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  • 1.
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Wafer-level heterogeneous integration of MEMS actuators2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents methods for the wafer-level integration of shape memory alloy (SMA) and electrostatic actuators to functionalize MEMS devices. The integration methods are based on heterogeneous integration, which is the integration of different materials and technologies. Background information about the actuators and the integration method is provided.

    SMA microactuators offer the highest work density of all MEMS actuators, however, they are not yet a standard MEMS material, partially due to the lack of proper wafer-level integration methods. This thesis presents methods for the wafer-level heterogeneous integration of bulk SMA sheets and wires with silicon microstructures. First concepts and experiments are presented for integrating SMA actuators with knife gate microvalves, which are introduced in this thesis. These microvalves feature a gate moving out-of-plane to regulate a gas flow and first measurements indicate outstanding pneumatic performance in relation to the consumed silicon footprint area. This part of the work also includes a novel technique for the footprint and thickness independent selective release of Au-Si eutectically bonded microstructures based on localized electrochemical etching.

    Electrostatic actuators are presented to functionalize MEMS crossbar switches, which are intended for the automated reconfiguration of copper-wire telecommunication networks and must allow to interconnect a number of input lines to a number of output lines in any combination desired. Following the concepts of heterogeneous integration, the device is divided into two parts which are fabricated separately and then assembled. One part contains an array of double-pole single-throw S-shaped actuator MEMS switches. The other part contains a signal line routing network which is interconnected by the switches after assembly of the two parts. The assembly is based on patterned adhesive wafer bonding and results in wafer-level encapsulation of the switch array. During operation, the switches in these arrays must be individually addressable. Instead of controlling each element with individual control lines, this thesis investigates a row/column addressing scheme to individually pull in or pull out single electrostatic actuators in the array with maximum operational reliability, determined by the statistical parameters of the pull-in and pull-out characteristics of the actuators.

  • 2.
    Braun, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Grund, Thomas
    Ingvarsdóttir, Sveinbjörg
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Kohl, Manfred
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Robust trimorph bulk SMA microactuators for batch manufacturing and integration2007Inngår i: The 14th IEEE International conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference & EUROSENSORS XXI (IEEE TRANSDUCERS 2007), IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, s. 2191-2194Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the concept of batch micrufabrication and electrical contacting of bulk SMA nticroactuators. This concept addresses technical solutions for the main challenges related to using SMA actuators such as the necessary mechanical bias force, the difficult electrical contacting and the high power needed for actuation. We report on initial SMA-dielectric-metal trimorph test structures and their characteristics. The bias force is provided by a dielectric layer and the electrical contacting of the bulk SMA is avoided using indirect electrical heating via an additional metal layer. Three nun long beams can provide several hundreds of mu N and deflect several hundreds of mu m. The actuation power is reduced approx. 2.5 times compared to direct heating schemes.

  • 3.
    Braun, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Haasl, Sjoerd
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Sadoon, Samir
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Ridgeway, A S
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Small footprint knife gate microvalves for large flow control2005Inngår i: The 13th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems conference (IEEE TRANSDUCERS 2005), NEW YORK: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, s. 329-332Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the first area-optimized micromachined knife gate microvalve. In comparison to recent microvalves the pressure-flow performance is increased using out-of-plane actuators and an out-of-plane orifice. Three different actuator-gate designs and their fabrication are described. The valve features integrated therinal silicon/aluminum bimorph actuators where the aluminum layer forins the resistive heater as well as the bimorph material. The characterization of the actuators and of the pressure-flow perfon-nance is presented. The valve allows a flow change of Delta Q=3.4 1/min at 100 kPa on an active chip area of only 2.3 x 3.7 mm(2).

  • 4.
    Braun, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    MEMS crossbar switches for telecommunication networks2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Braun, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    MEMS single-chip 5x5 and 20x20 double-switch arrays for telecommunication networks2007Inngår i: IEEE 20th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 2007. MEMS, New York: IEEE , 2007, s. 811-814Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a microelectromechanical switch array with up to 20x20 double switches and packaged on a single chip and utilized for main distribution frames in copper-wire networks. The device includes 5x5 or 20x20 allowing for an any-to-any interconnection of the input line to the specific output line. The switches are on an electrostatic S-shaped film actuator with the contact moving between a top and a bottom electrode. device is fabricated in two parts and is designed to assembled using selective adhesive wafer bonding in a wafer-scale package of the switch array. The 5x5 switch arrays have a size of 6.7x6.4mm(2) and the arrays are 14x10 mm(2) large. The switch actuation for closing/opening the switches averaged over an array measured to be 21.2 V / 15.3 V for the 5x5 array 93.2 V / 37.3 V for the 20x20 array. The total impedance varies on the 5x5 array between 0.126 Omega 0.564 Omega at a measurement current of 1 mA. The resistance of the switch contacts within the 5x5 array determined to be 0.216 Omega with a standard deviation 0. 155 Omega.

