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  • 1.
    Khan, Ershad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Techno-Economic Analysis of Small Scale Biogas Based Poly generation Systems in Bangladesh2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to electricity, clean drinking water andclean cooking gas services are genuine needs of the rural poor in order to improvetheir living conditions. One can think of addressing these needs individually orinstead use an integrated approach. Looking for solutions using a holisticapproach should always have a better impact. A small scale and distributedbiogas based poly generation system could be an effective solution to bringsustainable development to remote and rural areas of Bangladesh. Biogasdigesters are a popular and promising rural energy technology and the integrationof biogas production with power generation and water purification is aninnovative approach. This paper discusses such an integrated poly generationsystem and analyzes the techno-economic performance of the scheme for meetingthe demand of electricity, cooking energy and safe drinking water of 30households in a rural village of Bangladesh. The mass flows and energy balance,life cycle cost (levelized cost) of producing electricity, cooking gas and safedrinking water as well as the payback period of such a poly generation system wereestimated. In this study, it has been found that this poly generation system ismuch more competitive and promising than other available technologies whenattempting to solve the energy and arsenic-related problems in Bangladesh. Thedeterminant factors influencing the performance of the system and their impacton the cost have been looked at under different conditions. This paper willserve as a background paper in order to expand research further in thedirection of making biogas based poly generation system as a successfulbusiness solution in rural areas.

  • 2.
    Khan, Ershad Ullah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Techno-economic analysis of small scale biogas based polygeneration systems: Bangladesh case study2014In: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, E-ISSN 2213-1396, Vol. 7, p. 68-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to electricity, clean energy, and safe drinking water services are genuine needs of the rural poor for their welfare. These needs can be addressed either individually or in an integrated approach. Biogas digesters are promising in the rural setting and integration of biogas production with power generation and water purification is an innovative concept that could be applied in remote areas of Bangladesh. This paper presents a new concept for integrated biogas based polygeneration and analyzes the techno-economic performance of the scheme for meeting the demand of electricity, cooking energy and safe drinking water of 30 households in a rural village of Bangladesh. The specific technologies chosen for the key energy conversion steps are as follows: plug-flow digester; internal combustion engine; and air-gap membrane distillation. Mass flows and energy balance, levelized cost of producing electricity, cooking gas and safe drinking water as well as the payback period of such a polygeneration system were analyzed. The results indicate that this polygeneration system is much more competitive and promising (in terms of levelized cost) than other available technologies when attempting to solve the energy and arsenic-related problems in Bangladesh. The payback period of such system is between 2.6 and 4 years.

  • 3.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analysis of Sustainability Indicators for Renewable Energy Based Rural Electrification2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are the renewable energy systems applied for rural electrification in developing countries sustainable? What governs the sustainability of rural electrification systems? Verifiable sustainability indicators need to be identified within technical, social, economic, environment and institutional dimensions of the system under evaluation in a given specific context. The various methods used in assessing the sustainability indicators have been briefly reviewed in this paper. The sustainability indicators within each sustainability dimension are again evaluated for each alternative that are under consideration and compared with a reference case.  All the indicators do not necessarily have same importance. These indicators can have different weight based on their importance in specific context. The questionnaire survey has been conducted with the local experts to determine the weighting factor of different indicators in the local context and finally the indicators under each sustainability dimension has been aggregated into one single index based on ratio of the sustainability indicators of two objects under analysis.. This index could help to have better comparison among various off-grid technologies and enhance the feasibility study of these available alternatives. This paper specifically analyzes the sustainability of rural electrification in Nepal with the technological alternatives viz. solar home systems, wind home systems  and micro-hydro comparing with fossil based technology diesel generator as reference. The analysis shows that under prevailing policy and market infrastructure in Nepal, micro-hydro technologies have strong sustainability indicators in terms of technical, economical and environmental dimensions compared to other technologies, but this technology is comparatively weaker on its institutional and social dimensions which need more attention in the project design and implementation.

