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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Crack propagation under water pressure2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cracks in concrete structures such as a concrete dam can be exposed to water pressure, for example, uplift pressure. The water pressure can be significant and may result in cracks propagating through the structures and thus it may result in reduced service life. However, the knowledge of water pressure within the cracks is relatively limited and is often neglected or just roughly estimated. The influence of crack opening rate on the uplift pressure distribution in the crack and the pressure variation during opening or sudden crack closure are questions needed to investigate. As an attempt to answer those questions, a pilot study presented here describes the possibilities and limitations of the proposed experimental setup; and technology (penetrability meter and tomography) as an examination method for water pressure in propagation concrete cracks. The test specimens examined here are exclusively cylinders cast of concrete with or without an initial crack.

    The penetrability meter can be used to apply water pressure and to visualize the crack opening, X-Ray computed tomography test, was performed. KTH Civil and Architectural Engineering department has organized the laboratory resources.

    The examples reported in this work show that the technology and equipment have great potential for future work on crack propagation, however, sample design and preparation, as well as testing need further development.

  • 2.
    Ansell, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Computed tomography as investigation method for steel fibre reinforced tunnel shotcrete2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ansell, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Datortomografi som undersökningsmetod för ung och gammal, sprutad och gjuten betong för tunnlar2016Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ansell, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Nordström, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures. Sweco Energuide, Hydro Power & Dams, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Laboratory investigation of steel fibre reinforced sprayed concrete using a computed tomography method2018In: Eight International Symposium on SPRAYED CONCRETE - Modern Use of Wet Mix Sprayed Concrete for Underground Support, 2018, p. 24-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A laboratory method for investigation of cored samples of steel fibre reinforced sprayed concrete (shotcrete) is described. A pilot study on computed tomography (CT) has been conducted, with focus on how the technique can be used for non-destructive testing where the cores remain intact after scanning and evaluation. The CT method require advanced integrated equipment for X-ray scanning and image detection, together with a computerized visualization system that can reproduce a threedimensional virtual, transparent model of the studied object. The method is well suited to describe orientation and distribution of steel fibres within the concrete. Interfaces between rock-concrete and concrete-concrete, between layers of differentsequences ofspraying, can also be identified. The results from the CT investigations can be presented as qualitative data that in 3D shows locations of steel fibres, aggregates, etc., and also as quantitative data showing relative distributions of cement paste, aggregates, steel fibres and voids, which is here demonstrated by a selection of examples. The method is well suited for practical analysis of sprayed concrete in situ specimens and it is recommended that it is established as a standard method for special inspections and performance evaluation of rock support in tunnels and subspace structures.

  • 5.
    Ghafoori Roozbahany, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Partl, Manfred
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Influence of layer thickness on the flow of asphalt under simulated compaction2018In: Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields, BCRRA 2017, CRC Press/Balkema , 2018, p. 1435-1441Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compaction is one of the most important phases in the life cycle of asphalt pavements and has therefore been a hot subject of research for a long time. However, despite of valuable research efforts on this topic, a remarkable gap between laboratory and field measurements still remains. Moreover, whereas most of the experimental methods are carried out on compacted pavement material, methods for evaluating compactability of asphalt mixtures for increasing the fundamental knowledge about internal movements within the asphalt during compaction are only scarce. Hence, in this study, a recently developed tool for simulating the compaction process with respect to the particle flow, i.e. Compaction Flow Test (CFT), was used along with simultaneous X-ray imaging for investigating the impact of thickness changes on two different asphalt mixture structures in terms of the compaction effort as well as flow pattern differences. The results of the investigation provided reasonably useful input for building up a better understanding of the behavior of mixtures under compaction loads. This method was able to successfully reveal the differences of the structural rearrangements within the asphalt mixtures for three different lift thicknesses. It also helped to explain some of the previous research studies results in a more comprehensive way. The achievements of this study may serve for developing an in-site evaluating test method for assessing compactability of asphalt mixtures before placing them on the roads.

  • 6.
    Ghafoori Roozbahany, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Partl, Manfred
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Introducing a new method for studying the field compaction2017In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 18, p. 26-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow of particles during compaction may have a prominent influence on the difference of field and laboratory results as recently demonstrated by the authors with their newly developed compaction flow test (CFT). This test with a simple compaction simulator was used for studying the flow behaviour and rearrangement of particles for mixtures with different structures and thicknesses. However, validating the CFT results for practical purposes requires field measurements that provide more insight into the compaction process and eventually allowing to adjust the CFT for further use as an evaluating in-site tool. This study presents a new method for conducting such measurements during field compaction. In this method, some representative particles are tracked inside asphalt specimens and the accuracy of the results is examined by X-ray computed tomography. The results of the feasibility tests show that this method has potential for further use in the field and for building up a comprehensive basis of knowledge on field compaction towards closing the gap between the field and laboratory results.