  • 6.
    Braun, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    MEMS single-chip microswitch array for re-configuration of telecommunication networks2006Inngår i: 2006 European Microwave Conference: Vols 1-4, New York: IEEE , 2006, s. 315-318Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a micro-electromechanical (MEMS) switch array embedded and packaged on a single chip. The switch array is utilized for the automated re-configuration of the physical layer of copper-wire telecommunication networks. A total of 25 individually controllable double-switches are arranged in a 6.7 x 6.4 mm(2) large 5x5 switch matrix allowing for any configuration of independently connecting the line-pairs of the five input channels to any line-pair of the five output channels. The metal-contact switch array is embedded in a single chip package, together with 4 metal layers for routing the signal and control lines and with a total of 35 I/O contact pads. The MEMS switches are based on an electrostatic S-shaped thin membrane actuator with the switching contact bar rolling between a top and a bottom electrode. This special switch design allows for low actuation voltage (21.23 V) to close the switches and for high isolation. The total signal line resistances of the routing network vary from 0.57 Omega to 0.98 Omega. The contact resistance of the gold contacts is 0.216 Omega.

  • 7.
    Braun, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Row/column addressing scheme for large electrostatic actuator MEMS switch arrays and optimization of the operational reliability by statistical analysis2008Inngår i: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 1104-1113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the design and optimization of a row/column addressing scheme to individually pull in or pull out single electrostatic actuators in an N(2) array, utilizing the electromechanical hysteresis behavior of electrostatic actuators and efficiently reducing the number of necessary control lines from N(2) complexity to 2N. This paper illustrates the principle of the row/column addressing scheme. Furthermore, it investigates the optimal addressing voltages to individually pull in or pull out single actuators with maximum operational reliability, determined by the statistical parameters of the pull-in and pull-out characteristics of the actuators. The investigated addressing scheme is implemented for the individual addressing of cross-connect switches in a microelectromechanical systems 20 x 20 switch array, which is utilized for the automated any-to-any interconnection of 20 input signal line pairs to 20 output signal line pairs. The investigated addressing scheme and the presented calculations were successfully tested on electrostatic actuators in a fabricated 20 x 20 array. The actuation voltages and their statistical variations were characterized for different subarray cluster sizes. Finally, the addressing voltages were calculated and verified by tests, resulting in an operational reliability of 99.9498% (502 parts per million (ppm) failure rate) for a 20 x 20 switch array and of 99.99982% (1.75 ppm failure rate) for a 3 x 3 subarray cluster. The array operates by ac-actuation voltage to minimize the disturbing effects by dielectric charging of the actuator isolation layers, as observed in this paper for dc-actuation voltages.

  • 8.
    Braun, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Single-chip MEMS 5x5 and 20x20 double-pole single-throw switch arrays for automating telecommunication networks2008Inngår i: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 015014-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on microelectromechanical (MEMS) switch arrays with 5 × 5 and 20 × 20 double-pole single-throw (DPST) switches embedded and packaged on a single chip, which are intended for automating main distribution frames in copper-wire telecommunication networks. Whenever a customer requests a change in his telecommunication services, the copper-wire network has to be reconfigured which is currently done manually by a costly physical re-routing of the connections in the main distribution frames. To reduce the costs, new methods for automating the network reconfiguration are sought after by the network providers. The presented devices comprise 5 × 5 or 20 × 20 double switches, which allow us to interconnect any of the 5 or 20 input lines to any of the 5 or 20 output lines. The switches are based on an electrostatic S-shaped film actuator with the switch contact on a flexible membrane, moving between a top and a bottom electrode. The devices are fabricated in two parts which are designed to be assembled using selective adhesive wafer bonding, resulting in a wafer-scale package of the switch array. The on-chip routing network consists of thick metal lines for low resistance and is embedded in bencocyclobutene (BCB) polymer layers. The packaged 5 × 5 switch arrays have a size of 6.7 × 6.4 mm2 and the 20 × 20 arrays are 14 × 10 mm2 large. The switch actuation voltages for closing/opening the switches averaged over an array were measured to be 21.2 V/15.3 V for the 5 × 5 array and 93.2 V/37.3 V for the 20 × 20 array, respectively. The total signal line resistances vary depending on the switch position within the array between 0.13 Ω and 0.56 Ω for the 5 × 5 array and between 0.08 Ω to 2.33 Ω for the 20 × 20 array, respectively. The average resistance of the switch contacts was determined to be 0.22 Ω with a standard deviation of 0.05 Ω.