  • 4.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analyzing Cooking Fuel and Stove Choices in China2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many rural dwellings are still using low grade solid fuels with traditional stoves to meet their cooking and heating energy demands. This results in significant indoor pollution, which caused health hazards especially to women and children who are mostly exposed. The mode of energy consumption and types of stoves in use may change with changes in prosperity. Product specific and socio economic parameters may also influence these choices. This project aimed to analyze and model cooking fuel and stove choices including standard economic variables such as income, prices and costs, along with some variables unique to the developing country setting such as inconvenience costs. Understanding the factors that determine household choices and demand for cooking energy services formed the basis for developing policy scenarios that can accelerate a quicker transition to either modern fuels or improved stoves. MESSAGE-Access model was used is this study.

  • 5.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Electricity crisis: possible way out2009In: The Telegraph, no 26, p. 4-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Off-grid Rural electrification in Nepal: A Glimpse2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Renewable Energy Market for Rural Electrification in Developing Countries: Country Case Nepal2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of abundant renewable resources, lack of fossil fuels and difficult geographical terrain for grid line extensions contribute to the advantages of renewable based decentralized rural electrification in Ne-pal. Solar home system (SHS) and micro-hydro are the most commonly adopted off-grid renewable energy technologies in the country. This dis-sertation examines the market of renewable energy based rural electrifi-cation within prevailing policy and programmes framework. The study verifies whether the market has been able to serve the poor in Nepal. It also captures the perception of various stakeholders (e.g. private sup-ply/installation companies, NGOs, financial institutions and the donor‘s programme) regarding the business, financing issues and the role of gov-ernment policy on the market development. In addition, the study dis-cusses and analyses renewable based rural electrification supply models, the economics behind rural electrification, market drivers and market distribution in the rural areas of Nepal.

    The financial mix in the off-grid rural electrification is generally charac-terized by subsidy, equity and credit. The study shows that awareness about renewable energy technologies and willingness to pay for electricity access has increased considerably. However, there is a huge financial gap between the cost of electrification and affordability among the poor. The distribution analysis shows there is significant increment in the extensive growth but decrease in the intensive growth rate of rural electrification thus indicating market expansion with uneven penetration among the ru-ral people. Solar PV technology is still not in the reach of the economic poor. Access to credit and cumbersome subsidy delivery mechanisms have been perceived as the major factors affecting the expansion of rural electrification by the stakeholders, requiring innovation in the credit and subsidy delivery system so that a larger rural population can be given ac-cess to electrification.

     

  • 8.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Sustainability of rural energy access in developing countries2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of access to modern energy has been well understood by governments and donor agencies in many developing countries, and significant effort has been made in recent years to address energy access challenges. However, despite these efforts, the International Energy Agency (IEA) has predicted that the energy access problem will remain unresolved by 2030. Therefore, adequate and appropriate action is needed to resolve this problem more quickly. This dissertation analyses policies and their impacts and will help researchers and policy makers in developing countries to (i) understand the impact of policies in the formation of a renewable energy (RE) market, (ii) consider the determinants of technological choices when promoting access to energy services and, (iii) better appreciate the sustainability performance of rural energy. For the purpose of analysis, several country cases from Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa region were carried out as these are the two main regions where the energy access problem are most acute.

    To understand the impact of policies in the formation of RE based rural electrification market, a case study was conducted in Nepal. The study has shown that rural electrification has been expanding as a consequence of market-oriented policies. When it comes to selection of electrification path-ways, different technological alternatives are analysed in Afghanistan and Nepal, taking levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) as the means to select cost effective options. The analysis has presented best-fit conditions for these various technological pathways in the two countries and verified whether they are following the appropriate and cost effective course in their efforts to expand rural electrification. For understanding the determinants of cooking fuel choices and to analyse policy implications in the transition of large populations from traditional to modern fuels, fuel choices are modelled in the case of China. Choices are modelled (using MESSAGE–ACCESS mod-el) with standard economic variables such as income, technology costs and fuel prices, along with some unique variable such as inconvenience costs. Future access scenarios are designed considering different policy options to accelerate the transition.

