in the impact of universities on the career choice of graduates. The results suggest that graduates with degrees in the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine and teacher education from more prestigious universities systematically differ from others in their entrepreneurial choice. At the same time, no statistically significant difference is found for technical science graduates.

  • 6.
    Hansen, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Den regionala utvecklingsplaneringen i Stockholmsregionen2011In: Storstäder och tillväxt: Om storstadsregioners roll, betydelse och utmaningar för hållbar ekonomisk utveckling / [ed] Jörgen Lindell, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hansen, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    På god väg?: Regional samverkan i processen för RUFS 20102010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På god väg? är resultatet av ett uppdrag att utifrån ett processorienterat forskningsperspektiv följa framtagandet av Stockholms läns landstings nya regionala utvecklingsplan för Stockholmsregionen, RUFS 2010. Forskningen visar bland annat att det finns ett behov av mer koordinerade planeringsprocesser för att främja ökad länsöverskridande samverkan. Många uppfattar det som en extra kvalitet om man skulle kunna samordna utredningar och bistå varandra med underlag och statistik.

    Tillgänglighet är ett nyckelbegrepp i den regionala utvecklingsplaneringen och en god tillgänglighet ses av många som en förutsättning för att kunna ta till vara den funktionella Stockholmsregionens potential. Som ett led i detta understryks behovet av att staten utvecklar en särskild storstadspolitik.

    Den dialogorienterade processen, som präglat arbetet med RUFS 2010, uppfattas av många som positiv, och många är övertygade om att detta kan gynna genomförandet av planen. Arbetssättet kan dock utvecklas ytterligare.

    Det finns enligt vår uppfattning ett stort behov av att systematiskt följa och kritiskt granska offentligt initierade och styrda planeringsprocesser med den omfattning som exemplifieras av regionplaneringen i Stockholm. Detta både för att ge underlag för bredare diskussion om behovet av planering och utformning av bakomliggande arbete, och för att ge underlag för utveckling av framtida planeringsarbete.

  • 8.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Entreprenörskap bland högskoleutbildade konstnärer2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Ethnic Diversity and Spatial Segregation in the Stockholm Region2006In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 43, no 8, p. 1341-1364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of ethnic segregation and ethnic diversity in the Stockholm region from 1991 to 2001, a period characterised by a rapid increase in the population share with foreign background and in ethnic variety. The population is cross-classified into 13 ethnic groups, 16 age and income groups and 240 planning districts and various entropy measures are used to quantify the ethnic diversity and residential segregation by ethnicity. Light is also shed upon the ethnic segregation process by means of the 'shift-and-share' technique. In the discussion, the quantitative results are related to important policy changes that have taken place since the 1970s. The cementation of ethnic diversity in some planning districts and the increasing overall segregation in the region contrast sharply with the longstanding political rhetoric concerning the importance of fighting segregation and fostering spatial diversity. It is perhaps even more worrying that some of the policy measures imbedded in the Swedish model of social welfare might have contributed to this development.

  • 10.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    From ugly duckling to Europe's first green capital: A historical perspective on the development of Stockholm's urban environment2013In: Sustainable Stockholm: Exploring Urban Sustainability in Europe's Greenest City, Taylor & Francis, 2013, p. 10-50Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Avkastning på högre utbildning bland examinerade vid Stockholms lärosäten2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att uppskatta avkastningen på högre utbildning för olika utbildnings- grupper examinerade från lärosäten i Stockholms län och att härvid beakta både grundutbildning och forskarutbildning.

  • 12.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Entrepreneurship and Arts Related Education2012In: EDULEARN12: 4th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, IATED , 2012, p. 6244-6255Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed light upon entrepreneurship among university graduates having different kinds of arts related education. After demonstrating large differences concerning entrepreneurship rates, an occupational choice model is outlined. The choice set includes three options: wage employment, owning and combining the two. The utility function governing the choice includes income as well as an indicator of the tension between the skills required and the skills supplied implying that an alternative providing a better match might be preferred to one providing a higher income. Using Swedish data we show that arts educated are more interested in using their special skills than earning high income.

