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  • 1.
    Cheemakurthy, Harsha
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Zhang, Meng
    Garme, Karl
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Inland-Waterway Barge in Fresh Water Ice Conditions2019In: Proceedings of the Annual International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference: Proceedings of The Twenty-ninth (2019) International OCEAN AND POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 799-806Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increased awareness of the benefits of utilizing inland waterways (IWW) from a transport efficiency and an emission control point of view. However, due to presence of ice in water bodies, vessels designed for non-ice river operations cannot operate during the winter months. This paper analyses a grillage representative of barge’s bow region using non-linear finite element analysis (NL FEA) and assesses survivability in comparison with load limits prescribed by latest Finnish Swedish Ice Class Rules (FSICR) 2017 rules, International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) Polar Cass 6 (PC6) rules and simplified plastic collapse limit states calculated by Daley (2002). The NLFEA study included strength contributions from strain hardening and membrane stress and it was found that the limit state described by rupture stress was significantly larger. It was found that allowance for plasticity can reduce structural scantling requirements for fresh water ice operating vessels. The study also validated latest FSIRCR 2017 requirements.

  • 2.
    Cheemakurthy, Harsha
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Zhang, Meng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Garme, Karl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Naval Systems.
    Burman, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Ehlers, S.
    Germany.
    Franz Von Bock, R. U.
    Germany.
    Polach, x
    Germany.
    Statistical estimation of uncertainties associated with ship operations in fresh water ice2018In: Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers , 2018, p. 1608-1615Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational Time Window (OTW) and its confidence level are important for vessels operating in ice covered waters. This can be evaluated by quantifying all contributing factors in terms of their influence along with respective associated uncertainties. For a case study involving a barge operating in Lake Mälaren, Sweden, five criteria are evaluated, and associated uncertainties are quantified using Variation Mode and Effect Analysis (VMEA) to give individual contribution towards overall uncertainty. Ship resistance due to ice and ice loads dominated over other criteria with highest contributions to uncertainty at 28% and 72% respectively.

  • 3.
    Zhang, Meng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Naval Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ice load prediction for design of ice-going ships for inland waterways2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing interest in utilizing the inland waterways (IWW) in European countries, the design of IWW vessels gains attention both from a transport efficiency and an emission control point of view. However, unlike in western and central European countries, in Nordic countries, e.g. Sweden, IWW ships must deal with ice on the fairway during every winter. Usually, IWW ships are designed without ice concerns and are structurally weaker compared to ships designed according to ice class notification from the classification societies. Developing such ships requires particular concerns since there is no strict requirements regarding ice class notifications for IWW ships. A primary challenge is to estimate both the global and local ice loads acting on the ship hull structure. To consolidate the design problems for IWW ice-going ships, Lake Mälaren is selected. Ice conditions, i.e. ice type and concentration, and ice data, e.g. ice thickness and ice flexural strength, are extracted and analysed for the ice load estimation. The ice mechanical properties have great influence on the ice load. Ice characteristics are studied based on empirical formulae and properties are calibrated by reference data.

    The deterministic approach is widely used to predict the ice loads. It is suitable when all variables, i.e. ship geometry and ice properties, are known and refers to rule-based design hereby. For first year light ice conditions in Lake Mälaren, the Finnish Swedish Ice Class Rule (FSICR) is widely used. The thesis uses guidelines from the Finnish Swedish Ice Class Rules as a reference and compare the results with other methods.

    The probabilistic approach, on contrary, is useful when certain variables are unknow, which are interpreted as random variables, for instance ice breaking pattern. Here the probabilistic method and ice-hull interaction mechanism are studied. The probabilistic method simplifies the ice pressure in relation to the contact area between the ice and the ship hull. It predicts maximum ice pressure acting on the ship hull based on field ice test data and ice exposure conditions. Such semi-empirical method can be used regardless of ship type and size. For this, a numerical model is introduced based on ice-hull collision mechanisms and the essential ice breaking characteristics. The physical mechanism is studied for idealizing ship-ice impact model. The idealization model includes the ice failure process, ice conditions and ship geometry. The ice failure is assumed to be initiated by crushing ice and followed by breaking due to bending failure. Ice properties are set as constant values without any variations. The stochasticity in interact process is represented by randomness in collision location and number of pieces of ice floe formed after breaking. An energy method is used to calculate the ice crushing force, indentation displacement and contact area. The ice bending scenario is simplified as an infinite plate resting on an elastic foundation under a concentrated load. Ice impact load and critical load can be obtained for global and local structural assessment respectively. The structural responses and structural strength of a representative panel at linear and nonlinear contexts are investigated as well. Ship structure is commonly designed with material yield strength as limit. However, the study shows a lighter structure can be achieved if plastic deformation is allowed without causing failure. Therefore, the design can be optimized with regards to ice loading capacity and weight control.