    Sustainability is one of the key concerns in terms of energy access. This dissertation introduces methods for evaluating (i) the sustainability performance of energy technologies and (ii) the status and progress of developing countries in providing sustainable energy access. Different sets of sustainability indicators are considered for the rural energy sector and aggregated to form a single composite index. The energy technology sustainability index (ETSI) is used for assessing the performance of different energy technological systems in the case of India. The analysis reveals that mature technologies such as biomass gasifiers, biogas and micro hydro have relatively better sustainability performance among the options considered, while solar and wind, though showing fairly good improvement in sustainability performance, still have difficulties competing with more mature and conventional technologies without policy support. The Energy Sustainability Index (ESI) has been applied to China, India, South Africa, Sri-Lanka, Bangladesh and Ghana between 1990 and 2010 to evaluate the status and progress made by these countries in rural energy sustainability. The analysis suggests that South Africa’s rural energy sustainability index is highest followed by China, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh and Ghana respectively. The rural energy sustainability has improved relatively over time in all countries except Ghana.

    The dissertation shows that policies are helping the rapid expansion of the RE market though with uneven penetration in rural Nepal. Access to credit and cumbersome subsidy delivery mechanism are perceived as the major factors affecting the expansion of rural electrification, requiring innovation. The electrification pathways taken by Nepal seem functional and moving in the right direction but some flaws in the delivery mechanisms require attention. Meanwhile in Afghanistan, pathways are not well defined and the country lacks a clear-cut national policy framework for the expansion of rural electrification. The analysis on fuel transition shows that even a fast developing country such as China will continue to have serious problems guaranteeing the access to solid fuels for cooking for one third of its rural population by 2030. The problem could be more severe in poorer nations. There-fore, further policy intervention addressing the high implicit discount rate of the poorer section of the population, reducing the upfront cost of more efficient technology (stoves) or the costs of cleaner fuels with subsidies must be considered to promote energy transition.

    Overall, this dissertation has analysed key issues in the global discussion about sustainable energy access. The methods for sustainability assessment suggested have been specially designed for rural settings in developing countries and are instrumental to assess the performance of rural energy technologies and track the progress of sustainable energy access efforts among rural households.

  • 9.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Dhital, Ram Prasad
    Alternative Energy Promotion Center-Nepal.
    Isolated and Mini-Grid Solar PV Systems: An Alternative Solution for Providing Electricity Access in Remote Areas (Case Study from Nepal).2015In: Solar Energy Storage, United Kingdom: Academic Press, 2015, p. 359-374Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nepal is a landlocked country with difficult geographical terrain and without fossil reserves. However, the country has been blessed with abundant renewable resources. All these facts have contributed to the advantages of renewable-energy-based decentralized rural electrification in Nepal. When making technological choices, the cost-effectiveness of the technologies must be considered. This study presents solar photovoltaic (PV) alternatives for rural electrification, considering off-grid solar PV for individual households and solar mini-grids for electrifying rural communities, and comparing them with the supply option with grid extension and electricity from a diesel generator for the case of Kyangshing village in Sindhupalchowk, Nepal. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) production with these various alternatives is compared, along with the sensitivity analysis for some of the crucial input assumptions. Analysis has shown that a solar PV-based mini-grid system is the most cost-effective option for electrification in the village. The business model and operational and management model for such a solar PV-based mini-grid system have also been proposed for guaranteeing the sustainability of the system.

