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  • 1.
    Andreasson, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Control of Multi-Agent Systems with Applications to Distributed Frequency Control Power Systems2013Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-agent systems are interconnected control systems with many application domains. The first part of this thesis considers nonlinear multi-agent systems, where the control input can be decoupled into a product of a nonlinear gain function depending only on the agent's own state, and a nonlinear interaction function depending on the relative states of the agent's neighbors. We prove stability of the overall system, and explicitly characterize the equilibrium state for agents with both single- and double-integrator dynamics.

    Disturbances may seriously degrade the performance of multi-agent systems. Even constant disturbances will in general cause the agents to diverge, rather than to converge, for many control protocols. In the second part of this thesis we introduce distributed proportional-integral controllers to attenuate constant disturbances in multi-agent systems with first- and second-order dynamics. We derive explicit stability criteria based on the integral gain of the controllers.

    Lastly, this thesis presents both centralized and distributed frequency controllers for electrical power transmission systems. Based on the theory developed for multi-agent systems, a decentralized controller regulating the system frequencies under load changes is proposed. An optimal distributed frequency controller is also proposed, which in addition to regulating the frequencies to the nominal frequency, minimizes the cost of power generation. 

  • 2.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Amin, Saurabh
    TRUST Center, University of California, Berkeley.
    Schwartz, Galina
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sastry, Shankar
    TRUST Center, University of California, Berkeley.
    Correlated Failures of Power Systems: Analysis of the Nordic Grid2011Inngår i: Preprints of Workshop on Foundations of Dependable and Secure Cyber-Physical Systems, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we have analyzed the effectsof correlated failures of power lines on the total systemload shed. The total system load shed is determined bysolving the optimal load shedding problem, which is thesystem operator’s best response to a system failure.We haveintroduced a Monte Carlo based simulation framework forestimating the statistics of the system load shed as a functionof stochastic network parameters, and provide explicitguarantees on the sampling accuracy. This framework hasbeen applied to a 470 bus model of the Nordic power systemand a correlated Bernoulli failure model. It has been foundthat increased correlations between Bernoulli failures ofpower lines can dramatically increase the expected valueas well as the variance of the system load shed.

  • 3.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Undamped Nonlinear Consensus Using Integral Lyapunov Functions2012Inngår i: 2012 American Control Conference (ACC), IEEE Computer Society, 2012, s. 6644-6649Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes a class of nonlinear consensus algorithms where the input of an agent can be decoupled into a product of a gain function of the agents own state, and a sum of interaction functions of the relative states of its neighbors. We prove the stability of the protocol for both single and double integrator dynamics using novel Lyapunov functions, and provide explicit formulas for the consensus points. The results are demonstrated through simulations of a realistic example within the framework of our proposed consensus algorithm.

  • 4.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Distributed vs. centralized power systems frequency control2013Inngår i: 2013 European Control Conference, ECC 2013, 2013, s. 3524-3529Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers a distributed control algorithm for frequency control of electrical power systems. We propose a distributed controller which retains the reference frequency of the buses under unknown load changes, while asymptotically minimizing a quadratic cost of power generation. For comparison, we also propose a centralized controller which also retains the reference frequency while minimizing the same cost of power generation. We derive sufficient stability criteria for the parameters of both controllers. The controllers are evaluated by simulation on the IEEE 30 bus test network, where their performance is compared.

  • 5.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Control of MTDC Transmission Systems under Local Information2014Inngår i: Decision and Control (CDC), 2014 IEEE 53rd Annual Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, s. 1335-1340Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) is a commonly used technology for long-distance electric power transmission, mainly due to its low resistive losses. In this paper a distributed controller for multi-terminal high-voltage direct current (MTDC) transmission systems is considered. Sufficient conditions for when the proposed controller renders the closed-loop system asymptotically stable are provided. Provided that the closed loop system is asymptotically stable, it is shown that in steady-state a weighted average of the deviations from the nominal voltages is zero. Furthermore, a quadratic cost of the current injections is minimized asymptotically.

  • 6.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centrum för Autonoma System, CAS.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Distributed controllers for multiterminal HVDC transmission systems2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems, ISSN 2325-5870, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 564-574Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) is a commonly used technology for long-distance electric power transmission, mainly due to its low resistive losses. In this paper the voltagedroop method (VDM) is reviewed, and three novel distributed controllers for multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) transmission systems are proposed. Sufficient conditions for when the proposed controllers render the closed-loop system asymptotically stable are provided. These conditions give insight into suitable controller architecture, e.g., that the communication graph should be identical with the graph of the MTDC system, including edge weights. Provided that the closed-loop systems are asymptotically stable, it is shown that the voltages asymptotically converge to within predefined bounds. Furthermore, a quadratic cost of the injected currents is asymptotically minimized. The proposed controllers are evaluated on a four-bus MTDC system.