  • 7.
    Ghafoori Roozbahany, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Partl, Manfred N.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Particle Flow during Compaction of Asphalt Model Materials2015In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 100, no 15, p. 273-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compaction is one of the key phases of the pavement construction and has been subject of research for a long time. However, very little is known regarding what really happens during compaction and how the pavement structure and the aggregate skeleton of the asphaltic layer are formed. Studies on that matter are of special practical importance since they may contribute to reduce the possibility of over-compaction and aggregate crushing. In this study, a new test method (Flow Test) was developed to simulate the material flow during compaction. Initially, asphalt materials were substituted by model materials to lower the level of complexity for checking the feasibility of the new test method as well as modeling purposes. Geometrically simple materials with densest possible combinations were tested for both dry and coated mixtures. X-ray radiography images were used for evaluating the material flow during compaction for different model mixtures. Results showed the capability of the test method to clearly distinguish mixtures with different properties from one another and also the potential of such a method to be used as an evaluating tool in the field. In addition, a simple discrete element model was applied for better understanding the flow of the model material during compaction as a basis for further improvement when moving from the asphalt model material to real mixtures. Therefore, real mixtures were prepared and tested under the same test configuration as for the model materials. The overall results of the real mixtures were found to support the model material test results.

  • 8.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Khan, Abdullah
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Aston University School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    An extensive laboratory investigation of the use of bio-oil modified bitumen in road construction2016In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 106, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several roads in Iceland with bio-oil modified surface dressings exhibited severe distresses such as bleeding, binder drain down, and eventually as surface dressing sticking to tires. Samples from six road sections were evaluated in the laboratory to determine the causes of the failure. Binders with and without bio-oil, rapeseed oil and fish oil, were evaluated through a comprehensive rheological and chemical characterization. Both oils, exhibited solubility issues with the bitumen; consequently, the oils covered the aggregates, preventing bonding between binder and stones. It appears that fish oil worked a little better than rapeseed oil for binder modification.

  • 9.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    et al.
    University of Florida.
    Roque, Reynald
    University of Florida.
    Kim, Sungho
    University of North Florida.
    Sirin, Oka
    Qatar University.
    Disruption Factor of Asphalt Mixtures2013In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 472-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typically, aggregate gradation is selected to meet Superpave mix design specification; however, many Superpave mixtures have exhibited deficient field performance. The porosity of the dominant aggregate size range (DASR), which is the primary structural network of aggregates, has been extensively validated as a tool to evaluate coarse aggregate structure of laboratory and field asphalt mixtures. Mixtures identified by the system as having poor or marginal gradations resulted in poor rutting resistance. This study focused on how asphalt mixture performance is affected by changes in interstitial component (IC), which is the material between DASR particles. Laboratory testing clearly showed that IC characteristics may have a significant effect on rutting and cracking performance of mixtures. The disruption factor (DF) was developed to evaluate the potential of IC aggregates to disrupt the DASR structure. DF satisfactorily distinguished poor performing mixtures; therefore, it may eventually be used in combination with DASR porosity as a design parameter for rutting and cracking resistant asphalt mixtures.

  • 10. Kim, Sungho
    et al.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    Roque, Reynaldo
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Laboratory evaluation for rutting performance based on the DASR porosity of asphalt mixture2008In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 421-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that gradation characteristics determine whether the aggregate structure in asphalt mixture results in good performance. A recent study indicated that large enough aggregates should engage dominantly to form an aggregate structure that can resist deformation; also, a new approach identified the porosity of the Dominant Aggregate Size Range (DASR) as the key parameter that determines whether or not a particular gradation results in a suitable aggregate structure. This paper presents a laboratory experiment to evaluate the DASR porosity in terms of its ability to identify unsuitable aggregate structures. Fight dense-graded Superpave mixtures were designed using two aggregate types (limestone and granite). For each aggregate hype, mixtures with varying DASR porosity were produced and tested to evaluate laboratory rutting resistance. Test results indicated that the new approach successfully, separated mixtures according to their observed laboratory rutting performance, indicating that DASR porosity can serve as an effective parameter to evaluate aggregate structure.