  • 10.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Emran, Saad Been
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Greenhouse gas mitigation using poultry litter management techniques in Bangladesh2017In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 127, p. 155-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poultry activities have expanded significantly in Bangladesh in recent years. The litter generated from rural poultry farms is often dumped in low ground neighboring areas resulting in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as water and air pollution. This study estimates the GHG emissions of a typical rural layer poultry farm in Bangladesh, and identifies the GHG emissions reduction potential when poultry litter management techniques are used to produce biogas, generating electricity and bio-fertilizer. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been used for a systematic evaluation of GHG-emissions considering the local supply chain in a typical rural layer poultry farm. The analysis shows that the GHG-emissions at the poultry farm amount to 1735 KgCO2eq/10000 eggs produced if the litter is untreated. With the installation of an anaerobic digester, the emission intensity could be reduced by 65% if the gas is used to replace LPG for cooking purposes. If 100% digested slurry is utilized as bio-fertilizer, the emissions intensity could be further reduced by 17 times compared to the case without slurry utilization. These results justify the consideration of national programs to improve conditions in poultry farms in Bangladesh. 

  • 11.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Hassan, Ahmed
    Khan, Ershad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Addressing the rural energy and drinking water needs by using Biogas in rural Bangladesh2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Luukkanen, J.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Kaivo-Oja, J.
    Evaluating synergies and trade-offs among Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Explorative analyses of development paths in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the linkages between multiple targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may help to integrate different sectoral programmes and develop coherent cross-sectoral policy to explore synergies. Synergy is interaction among two or more actions, which will lead to an impact greater or less than the sum of individual effects. Therefore, synergy can be positive or negative (trade-off). This paper aims at developing an analytical framework to evaluate sectoral linkages and examine potential synergies and trade-offs among various SDGs' goals and targets. Synergies and trade-offs related to energy access (SDG7), clean water and sanitation access (SDG6), food security and sustainable agriculture (SDG2) and poverty alleviation (SDG1) have been evaluated from the perspective of developing countries using examples from South Asia (Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka) and Sub-Saharan Africa (Ghana, Ethiopia and Rwanda), and historical data for the period between 1990 and 2012. The analytical framework includes both qualitative and quantitative methods. Network analysis technique has been used for exploring the conceptual linkage among different indicators, and capturing the targets associated with SDGs. Advanced Sustainability Analysis (ASA) developed under the European framework programme has been used for quantifying the synergies and trade-offs among sustainability indicators. The analysis showed strong synergy among various SDG targets. Interestingly, the potential synergy differs from country to country and over time. Ghana and Sri Lanka had relatively higher potential synergy, whereas Rwanda and Nepal had relatively lower potential synergy among the various targets. Higher synergy values were evidenced in those cases where the policy have recognized and emphasized on linkages among cross-sectoral targets.

  • 13.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Luukkanen, Jyrki
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Kaivo-oja J, Jari
    Synergies and trade-off among SDGs for energy, clean water and sanitation, poverty alleviation, food security and sustainable agriculture.2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) comprises of 17 different goals with 169 targets. Understanding how these multiple targets and goals cut across different sectors and are linked may help to design and appraise common strategies and cross-sectoral policies towards integrated development programmes. This paper aims at developing a method for evaluating the synergies and trade-offs among various goals and targets within SDGs using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. We have analyzed synergy across four SDGs in developing countries, namely energy access (SDG 7), clean water and sanitation access (SDG 6), food security and sustainable agriculture (SDG 2) and poverty alleviation (SDG 1). These specific SDGs have been identified as priority areas in the Rio+20. Various targets related to the four SDGs have been analyzed in this paper with the use of indicators. Developing countries viz. Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka from South Asia and Ghana, Ethiopia and Rwanda from Africa have been chosen for the analysis. We analyze interactions among goals, and examine how the accomplishment of one target under a specific goal might help to attend multiple goals (mutually reinforcing or synergies), or how the accomplishment of targets under one specific goal might impact targets under another goal (imposing conditions or trade-offs). Network analysis technique has been used for exploring the conceptual linkage among these different indicators capturing the various targets associated with SDGs. Advanced Sustainability Analysis (ASA) approach developed under the European framework programme has been used for quantifying the synergy and trade-off among various SDGs. Based on the analysis, some coherent policy measures across energy, water/sanitation, food and poverty alleviation nexus are suggested.  