  • 7.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Distributed PI-Control with Applications to Power Systems Frequency Control2014Inngår i: American Control Conference (ACC), 2014, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, s. 3183-3188Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers a distributed PI-controller for networked dynamical systems. Sufficient conditions for when the controller is able to stabilize a general linear system and eliminate static control errors are presented. The proposed controller is applied to frequency control of power transmission systems. Sufficient stability criteria are derived, and it is shown that the controller parameters can always be chosen so that the frequencies in the closed loop converge to nominal operational frequency. We show that the load sharing property of the generators is maintained, i.e., the input power of the generators is proportional to a controller parameter. The controller is evaluated by simulation on the IEEE 30 bus test network, where its effectiveness is demonstrated.

  • 8.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Distributed Control of Networked Dynamical Systems: Static Feedback, Integral Action and Consensus2014Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 59, nr 7, s. 1750-1764Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes distributed control protocols for first- and second-order networked dynamical systems. We propose a class of nonlinear consensus controllers where the input of each agent can be written as a product of a nonlinear gain, and a sum of nonlinear interaction functions. By using integral Lyapunov functions, we prove the stability of the proposed control protocols, and explicitly characterize the equilibrium set. We also propose a distributed proportional-integral (PI) controller for networked dynamical systems. The PI controllers successfully attenuate constant disturbances in the network. We prove that agents with single-integrator dynamics are stable for any integral gain, and give an explicit tight upper bound on the integral gain for when the system is stable for agents with double-integrator dynamics. Throughout the paper we highlight some possible applications of the proposed controllers by realistic simulations of autonomous satellites, power systems and building temperature control.

  • 9.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Li, N.
    Dynamical decentralized voltage control of multi-terminal HVDC grids2017Inngår i: 2016 European Control Conference, ECC 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 1519-1524, artikkel-id 7810505Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) is a commonly used technology for long-distance electric power transmission, mainly due to its low resistive losses. When connecting multiple HVDC lines into a multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) system, several challenges arise. To ensure safe and efficient operation of MTDC systems, the voltage of all terminals need to be steered to within an operational range. In this paper we study the commonly used decentralized voltage droop controller, and show that it in general does not steer the voltages to within the operational range. We propose a decentralized PI controller with deadband, and show that it always steers the voltages to within the operational range regardless of the loads. Additionally we show that the proposed controller inherits the property of proportional power sharing from the droop controller, provided that both the loads and the line resistances are sufficiently low. The results are validated through simulation in Matlab.

  • 10.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Nazari, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektriska energisystem.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Ghandhari, Mehrdad
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektriska energisystem.
    Distributed Voltage and Current Control of Multi-Terminal High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission Systems2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th IFAC World Congress, 2014, IFAC Papers Online, 2014, Vol. 19, s. 11910-11916Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) is a commonly used technology for long-distance power transmission, due to its low resistive losses and low costs. In this paper, a novel distributed controller for multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) systems is proposed. Under certain conditions on the controller gains, it is shown to stabilize the MTDC system. The controller is shown to always keep the voltages close to the nominal voltage, while assuring that the injected power is shared fairly among the converters. The theoretical results are validated by simulations, where the affect of communication time-delays is also studied.

  • 11.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Distributed integral action: stability analysis and frequency control of power systems2012Inngår i: 2012 IEEE 51st Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), IEEE , 2012, s. 2077-2083Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes distributed proportional-integral controllers. We prove that integral action can be successfully applied to consensus algorithms, where attenuation of static disturbances is achieved. These control algorithms are applied to decentralized frequency control of electrical power systems. We show that the proposed algorithm can attenuate step disturbances of power loads. We provide simulations of the proposed control algorithm on the IEEE 30 bus test system that demonstrate its efficiency.

  • 12.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Tegling, Emma
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Performance and scalability of voltage controllers in multi-terminal HVDC networks2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 3029-3034, artikkel-id 7963412Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we compare the transient performance of a multi-terminal high-voltage DC (MTDC) grid equipped with a slack bus for voltage control to that of two distributed control schemes: A standard droop controller and a distributed averaging proportional-integral (DAPI) controller. We evaluate performance in terms of an ℋ2 metric that quantifies expected deviations from nominal voltages, and show that the transient performance of a droop or DAPI controlled MTDC grid is always superior to that of an MTDC grid with a slack bus. In particular, by studying systems built up over lattice networks, we show that the ℋ2 norm of a slack bus controlled system may scale unboundedly with network size, while the norm remains uniformly bounded with droop or DAPI control. We simulate the control strategies on radial MTDC networks to demonstrate that the transient performance for the slack bus controlled system deteriorates significantly as the network grows, which is not the case with the distributed control strategies.