  • 11. Kim, Sungho
    et al.
    Roque, Reynaldo
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Guarin, Alvaro
    Porosity of the Dominant Aggregate Size Range to Evaluate Coarse Aggregate Structure of Asphalt Mixtures2009In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 32-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results from an evaluation of a new gradation-based framework developed for identifying and assessing the coarse aggregate structure of dense-graded mixtures for resistance to rutting. A theoretical packing-based analysis procedure was used to evaluate the coarse aggregate structure for hot mix asphalt mixtures. This procedure was applied to an extensive range of mixtures. A key feature of this new framework is the concept of the existence of a dominant aggregate size range (DASR). The porosity of the DASR is calculated based on an interaction diagram to evaluate the degree of particle-to-particle interaction of coarse aggregates between contiguous sieve sizes. In addition, an interaction diagram-based criteria for dense-graded Superpave mixtures are determined, as well as criteria for the porosity of the DASR. Based on the field and laboratory-based rutting performance of the mixtures evaluated in this paper, it was concluded that DASR along with the porosity of the DASR may provide a framework for evaluating the gradation of dense graded mixtures for their likely rutting potential.

  • 12. Kim, Sungho
    et al.
    Roque, Reynaldo
    Guarin, Alvaro
    Birgisson, Björn
    Univ Florida, Dept Civil & Coastal Engn, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    Identification and Assessment of the Dominant Aggregate Size Range (DASR) of Asphalt Mixture2006In: Journal of Asphalt Paving Technologists, ISSN 0270-2932, Vol. 75, p. 789-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coarse aggregate structure or interlock is critical for resistance to rutting, and recent work has shown that it can also play a significant role in resistance to damage and fracture. Therefore, large enough aggregates should engage dominantly in the structure for good mixture performance. This study focused on the development of a conceptual and theoretical approach to evaluate coarse aggregate structure based on gradation.In soil mechanics, it has been well established that the porosity of granular materials in the loose state is approximately constant between 45% and 50%, regardless of size or gradation. This implies that one can use porosity as a criterion to assure contact between large enough particles within the mixture to provide suitable resistance to deformation and fracture. Calculations performed for gradations associated with typical dense graded mixtures indicated that the porosity of particles retained on any single sieve was significantly greater than 50%, even for gradations associated with the maximum density line. Since many dense graded mixtures are known to provide suitable resistance to deformation and fracture, then there must be a range of contiguous coarse aggregate particle sizes that form a network of interactive particles with a porosity of less than 50%.A theoretical analysis procedure was developed to calculate the center to center spacing between specific size particles within a compacted assemblage of particles of known gradation. Calculations performed with this procedure indicated that the relative proportion of two contiguous size particles, as defined by the standard arrangement of Superpave sieves, can be no greater than 70/30 in order to form an interactive network. Thus, the 70/30 proportion can be used to determine whether particles on contiguous Superpave sieves can form an interactive network of particles in continuous contact with each other. The range of particle sizes determined to be interactive was referred to as the dominant aggregate size range (DASR) and its porosity must be no more than 50% for the particles to be in contact with each other.It was concluded that porosity of the DASR may provide a good criterion for determining the suitability of gradation for dense-graded asphalt mixture.

  • 13.
    Namutebi, May
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Bagampadde, Umaru
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    A review of some aspects for foamed bitumen technologyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Namutebi, May
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering. Makerere University, Uganda.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Jelagin, Denis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Exploratory study on bitumen content determination for foamed bitumen mixes based on porosity and indirect tensile strength2017In: International journal of traffic and transportation engineering, ISSN 2325-0062, E-ISSN 2325-0070, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 131-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimum bitumen content determination is one of the major aims for foamed bitumen mix design. However, mix design procedures for foamed bitumen mixes are still under development. In this paper a method to determine the optimum bitumen content for given foamed bitumen mix based on primary aggregate structure porosity and indirect tensile strength criterion is proposed. Using packing theory concepts, the aggregate gradation is divided into three aggregate structures which are oversize, primary and secondary structures. Porosity for the primary aggregate structure is determined for given bitumen contents. A maximum value for porosity of 50% for the primary aggregate structure is used to choose initial bitumen content. Furthermore, a minimum indirect tensile strength criteria is suggested to refine this bitumen content. This method enables a bitumen content value to be chosen prior to the start of experimental work, as porosity is expressed in terms of physical parameters such as aggregate and binder specific gravity, and aggregate gradation which are known before the mix design process. The bitumen content is then later refined when the indirect tensile strength is determined in the laboratory. This method would reduce resources such as time and materials that may be required during the mix design procedure.