  • 14.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Pachauri, Shonali
    Nagai, Yu
    Analyzing cooking fuel and stove choices in China till 20302012In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 031805-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many people in China still burn low grade solid fuels in traditional stoves to meet their cooking and heating energy demands. This results in significant pollution, affecting the health of especially women and children who are exposed most. The mode of energy consumption and types of stoves in use may change with increasing prosperity. Product specific and socio-economic parameters also influence these choices. We analyze cooking fuel and stove choices in China. Choices are modeled to depend on standard economic variables such as income, technology costs, and fuel prices, along with some variables unique to the developing country setting such as inconvenience costs. Our analysis shows that 24% of the rural and 17% of the urban population will still depend on solid fuels in 2030 under a business as usual scenario. Various policy scenarios that can accelerate transition to modern fuels by 2030 are also analyzed in this paper and their costs, energy, emissions and health impacts assessed.

  • 15.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Pachauri, Shonali
    Rao, Narasimha
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assessing rural energy sustainability in developing countries2014In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 15-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing sustainable energy access is one of the most critical global challenges. This paper introduces a method for evaluating the status and progress of rural household energy sustainability in developing countries using a new composite indicator, the energy sustainability index (ESI). The ESI combines 13 techno-economic, environmental and social indicators of sustainability using principal component analysis (PCA). We apply the ES! to China, India, South Africa, Sri-Lanka, Bangladesh and Ghana between 1990 and 2010. The analysis suggests that South Africa's rural energy sustainability index is highest followed by China, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh and Ghana respectively. All the countries' rural energy sustainability has improved relatively over time except Ghana's. Improvements result mainly from increasing rural electricity use and increasing access to clean and efficient cooking fuels.

  • 16.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Salih, Nizam
    Universal Access to Electricity in Sri Lanka: Opportunities and challenges2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Alternative pathways for providing access to electricity in developing countries2013In: Renewable Enegy, ISSN 0960-1481, Vol. 57, p. 299-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion on electrification pathways tends to dangle between the merits of centralized on-grid versus decentralized off-grid electrification, and most of the time, both routes are promoted in parallel. However, the basis for choosing pathways has neither been very clear nor rational. This study compares three pathways for rural electrification considering (i) off-grid renewable energy (RE) technologies for individual households (ii) mini grids (with micro hydro and diesel generators) and (iii) grid extension. Different technological pathways are analyzed considering various technical and socio-economic parameters in two country cases: Nepal and Afghanistan. Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is taken as the main basis for comparison of the various options, in which both environmental externalities and life cycle costs are considered. The analysis shows that the micro hydro based mini grid technology is the most competitive alternative for electrifying isolated and remote rural areas in both countries. Individual household technology should be promoted only in places with scattered households where there is no possibility of mini grid solution. The choice of technology and the pathway adopted in Nepal seems functional, though some flaws within the pathways need to be addressed. In Afghanistan, the technological pathways for rural electrification are not well-defined and the country lacks a clear cut national policy framework for rural electrification. Here, micro hydro based mini grid would be a more sustainable proposition rather than diesel generators as promoted in the transitional phase. Afghanistan can benefit from lessons learnt in Nepal not least in the formation of markets for renewable technologies.

  • 18.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Biogas based poly-generation for providing access to clean energy services and drinking water2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Financing off-grid rural electrification: Country case Nepal2011In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 2194-2201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 61% of the total population of Nepal has no access to electricity. The majority is poor and live in rural areas. In recent years, rural electrification has had high priority in government policies, and micro hydro and solar PV have been the most commonly adopted off-grid technologies. The financial mix in the off-grid rural electrification is generally characterized by subsidy, equity and credit. In this paper, we analyze how rural electrification has been funded and the impact of subsidy policies on the renewable energy market, focusing on the projects implemented under the ‘subsidy policy 2000’. Our study is based on official data obtained from authorities in Nepal and a survey carried out among private supply and installation companies, NGOs and financial institutions. The study shows that awareness levels in adopting RE-technologies and willingness of people to access and pay for electricity have increased significantly. However, there is a huge financial gap between the cost of electrification and the affordability. Bridging this gap is a crucial issue that needs to be addressed for the smooth expansion of rural electrification in the country.