  • 4.
    Zhang, Meng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Cheemakurthy, Harsha
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Ehlers, Soeren
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.;Hamburg Univ Technol, D-21073 Hamburg, Germany..
    von Bock und Polach, R. U. Franz
    Hamburg Univ Technol, D-21073 Hamburg, Germany..
    Garme, Karl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Burman, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    ICE PRESSURE PREDICTION BASED ON THE PROBABILISTIC METHOD FOR ICE-GOING VESSELS IN INLAND WATERWAYS2018In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME 37TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OCEAN, OFFSHORE AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING, 2018, VOL 8, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2018, article id V008T07A038Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing need to utilize inland waterways (IWW), the design for IWW vessels gains attention both from a transport efficiency and an emission control point of view. The primarily issue is to estimate the ice pressure acting on the ship hull for inland waterways. Ice information for Lake Malaren is extracted and analysed in this work. Since the ice properties have great influence on the impact load, they are studied based on empirical formulae and are calibrated by reference data. The ice impact is then predicted for an inland water barge. Probabilistic method is selected to derive the load based on available field test data. Several parent datasets are chosen, and different design strategies are implemented to evaluate the ice impact load and investigate the influences from exposure factors. The paper finds that the design curve of alpha = 0.265a(-0.57) can be used for Lake Malaren. The approach itself introduces a possible way to investigate loads on ice affected IWW.

  • 5.
    Zhang, Meng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Cheemakurthy, Harsha
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Ehlers, Soren
    Hamburg University of Technology.
    Polach, R. U. Franz von Bock und
    Hamburg University of Technology.
    Garme, Karl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Naval Systems.
    Burman, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Ice Pressure Prediction Based on the Probabilistic Method for Ice-Going Vessels in Inland Waterways2018In: Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering-Transactions of The Asme, ISSN 0892-7219, E-ISSN 1528-896X, Vol. 141, no 2, article id 021501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing need to utilize inland waterways (IWW), the design for IWW vessels gains attention both from a transport efficiency and an emission control point of view. The primarily issue is to estimate the ice pressure acting on the ship hull for inland waterways. Ice information for Lake Mälaren is extracted and analysed in this work. Since the ice properties have great influence on the impact load, they are studied based on empirical formulae and are calibrated by reference data. The ice impact is then predicted for an inland water barge. Probabilistic method is selected to derive the load based on available field test data. Several parent datasets are chosen, and different design strategies are implemented to evaluate the ice impact load and investigate the influences from exposure factors. The paper finds that the design curve of α = 0.265α-0.57 can be used for Lake Mälaren. The approach itself introduces a possible way to investigate loads on ice affected IWW.With increasing need to utilize inland waterways (IWW), the design for IWW vessels gains attention both from a transport efficiency and an emission control point of view. The primarily issue is to estimate the ice pressure acting on the ship hull for inland waterways. Ice information for Lake Mälaren is extracted and analysed in this work. Since the ice properties have great influence on the impact load, they are studied based on empirical formulae and are calibrated by reference data. The ice impact is then predicted for an inland water barge. Probabilistic method is selected to derive the load based on available field test data. Several parent datasets are chosen, and different design strategies are implemented to evaluate the ice impact load and investigate the influences from exposure factors. The paper finds that the design curve of α = 0.265α-0.57 can be used for Lake Mälaren. The approach itself introduces a possible way to investigate loads on ice affected IWW.

  • 6.
    Zhang, Meng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Naval Systems.
    Cheemakurthy, Harsha
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Naval Systems.
    Garme, Karl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Naval Systems.
    Burman, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    An Analytical Model for Ice Impact Load Prediction2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For ships running on ice-covered waters, the ice impact load on ship structure shall be carefully considered. This paper proposes an analytical model which takes two most important ice failure modes, localized crushing and bending breaking, into consideration. The energy method is introduced to estimate the crushing force and the indentation displacement for different scenarios. Ice bending breaking scenario is simplified as a semi-infinite plate under a distributed load resting on an elastic foundation. The two ice failure modes are assumed to share the same contact area. This model is useful to predict the ice impact load and creates a bridge between design parameters (ice properties and ship geometry) and structure loads. 

  • 7.
    Zhang, Meng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Naval Systems. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. 8910127185.
    Garme, Karl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Burman, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Zhou, Li
    A Numerical Ice Load Prediction Model Based on Ice-Hull Collision Mechanism2020In: Applied Sciences, ISSN ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simplified numerical model is introduced to predict ice impact force acting on the ship hull in level ice condition. The model is based on ice-hull collision mechanisms and the essential ice breaking characteristics. The two critical ice failure modes, localized crushing and bending breaking, are addressed. An energy method is used to estimate the crushing force and the indentation displacement for different geometry schemes of ice-ship interaction. Ice bending breaking scenario is taken as a semi-infinite plate under a distributed load resting on an elastic foundation. An integrated complete ice-hull impact event is introduced with ice failure modes and breaking patterns. Impact location randomness and number of broken ice wedges are considered in order to establish a stochastic model. The analysis is validated by comparison with the model ice test of a shuttle passenger ferry performed in May 2017 for SSPA Sweden AB at Aker Arctic Technology Inc. Good agreement is achieved with appropriate parameter selection assumed from the model test and when ice bending failure is dominant. This model can be used to predict the ice impact load and creates a bridge between design parameters (ice properties and ship geometry) and structure loads.

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