  • 13.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wiget, R.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Andersson, G.
    Coordinated frequency control through MTDC transmission systems2015Inngår i: IFAC Proceedings, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 48, nr 22, s. 106-111Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a distributed dynamic controller for sharing frequency control reserves of asynchronous AC systems connected through a multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) grid. We derive sufficient stability conditions, which guarantee that the frequencies of the AC systems converge to the nominal frequency. Simultaneously, the global quadratic cost of power generation is minimized, resulting in an optimal distribution of generation control reserves. The proposed controller also regulates the voltages of the MTDC grid, asymptotically minimizing a quadratic cost function of the deviations from the nominal voltages. The proposed controller is tested on a high-order dynamic model of a power system consisting of asynchronous AC grids, modelled as IEEE 14 bus networks, connected through a six-terminal HVDC grid. The performance of the controller is successfully evaluated through simulation.

  • 14.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wiget, R.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Andersson, G.
    Distributed Frequency Control Through MTDC Transmission Systems2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 250-260, artikkel-id 7456314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose distributed dynamic controllers for sharing both frequency containment and restoration reserves of asynchronous ac systems connected through a multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) grid. The communication structure of the controller is distributed in the sense that only local and neighboring state information is needed, rather than the complete state. We derive sufficient stability conditions, which guarantee that the ac frequencies converge to the nominal frequency. Simultaneously, a global quadratic power generation cost function is minimized. The proposed controller also regulates the voltages of the MTDC grid, asymptotically minimizing a quadratic cost function of the deviations from the nominal dc voltages. The results are valid for distributed cable models of the HVDC grid (e.g., $\pi$-links), as well as ac systems of arbitrary number of synchronous machines, each modeled by the swing equation. We also propose a decentralized communication-free version of the controller. The proposed controllers are tested on a high-order dynamic model of a power system consisting of asynchronous ac grids, modeled as IEEE 14 bus networks, connected through a six-terminal HVDC grid. The performance of the controller is successfully evaluated through simulation. © 1969-2012 IEEE.

  • 15.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wiget, Roger
    ETH Zurich.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Andersson, Göran
    ETH Zurich.
    Distributed Primary Frequency Control through Multi-Terminal HVDC Transmission Systems2015Inngår i: American Control Conference (ACC), 2015, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, s. 5029-5034Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a decentralized controller for sharing primary AC frequency control reserves through a multi-terminal HVDC grid. By using passivity arguments, the proposed controller is shown to stabilize the closed-loop system consisting of the interconnected AC and HVDC grids, given any positive controller gains. The static control errors resulting from the proportional controller are quantified and bounded by analyzing the equilibrium of the closed-loop system. The proposed controller is applied to a test grid consisting of three asynchronous AC areas interconnected by an HVDC grid, and its effectiveness is validated through simulation.

  • 16.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Wiget, Roger
    Power Systems Laboratory,Switzerland.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Andersson, Göran
    Power Systems Laboratory,Switzerland.
    Distributed Secondary Frequency Control through MTDC Transmission Systems2015Inngår i: Decision and Control (CDC), 2015 IEEE 54th Annual Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, s. 2627-2634Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present distributed controllers for sharing primary and secondary frequency control reserves for asynchronous AC transmission systems, which are connected through a multi-terminal HVDC grid. By using passivity arguments, the equilibria of the closed-loop system are shown to be globally asymptotically stable. We quantify the static errors of the voltages and frequencies, and give upper bounds for these errors. It is also shown that the controllers have the property of power sharing, i.e., primary and secondary frequency control reserves are shared fairly amongst the AC systems. The proposed controllers are applied to a high-order dynamic model of of a power system consisting of asynchronous AC grids connected through a 6-terminal HVDC grid.