  • 15.
    Onifade, Ibrahim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Jelagin, Denis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Asphalt Internal Structure Characterization with X-Ray Computed Tomography and Digital Image Processing2013In: Multi-Scale Modeling and Characterization of Infrastructure Materials: Proceedings of the International RILEM Symposium Stockholm, June 2013, Springer Netherlands, 2013, p. 139-158Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, detailed study is carried out to develop a new workflow from image acquisition to numerical simulation for the asphalt concrete microstructures. High resolution computed tomography scanned images are acquired and the image quality is improved using digital image processing techniques. Nonuniform illumination is corrected by applying an illumination profile to correct the background and flat-fields in the image. Distance map based watershed segmentation are used to segment the phases and separate the aggregates. Quantitative analysis of the micro-structure is used to determine the phase volumetric relationship and aggregates characteristics. The result of the quantitative analysis showed a very high level of reliability. Finite Element simulations were carried out with the developed micro-mechanical meshes to capture the strength and deformation mechanisms of the asphalt concrete micro-structure. From the micro-mechanical investigation the load transfer chains, higher strength characteristics and high stress localization at the mastic interface between adjacent aggregates was shown.

  • 16.
    Onifade, Ibrahim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Jelagin, Denis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Effect of micro-scale morphological parameters on meso-scale response of Asphalt Concrete2014In: Asphalt Pavements - Proceedings of the International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, ISAP 2014, CRC Press, 2014, p. 1775-1784Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With recent advancement in the use of X-Ray Computed Tomography to capture the internal structure of Asphalt Concrete (AC), results have shown several possibilities to account for the distribution of the different phases in the mix and quantify them in a reliable way. The morphology of asphalt mixtures which includes the aggregate size gradation and the distribution of the air-voids and bitumen phase are captured in a single morphological parameter called the Primary Structure (PS) coating thickness-(Tps). In this study, the effect of variations in the morphological micro-structural property on the mesoscale response of three (3) AC samples is examined using the 3D Finite Element Method (FEM). The AC internal geometry is acquired using X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT); the distribution of the aggregates, mastic and air-voids phase is considered and obtained using Digital Imaging Processing (DIP) techniques. Using a surface-based cohesive behavior and assuming a predominant adhesive failure at the interface between the mastic and aggregate, a maximum traction criterion is used to obtain the damage propensity of the different mixtures. The result of the analysis shows that the microstructural morphological parameter Tps adequately captures the meso-scale response of the mixtures; there exist an inverse relationship between mixture strength characterization and the morphological parameter Tps.

  • 17.
    Sun, Daquan
    et al.
    Tongji Univ, Key Lab Rd & Traff Engn, Minist Educ, Shanghai 200092, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Guoqiang
    Tongji Univ, Key Lab Rd & Traff Engn, Minist Educ, Shanghai 200092, Peoples R China..
    Zhu, Xingyi
    Tongji Univ, Key Lab Rd & Traff Engn, Minist Educ, Shanghai 200092, Peoples R China.;Dalian Univ Technol, State Key Lab Struct Anal Ind Equipment, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Li, Bin
    Tongji Univ, Key Lab Rd & Traff Engn, Minist Educ, Shanghai 200092, Peoples R China..
    Dai, Ziwei
    Tongji Univ, Key Lab Rd & Traff Engn, Minist Educ, Shanghai 200092, Peoples R China..
    Ling, Jianming
    Tongji Univ, Key Lab Rd & Traff Engn, Minist Educ, Shanghai 200092, Peoples R China..
    A comprehensive review on self-healing of asphalt materials: Mechanism, model, characterization and enhancement2018In: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0001-8686, E-ISSN 1873-3727, Vol. 256, p. 65-93Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-healing has great potential to extend the service life of asphalt pavement, and this capability has been regarded as an important strategy when designing a sustainable infrastructure. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art investigations concerning the self-healing mechanism, model, characterization and enhancement, ranging from asphalt to asphalt pavement. Firstly, the self-healing phenomenon as a general concept in asphalt materials is analyzed including its definition and the differences among self healing and some viscoelastic responses. Additionally, the development of self-healing in asphalt pavement design is introduced. Next, four kinds of possible self-healing mechanism and corresponding models are presented. It is pointed out that the continuum thermodynamic model, considering the whole process from damage initiation to healing recovery, can be a promising study field. Further, a set of self-healing multiscale characterization methods from microscale to macroscale as well as computational simulation scale, are summed up. Thereinto, the computational simulation shows great potential in simulating the self-healing behavior of asphalt materials from mechanical and molecular level. Moreover, the factors influencing self-healing capability are discussed, but the action mechanisms of some factors remain unclear and need to be investigated. Finally, two extrinsic self healing technologies, induction heating and capsule healing, are recommended as preventive maintenance applications in asphalt pavement In future, more effective energy-based healing systems or novel material-based healing systems are expected to be developed towards designing sustainable long-life asphalt pavement (