  • 13.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Entrepreneurship and Arts Related Education2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed light upon entrepreneurship among university graduates having different kinds of arts related education. After demonstrating the large differences between the nine groups concerning entrepreneurship rates, a dynamic model for occupational choice is outlined. The choice is assumed to be governed by the related demand and income and by the match between the skills required and the skills supplied implying that an alternative providing a better match might be preferred to one providing a higher income. Using data for Swedish graduates we show that the probability of becoming entrepreneur is strongly influenced by the area of education. We further show that compared to engineers artists are more interested in using their special skills and ready to “sacrifice” higher income against the possibility to express their talent.

  • 14.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karriärvägar bland examinerade vid Stockholms lärosäten2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver och analyserar karriärutveckling och entreprenörskap bland sysselsattaakademiker med fokus på dem som har examinerats från universitet och högskolor i Stockholms län.Tre av fyra akademiker med examen från ett lärosäte i Stockholms län arbetar i den störrependlingsregion – Stockholmsregionen – där även delar av Uppsala och Södermanlands län igår.Regionen är starkt kunskapsorienterad. Den svarar för en dryg fjärdedel av Sveriges sysselsättning mendär arbetar 48 procent av alla forskarutbildade och nästan 40 procent av alla akademiker.Stockholmsregionens andel av landets lågutbildade sysselsatta är betydligt lägre, nämligen 22 procent.Den övergripande slutsatsen av vår karriäranalys är att akademiker med examen från lärosäten iStockholms län lyckas väl på arbetsmarknaden. Jämfört med dem med examen från annat håll har deoftare en anställning med krav som motsvarar utbildningen, de har högre löner och de är i störreutsträckning verksamma som entreprenörer.Det är svårt att säga vad dessa tre skillnader till fördel för dem med en examen från Stockholms länberor på. Våra analyser av hur bilden förändras om andra förklarande faktorer tillförs tyder dock påföljande. Lönerna förblir någon eller några procent högre för dem med examen från länet. Likasåförblir sannolikheten att vara entreprenör signifikant om än marginellt högre. Dock gäller attövertaget avseende andelen som har ett akademiskt yrke ”försvinner” när hänsyn tas till andraförklaringsfaktorer.

  • 15.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Chaudhary, Parth
    On the quality and impact of residential energy performance certificates2016In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 133, p. 711-723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses quality and impact issues concerning Energy Performance Certificates (EPC) by means of a dataset based upon the Swedish EPCs for single-family houses. Assuming that the quality of the certificates plays an important role for their impact, we examine to what extent various characteristics of the firms and experts issuing the certificates are influencing their assessments of energy consumption and energy conservation. Exploiting the information on biased assessments, we also investigate the relationship between the transaction price of a house and its EPC label. Doing so, we distinguish the attributes that can be observed by visiting the house and those that a buyer only can inform herself about through the EPC. Applying regression analyses we find that firm and expert characteristics matter quite a lot implying that the EPC-quality could be improved considerably by increasing the inter-rater reliability. The results also show that the price impact of the energy label is related to information that the buyers can obtain by visiting the house rather than to information uniquely provided by the EPCs. Hence, the EPCs per se are unlikely to stimulate energy conservation through the price mechanism.

  • 16.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Hovsepyan, Vardan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Correction to: The income return to entrepreneurship: theoretical model and outcomes for Swedish regions2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contains an error in Appendix A.