  • 20.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Renewable Energy for Rural Electrification in Developing Countries2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Renewable Energy in Rural Electrification: Country Case Nepal2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Renewable Energy Market in Rural Electrification: Country Case Nepal2012In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 168-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Markets for Renewable Energy (RE) technologies are emerging in Nepal in connection with rural electrification in the country. Two promising technologies are in evidence – solar home system (SHS) and micro-hydro. The availability of abundant renewable resources, lack of fossil fuels and difficult geographical terrain for grid line extensions contribute to the advantages of RE based decentralized rural electrification in Nepal. The distributional analysis shows increase in extensive growth and decrease in the intensive growth rate of rural electrification thus indicating market expansion with uneven penetration among the rural people. Solar PV technology is still not in the reach of the economic poor. This paper discusses and analyzes RE based rural electrification supply models, economics behind rural electrification, market drivers and market distribution in the rural areas of Nepal. Access to credit and cumbersome subsidy delivery mechanism have been perceived as the major factors affecting the expansion of rural electrification by the stakeholders, requiring innovations in credit and subsidy delivery system so that a larger rural population can have access to electrification.

  • 23.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Smart pathways for providing electricity in developing countries2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Using a sustainability index to assess energy technologies for rural electrification2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 41, p. 1351-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a method for evaluating the sustainability performance of energy technologies applied in rural electrification, using the multivariate technique called Principal component analysis (PCA).The sustainability is assessed in terms of energy technology sustainability index (ETSI). The ETSI has been used for assessing the sustainability performance of ten different energy systems in the case of India. Since this method is static in nature, the sustainability performance analysis is made for three different years (2005, 2010 and 2015) to capture technological advancements and changes in market conditions for the various technologies over time. The result shows that mature technologies such as biomass gasifiers, biogas and microhydro technologies have relatively better sustainability performance among the options analyzed. There is slight increment in their sustainability performance in the ten year period considered. Emerging technologies such as solar and wind have fairly good improvement in the sustainability performance over the studied time but still have difficulties competing with the mature technologies and conventional technologies without policy support. Analysis has been made with probable, minimum and maximum capital costs, operational and fuel costs to capture uncertainty among the input assumptions, and sensitivity has been reflected in the analysis of energy technology sustainability index (ETSI). This ETSI could help improve energy technology assessments, particularly when it comes to the feasibility of available alternatives.

  • 25.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Green energy for development in Nepal2011In: The Road to Rio +20: For a development-led green economy, United Nations,UNCTAD , 2011, 2, p. 79-83Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Tessema, Zereay
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Mainstreaming and sector-wide approaches to sustainable energy access in Ethiopia2014In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 313-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to modern and sustainable energy services is a real challenge for countries where the majority of rural population is living in austere poverty. The importance of sustainable energy access is recognized in many developing countries, and there is growing international development assistance in the sector. However the achievements are still meager particularly in Sub Saharan African countries. Most countries often fail to prioritize sustainable energy services at the local level as a means to achieve economic growth at the national level as well as the Millennium Development Goals. This study is focused on Ethiopia and investigates the existing challenges and future prospects of mainstreaming sustainable energy access into the development planning process of the country, and the implications this may have for international donor agencies, national policy makers, private actors and local energy planners. The paper analyzes the institutional framework, sector policy and financial mechanisms in the country. It also discusses operational modalities of state and non-state actors in the process, and extracts policy recommendations.

1 - 26 of 26
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