  • 18.
    Sun, Guoqiang
    et al.
    Tongji Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Rd & Traff Engn, Shanghai 200092, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Daquan
    Tongji Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Rd & Traff Engn, Shanghai 200092, Peoples R China..
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Ma, Jianmin
    Tongji Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Rd & Traff Engn, Shanghai 200092, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Feng
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Ghafooriroozbahany, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Low temperature self-healing character of asphalt mixtures under different fatigue damage degrees2019In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 223, p. 870-882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary objective of this study is to advance the understanding of the low temperature self-healing character of asphalt mixtures under different damage degrees, thus to determine the effective strategy of asphalt pavement maintenance. Firstly, three kinds of asphalt mixtures are selected to conduct the indirect tensile (IDT) fatigue test to a certain fatigue damage degree at low temperatures, and then the resilient modulus (Mr) at different rest time is measured to quantify the healing potential. Next, the fatigue loading with different intermittent time (0 s, 1 s and 3 s) is applied to determine the impact of intermittent time on healing potential. The results indicate that the descending order of healing potential of asphalt mixtures is: SMA-11 > AC-8 > AC-11 at 5 degrees C and -5 degrees C. The loading intermittent time has an obvious effect on the fatigue damage state of asphalt mixtures, while the longer the intermittent time, the less the effect on fatigue damage healing. Besides, the fatigue damage state has great influence on its healing potential of asphalt mixture. Under the low damage conditions, the initial healing rate is greater than the long term healing rate. However, the low temperature (-5 degrees C) dramatically reduces the healing rate of asphalt mixtures, and causes their long-term healing rate to stabilize gradually to a very low level. Especially under the high fatigue damage conditions, the healing potential of asphalt mixtures will almost disappear at -5 degrees C. Furthermore, together with meso-scale Computed Tomography (CT) scanning technique, it is found that the intemal crack distribution characteristics of different graded asphalt mixtures are different even under the same damage degree, which may explain the differences in the healing potential of asphalt mixtures. The use of a fast two-dimensional (2D) scanning technology further confirms that the crack zones inside the asphalt mixture are gradually shrinking after a period of high temperature healing. Finally, the Grey relational analysis reveals that the healing time has the most significant influence on the healing potential of asphalt mixtures. The gradation type and temperature have the similar influence level on the healing potential. The correlation degree between the fatigue damage degree and healing potential is the smallest compared with the other three factors. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Yideti, Tatek Fekadu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Jelagin, Denis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Packing theory-based framework for evaluating resilient modulus of unbound granular materials2014In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 689-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancing the quality of granular layers is fundamental to optimise the structural performance of the pavements. The objective of this study is to investigate whether previously developed packing theory-based aggregate parameters can evaluate the resilient modulus of unbound granular materials. In this study, 19 differently graded unbound granular materials from two countries (USA and Sweden) were evaluated. This study validated both porosity of primary structure (PS) and contact points per particle (coordination number) as key parameters for evaluating the resilient modulus of unbound granular materials. This study showed that decreasing the PS porosity - higher coordination number - calculated based on the proposed gradation model, yields higher resilient modulus. Good correlation was observed between the proposed packing parameters and resilient modulus of several types of aggregates. The packing theory-based framework successfully recognised granular materials that exhibited poor performance in terms of resilient modulus.

  • 20.
    Yideti, Tatek Fekadu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Jelagin, Denis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Packing theory-based framework to evaluate permanent deformation of unbound granular materials2013In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 309-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Permanent deformation of unbound granular materials plays an essential role in the long-term performance of a pavement structure. Stability of unbound granular materials is defined by the particle-to-particle contact of the system, the particle size distribution and the packing arrangement. This paper presents a gradation model based on packing theory to evaluate permanent deformation of unbound granular materials. The framework was evaluated by using 10 unbound granular materials from different countries. The disruption potential, which determines the ability of secondary structure (SS) to disrupt the primary structure (PS), is introduced. This study also identified the amount of PS and SS that may eventually be used as a design parameter for permanent deformation of unbound road layers. The evaluation of the model regarding permanent deformation behaviour of granular materials is found to compare favourably with experimental results.

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