  • 9.
    Braun, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Smart individual switch addressing of 5×5 and 20×20 MEMS double-switch arrays2007Inngår i: TRANSDUCERS and EUROSENSORS '07 - 4th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, IEEE , 2007, s. 153-156Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a smart row / column addressing scheme for large MEMS rnicroswitch arrays, utilizing the pull-in / pull-out hysteresis of their electrostatic actuators to efficiently reduce the number of control lines. Single-chip 20 x 20 double-switch switch arrays with individually programmable 400 switch elements have been fabricated and the smart addressing scheme was successfully evaluated. The reproducibility of the actuation voltages within the array is very important for this addressing scheme and therefore the influence of effects such as isolation layer charging on the pull-in voltages has also been investigated.

  • 10.
    Braun, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Sandström, Niklas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Wafer-Scale Manufacturing of Bulk Shape-Memory-Alloy Microactuators Based on Adhesive Bonding of Titanium-Nickel Sheets to Structured Silicon Wafers2009Inngår i: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 1309-1317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a concept for the wafer-scale manufacturing of microactuators based on the adhesive bonding of bulk shape-memory-alloy (SMA) sheets to silicon microstructures. Wafer-scale integration of a cold-state deformation mechanism is provided by the deposition of stressed films onto the SMA sheet. A concept for heating of the SMA by Joule heating through a resistive heater layer is presented. Critical fabrication issues were investigated, including the cold-state deformation, the bonding scheme and related stresses, and the titanium-nickel (TiNi) sheet patterning. Novel methods for the transfer stamping of adhesive and for the handling of the thin TiNi sheets were developed, based on the use of standard dicing blue tape. First demonstrator TiNi cantilevers, wafer-level adhesively bonded on a microstructured silicon substrate, were successfully fabricated and evaluated. Intrinsically stressed silicon dioxide and silicon nitride were deposited using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to deform the cantilevers in the cold state. Tip deflections for 2.5-mm-long cantilevers in cold/hot state of 250/70 and 125/28 mu m were obtained using silicon dioxide and silicon nitride, respectively. The bond strength proved to be stronger than the force created by the 2.5-mm-long TiNi cantilever and showed no degradation after more than 700 temperature cycles. The shape-memory behavior of the TiNi is maintained during the integration process.

  • 11. Clausi, D.
    et al.
    Gradin, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Peirs, J.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Reynaerts, D.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Microactuation utilizing wafer-level integrated SMA wires2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 2009, nr MEMS, s. 1067-1070Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the wafer-scale integration of pre-strained SMA wires to microstructured silicon devices and the performance of the microactuator prototypes. The overall goal is to obtain low cost microactuators having high work densities and a mass production compatible manufacturing, without having to deal with the inherently high costs of a pick-and-place approach or with the complex composition control and annealing process of sputtered NiTi films. Testing above the SMA transformation temperature shows repeatability in actuation of the fabricated structures, with net strokes of 170 ptm for the double cantilever actuators.

  • 12.
    Clausi, Donato
    et al.
    KU Leuven, Division of Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation (PMA) .
    Gradin, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Peirs, Jan
    KU Leuven, Division of Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation (PMA) .
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Reynaerts, Dominiek
    KU Leuven, Division of Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation (PMA) .
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Design and wafer-level fabrication of SMA wire microactuators on silicon2010Inngår i: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 982-991Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the fabrication of microactuators through wafer-level integration of prestrained shape memory alloy wires to silicon structures. In contrast to previous work, the wires are strained under pure tension, and the cold-state reset is provided by single-crystalline silicon cantilevers. The fabrication is based on standard microelectromechanical systems manufacturing technologies, and it enables an actuation scheme featuring high work densities. A mathematical model is discussed, which provides a useful approximation for practical designs and allows analyzing the actuators performance. Prototypes have been tested, and the influence of constructive variations on the actuator behavior is theoretically and experimentally evaluated. The test results are in close agreement with the calculated values, and they show that the actuators feature displacements that are among the highest reported.