  • 17.
    Jayakrishnan, Nair
    et al.
    Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, California Institute of Technology.
    Andreasson, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Andrew, Lachlan
    Swinburne University of Technology.
    Low, Steven
    Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, California Institute of Technology.
    Doyle, John
    Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology.
    File Fragmentation over an Unreliable Channel2010Inngår i: Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, San Diego, March 2010, IEEE , 2010, s. 1-9Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been recently discovered that heavy-tailed file completion time can result from protocol interaction even when file sizes are light-tailed. A key to this phenomenon is the RESTART feature where if a file transfer is interrupted before it is completed, the transfer needs to restart from the beginning. In this paper, we show that independent or bounded fragmentation produces light-tailed file completion time as long as the file size is light-tailed, i.e., in this case, heavy-tailed file completion time can only originate from heavy-tailed file sizes. If the file size is heavy-tailed, then the file completion time is clearly heavy-tailed. For this case, we show that when the file size distribution is regularly varying, then under independent or bounded fragmentation, the completion time tail distribution function is asymptotically upper bounded by that of the original file size stretched by a constant factor. We then prove that if the failure distribution has non-decreasing failure rate, the expected completion time is minimized by dividing the file into equal sized fragments; this optimal fragment size is unique but depends on the file size. We also present a simple blind fragmentation policy where the fragment sizes are constant and independent of the file size and prove that it is asymptotically optimal. Finally, we bound the error in expected completion time due to error in modeling of the failure process.

  • 18.
    Jayakrishnan, Nair
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.
    Andreasson, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Andrew, Lachlan
    Monash University.
    Low, Steven H.
    California Institute of Technology.
    Doyle, John
    California Institute of Technology.
    On Channel Failures, File Fragmentation Policies, and Heavy-Tailed Completion Times2014Inngår i: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. PP, nr 99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been recently discovered that heavy-tailed completion times can result from protocol interaction even when file sizes are light-tailed. A key to this phenomenon is the use of a restart policy where if the file is interrupted before it is completed, it needs to restart from the beginning. In this paper, we show that fragmenting a file into pieces whose sizes are either bounded or independently chosen after each interruption guarantees light-tailed completion time as long as the file size is light-tailed; i.e., in this case, heavy-tailed completion time can only originate from heavy-tailed file sizes. If the file size is heavy-tailed, then the completion time is necessarily heavy-tailed. For this case, we show that when the file size distribution is regularly varying, then under independent or bounded fragmentation, the completion time tail distribution function is asymptotically bounded above by that of the original file size stretched by a constant factor. We then prove that if the distribution of times between interruptions has nondecreasing failure rate, the expected completion time is minimized by dividing the file into equal-sized fragments; this optimal fragment size is unique but depends on the file size. We also present a simple blind fragmentation policy where the fragment sizes are constant and independent of the file size and prove that it is asymptotically optimal. Both these policies are also shown to have desirable completion time tail behavior. Finally, we bound the error in expected completion time due to error in modeling of the failure process. 

  • 19.
    Tegling, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Andreasson, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Simpson-Porco, John W.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Improving performance of droop-controlled microgrids through distributed PI-control2016Inngår i: 2016 AMERICAN CONTROL CONFERENCE (ACC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, s. 2321-2327Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates transient performance of inverter-based microgrids in terms of the resistive power losses incurred in regulating frequency under persistent stochastic disturbances. We model the inverters as second-order oscillators and compare two algorithms for frequency regulation: the standard frequency droop controller and a distributed proportional-integral (PI) controller. The transient power losses can be quantified using an input-output H-2 norm. We show that the distributed PI-controller, which has previously been proposed for secondary frequency control (the elimination of static errors), also has the potential to significantly improve performance by reducing transient power losses. This loss reduction is shown to be larger in a loosely interconnected network than in a highly interconnected one, whereas losses do not depend on connectivity if standard droop control is employed. Moreover, our results indicate that there is an optimal tuning of the distributed PI-controller for loss reduction. Overall, our results provide an additional argument in favor of distributed algorithms for secondary frequency control in microgrids.

  • 20. Wiget, R.
    et al.
    Andersson, G.
    Andreasson, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dynamic simulation of a combined AC and MTDC grid with decentralized controllers to share primary frequency control reserves2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE Eindhoven PowerTech, PowerTech 2015, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of multi-terminal HVDC grids is a promising option to tackle the coming challenges in long distance power transmission, but the combined operation of HVDC and AC grids will bring certain challenges. The dynamic interaction from the fast controllable converter station with the rotational inertia dependent AC grids has to be investigated in detail, as well as how the converter stations will be controlled in the static and dynamic case. This paper will focus on the dynamic case and proposes a decentralized controller structure to control the HVDC converter power set-points. The proposed controller does not rely on real-time communication nor on a slack bus. A simulation study is presented to demonstrate the implementation of the controller.

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