  • 17.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH.
    Hovsepyan, Vardan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The income return to entrepreneurship: theoretical model and outcomes for Swedish regions2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 479-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the income return to entrepreneurship and wage employment by means of Lazear's model of occupational choice. The paper has two major aims. The first is to develop a new theoretical framework for analyzing the income return to entrepreneurship by combining the Lazear model with the assumption that the skill profiles in a population are Frechet-distributed. The second is to demonstrate that the resulting theoretical derivations can be used for a new type of regional analysis of the income return to entrepreneurship and wage employment. The empirical analysis is based on data for individuals with a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. We compute their income return to self-employment and wage employment in three parts of Sweden: the Stockholm region, the combined Gothenburg and Malmo region, and the Rest of Sweden. The results show that the average return to self-employment is less than 5% in all regions and smaller in the Gothenburg and Malmo region than in the other two regions. The regional differences are explained by the differential supply curves and market values of entrepreneurial talent. The theoretical derivation of the income return to entrepreneurship is the main contribution of the paper. Another contribution is the derivation of regional supply curves for entrepreneurs.

  • 18.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Quigley, John M.
    Political and Public Acceptability of Congestion Pricing: Ideology and Self-Interest2010In: Journal of policy analysis and management (Print), ISSN 0276-8739, E-ISSN 1520-6688, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 854-U221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of the "stated preferences" of households generally report public and political opposition by urban commuters to congestion pricing. It is thought that this opposition inhibits or precludes tolls and pricing systems that would enhance efficiency in the use of scarce roadways. This paper analyzes the only case in which road pricing was decided by a citizen referendum on the basis of experience with a specific pricing system. The city of Stockholm introduced a toll system for seven months in 2006, after which citizens voted on its permanent adoption. We match precinct voting records to resident commute times and costs by traffic zone, and we analyze patterns of voting in response to economic and political incentives. We document political and ideological incentives for citizen choice, but we also find that the pattern of time savings and incremental costs exerts a powerful influence on voting behavior. In this instance, at least, citizen voters behave as if they value commute time highly. When they have experienced first-hand the out-of-pocket costs and time savings of a specific pricing scheme, they are prepared to adopt freely policies that reduce congestion on urban motorways.

  • 19.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    The Stockholm Region: Metropolitan Governance and Spatial Policy2002In: Metropolitan Governance and Spatial Planning, Spon Press , 2002, p. 91-109Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Qi, Ye
    Tsinghua University, China.
    Economic Development and Sustainable Urbanization in China: Final report submitted to the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED), Task force for Sustainable Urbanization2005Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Sui, Xin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE). China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Ji, G.
    Examining the economic competitiveness of 18 districts in Beijing to obtain sustainable urbanization2010In: Beijing Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, ISSN 0479-8023, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 999-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors analyzed the relative economic performances as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) among 18 districts in Beijing between 1993-2002 and 2005-2007. The statistical models use a traditional shift-share analysis evaluated with SPSS software. District competitiveness was decomposed into ten selected factors, including resource utility and environmental quality. The results indicate that, between 1993-2002, districts in the city-center were more competitive than districts in the suburbs. After 2005, suburban districts increased their competitiveness at a faster rate than those in the city. In addition, the authors try to identify the driving forces of economic growth in Beijing. Five factors were found to have a significant impact on GDP competitiveness of 18 districts in Beijing; finance income, employment density, average wages, and air quality all had positive effects, while population density had a negative effect. These results will be useful for planning future economic growth and specialization for districts around Beijing.

  • 22.
    Wahlström, Marie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Residential energy consumption and conservation2015In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 102, p. 58-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish energy performance certificates for single-family housing provide rich information on energy consumption and various physical attributes. They also include estimates of the energy conservation potentials resulting from implementing cost-efficient energy saving measures. By matching the certificates issued for single-family houses in 2009 and 2010, with socio-economic data about the residents, local climate data and information about recent improvements of the building we have created a unique database, which can be used to explore a wide variety of questions related to energy consumption and conservation. One aim of this paper is to assess the role for energy consumption played by socio-economic characteristics of the residents as compared to physical attributes of the house. Another is to estimate the influence of housing attributes and climate on the "engineering estimates" of the conservation potentials. Our results show that while the quantitative impact of physical attributes dominate the energy use for heating and cooling, the opposite holds for household electricity. The assessed conservation potential, amounting to 15% of the energy consumption, is significantly related to both the housing attributes and the use of energy. The results also indicate a need to improve the information provided by the performance certificates.

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