  • 13. Clausi, Donato
    et al.
    Gradin, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Peirs, Jan
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Reynaerts, Dominiek
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Robust actuation of silicon MEMS using SMA wires integrated at wafer-level by nickel electroplating2013Inngår i: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 189, s. 108-116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on both the wafer-level fixation and electrical connection of pre-strained SMA wires to silicon MEMS using electroplating, and on the fabrication of the first Joule-heated Shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuators on silicon. The integration method provides both high bond strength and electrical connections in one processing step, and it allows mass production of microactuators having high work density. SEM observation showed an intimate interconnection between the SMA wires and the silicon substrate. The variation of the actuators' performance across the wafer was evaluated on three 4.5 mm × 1.8 mm footprint devices, proving repeatable results. The actuators showed a mean hot state deflection of 536 μm and a mean stroke of 354 μm at a low power consumption (less than 70 mW). One actuator was tested for m150 × 103 cycles, and it demonstrated a highly reliable long-term performance, showing neither material degradation, nor failure of the nickel anchors.

  • 14. Clausi, Donato
    et al.
    Gradin, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Peirs, Jan
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Reynaerts, Dominiek
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    WAFER-LEVEL MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL INTEGRATION OF SMA WIRES TO SILICON MEMS USING ELECTROPLATING2011Inngår i: 24th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE MEMS 2011), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, s. 1281-1284Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the wafer-level fixation and electrical connection of pre-strained SMA wires on silicon MEMS using electroplating, providing high bond strength and electrical connections in one processing step. The integration method is based on standard micromachining techniques, and it potentially allows mass production of microactuators having high work density. SEM observation showed an intimate interconnection between the SMA wire and the silicon substrate, and destructive testing performed with a shear tester showed a bond strength exceeding 1 N. The first Joule-heated SMA wire actuators on silicon were fabricated and their performance evaluated. Measurements on a 4.5 x 1.8 mm2 footprint device show a 460 μm stroke at low power consumption (70 mW).

  • 15.
    Clausi, Donato
    et al.
    KULeuven.
    Gradin, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Peirs, Jan
    KULeuven.
    Braun, Stefan
    Silex Microsystems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Donose, Radu
    KULeuven.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Reynaerts, Dominiek
    KULeuven.
    Reliability of Silicon Spring-biased SMA Microactuators2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the performance of Joule-heated shape memory alloy (SMA) microactuators on silicon MEMS.The actuators consist of pre-strained SMA wires connected to micromachined silicon structures by electroplatedfixtures. Response of the actuators upon long term cycling by electrical heating is evaluated. Measurements on a 4.5x 1.6 mm2 footprint device demonstrated excellent stability of the actuator, without any loss of performance over150·103 cycles. These actuators are potentially suited for industrial applications with stringent demands on actuationperformance, reliability, and cost.

  • 16.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Gradin, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Schröder, Stephan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Wafer-level integration of NiTi shape memory alloy wires for the fabrication of microactuators using standard wire bonding technology2011Inngår i: 24th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2011 IEEE, IEEE , 2011, s. 348-351Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the first integration of SMA wires into silicon based MEMS structures using a standard wire bonder. This approach allows fast and efficient placement, alignment and mechanical attachment of NiTi-based SMA wires to silicon-based MEMS. The wires are mechanically anchored and clamped into deep-etched silicon structures on a wafer. The placement precision is high with an average deviation of 4 #x03BC;m and the mechanical clamping is strong, allowing successful actuation of the SMA wires.

  • 17.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Gradin, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Schröder, Stephan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Wire-bonder-assisted integration of non-bondable SMA wires into MEMS substrates2012Inngår i: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 055025-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a novel technique for the integration of NiTi shape memory alloy wires and other non-bondable wire materials into silicon-based microelectromechanical system structures using a standard wire-bonding tool. The efficient placement and alignment functions of the wire-bonding tool are used to mechanically attach the wire to deep-etched silicon anchoring and clamping structures. This approach enables a reliable and accurate integration of wire materials that cannot be wire bonded by traditional means.

  • 18.
    Gradin, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Localized removal of the Au-Si eutectic bonding layer for the selective release of microstructures2009Inngår i: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 19, nr 10, s. 105014-105023Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and investigates a novel technique for the footprint and thickness-independent selective release of Au–Si eutectically bonded microstructures through the localized removal of their eutectic bond interface. The technique is based on the electrochemical removal of the gold in the eutectic layer and the selectivity is provided by patterning the eutectic layer and by proper electrical connection or isolation of the areas to be etched or removed, respectively. The gold removal results in a porous silicon layer, acting similar to standard etch holes in a subsequent sacrificial release etching. The paper presents the principle and the design requirements of the technique. First test devices were fabricated and the method successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the paper investigates the release mechanism and the effects of different gold layouts on both the eutectic bonding and the release procedure.

  • 19.
    Gradin, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Wijngaart, Wouter van der
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    A WAFER-LEVEL, HETEROGENEOUSLY INTEGRATED, HIGH FLOW SMA-SILICON GAS MICROVALVE2011Inngår i: 16th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE TRANSDUCERS 2011), NEW YORK, NY: IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, s. 1781-1784Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel gas microvalve design in which a flow control gate is opened by the pneumatic pressure and closed by a SMA actuator, allowing large flow control. The microvalves were fabricated using a novel wafer-level Au-Si eutectic bonding process for TiNi to silicon integration. The resulting microvalves demonstrate a record pneumatic performance per footprint area; a microvalve of only 1×3.3 mm2 footprint successfully controls 3000 sccm at a pressure drop of 130 kPa.

  • 20.
    Gradin, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Braun, Stefan
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Wijngaart, Wouter van der
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    SMA Microvalves for Very Large Gas Flow Control Manufactured Using Wafer-Level Eutectic Bonding2012Inngår i: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 59, nr 12, s. 4895-4906Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel gas microvalve design concept, in which a flow control gate is opened by a pneumatic pressure and closed by a shape memory alloy actuator, allowing large flow control. Two different design variations were fabricated using a novel wafer-level Au-Si eutectic bonding process for TiNi to silicon integration. The resulting microvalves demonstrate a record pneumatic performance per footprint area; a microvalve with a footprint of only 1 x 3.3 mm(2) successfully controls a flow difference of 3100 sccm at a pressure drop of 70 kPa using a power of 0.35 W.

  • 21.
    Gradin, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Sterner, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    SELECTIVE ELECTROCHEMICAL RELEASE ETCHING OF EUTECTICALLY BONDED MICROSTRUCTURES2009Inngår i: 15th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE TRANSDUCERS 2009): 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, s. 743-746Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    TThis paper reports on the successful demonstration of a novel microfabrication method in which eutectic gold bonded microstructures are selectively electrochemically release etched. This method offers several advantages: both a strong permanent bond and a temporary bond is achieved on the same die, the footprint of the temporary bonded structures is allowed to be larger than the footprint of the permanently bonded structures and the used etchants provide a larger process compatibility than the etchants of other release etch methods. Eutectically bonded 350 mum wide silicon structures were fully released after 1 hour of electrochemical etching followed by 1.5 hours wet etching of the TiW adhesion layer.

  • 22.
    Gradin, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Bushra, Sobia
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Wafer-level integration of NiTi shape memory alloy on silicon using Au-Si eutectic bonding2013Inngår i: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the wafer level integration of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) sheets with silicon substrates through Au-Si eutectic bonding. Different bond parameters, such as Au layer thicknesses and substrate surface treatments were evaluated. The amount of gold in the bond interface is the most important parameter to achieve a high bond yield; the amount can be determined by the barrier layers between the Au and Si or by the amount of Au deposition. Deposition of a gold layer of more than 1 mu m thickness before bonding gives the most promising results. Through patterning of the SMA sheet and by limiting bonding to small areas, stresses created by the thermal mismatch between Si and NiTi are reduced. With a gold layer of 1 mu m thickness and bond areas between 200 x 200 and 800 x 800 mu m(2) a high bond strength and a yield above 90% is demonstrated.

  • 23.
    Gradin, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Clausi, Donato
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Peirs, Jan
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Reynaerts, Dominiek
    A low-power high-flow shape memory alloy wire gas microvalve2012Inngår i: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 22, nr 7, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the use of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuators for high gas flow control is investigated. A theoretical model for effective gas flow control is presented and gate microvalve prototypes are fabricated. The SMA wire actuator demonstrates the robust flow control of more than 1600 sccm at a pressure drop of 200 kPa. The valve can be successfully switched at over 10 Hz and at an actuation power of 90 mW. Compared to the current state-of-the-art high-flow microvalves, the proposed solution benefits from a low-voltage actuator with low overall power consumption. This paper demonstrate that SMA wire actuators are well suited for high-pressurehigh-flow applications.

  • 24.
    Haasl, Sjoerd
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Ridgeway, Anthony S.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Sadoon, Samir
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Out-of-Plane Knife-Gate Microvalves for Controlling Large Gas Flows2006Inngår i: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 1281-1288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers design issues for microvalves for large gas flow control. It introduces out-of-plane knife-gate microvalves as a novel design concept and a proportional microvalve concept for pressure control applications. The design of three different actuator-gate configurations and first prototypes are presented. The first valve prototypes feature thermal silicon-aluminum bimorph actuators and the pressure-flow performance per chip area of the demonstrator valve presented is greatly increased using out-of-plane actuation and an out-of-plane orifice. The characterization of the actuators and of the pressure-flow performance is presented. The prototype valve allows for a flow change of Delta Q = 3.4 standard liters per minute (SLPM) at a pressure change of Delta P = 95 kPa (P-in = 196.3 kPa, P-out = 101.3 kPa) on an active chip area of only 2.3 x 3.7 mm(2).

  • 25.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Somjit, Nutapong
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Sterner, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Baghchehsaraei, Zargham
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Saharil, Farizah
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Microwave MEMS Activities at KTH- Royal Institute of Technology2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Somjit, Nutapong
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Sterner, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Saharil, Farizah
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Microwave MEMS activities at the Royal Institute of Technology2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Sandström, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Grund, T.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Kohl, M.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Wafer-Scale Manufacturing of Robust Trimorph Bulk SMA Microactuators2008Inngår i: ACTUATOR 08, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Borgmann H., 2008, s. 382-385Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the concept of wafer-level fabrication and integration of robust bulk SMA microactuators based on selective adhesive bonding of cold-rolled SMA sheets to silicon wafers. Contact printing of an adhesive polymer ensures a selective bonding when transferring full SMA sheets to silicon structures on a patterned wafer. The induced stress of a thin dielectric film deposited on top of the SMA sheet ensures a stable and built-in reset mechanism of the actuators. The trimorph microactuators can be actuated by indirect resistive heating using electrical current through a thin metal film. We report on the successful wafer-scale fabrication of actuator cantilevers and their characteristics. First test cantilevers show a cold-state deflection of 300 mu m which, however, is limited by the silicon substrate. Upon heating, the cantilever shows a stroke of approx. 80 mu m.

  • 28.
    Sandström, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    FULL WAFER INTEGRATION OF SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY MICROACTUATORS USING ADHESIVE BONDING2009Inngår i: 15th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE TRANSDUCERS 2009), IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, s. 845-848Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the wafer-scale manufacturing of microactuators based on bulk shape memory alloy material integrated using adhesive bonding. The work addresses key technical challenges related to the wafer-scale fabrication of bulk SMA micro actuators, including wafer-scale integration of patterned SMA sheets to structured Si wafers and the integration of cold state reset layers to the microactuators. Contact printing of an adhesive polymer ensures a selective bonding when transferring full SMA sheets to silicon structures on a patterned wafer. The stressed films deposited on top of the SMA microactuator ensure a built-in reset mechanism of the actuators. The paper reports on the successful wafer-scale integration of wafer-sized SMA sheets and the wafer-scale fabrication of actuator cantilevers. First test cantilevers with a length of 2.5 mm show a stroke of approx. 180 ï¿œm.

  • 29.
    Wijngaart, Wouter van der
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Despont, R. Michel
    Bhattacharyya, Debrabata
    Kirby, Paul B.
    Wilson, Stephen
    Jourdain, Roland
    Braun, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Sandström, Niklas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Barth, Johannes
    Grund, Thomas
    Kohl, Manfred
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Zimmer, Fabian
    Increasing the Performance per Cost of Microsystems by Transfer Bonding Manufacturing Techniques2008Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
1 - 29 of 29
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