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  • 1.
    Berglund, Maritna
    KTH, Superseded Departments, KTH Syd.
    Schedulers’ work activities and decision making influencing working conditions of other employees2002In: In Proceedings of the 34th Annual Congress of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 1-3 October, Kolmården, Sweden, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Berglund, Martina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Using Tentacles in Planning and Scheduling Work: Activities, Roles and Contributions2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Handling production scheduling is increasingly difficult for manyenterprises, and human involvement is necessary. The overall objective ofthis research was to gain further understanding of planners’ and schedulers’work within the manufacturing industry, to elucidate how their worksituation is formed, and to explain their significance to other employees’work and company activities. Scheduling work was studied in fourcompanies in the Swedish woodworking industry; a sawmill, a parquet floormanufacturer, a furniture manufacturer and a house manufacturer. Themethod used was activity analysis which is based on the analysis of workactivities in real work situations. Data collection included 20 days’observations and 65 interviews. Cross-case analysis with British cases onplanning work was also included.The findings revealed that the schedulers’ tasks lead to many activities. Twothirds of these are what can be expected. The remaining third constitutesactivities that depend on the schedulers’ individual attributes and the contextin which they work. The schedulers serve as problem solvers in a number ofdomains and constitute efficient information nodes, making them animportant service function. Furthermore, they have an alignment rolebetween different organizational groups. This role is specifically remarkablein dealing with production enquiries that must be aligned with productioncapability. Here, both planners and schedulers play an essential role inlinking the manufacturing and the commercial sides and their differentfunctional logics.Planners and schedulers in daily work exert strong influence on others. Theydo not hold legitimate power. Instead their influence emanates mainly fromaccess to and control of information and their ability to apply expertise tointerpret this information and examine the impact of decisions made acrossdifferent areas of the business. Personal power related to social skills is alsosignificant.Furthermore, they facilitate others’ work in continuous personalinteractions, serving the technical scheduling software system, and aligningdifferent organizational functions. In combination with expert knowledgeand developed social skills, they significantly contribute to quality operationsperformance. Finally, the schedulers influence the decision latitude of otheremployees and may indirectly promote job satisfaction, thus contributing todeveloping appropriate working conditions for others in the company.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. HELIX Competence Centre and Division of Logistics and Quality Management, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Arman, Oscar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    From Safety I to Safety II: Applying an HTO Perspective on Supervisory Work Within Aviation2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 821, p. 558-565Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In aviation, there is a strong focus on safety to prevent accidents. This paper deals with how supervisory authorities in aviation can apply a Safety II perspective. In particular, the aim is to analyze how the concept of HTO (Humans, Technology, Organization) is related to a possible shift from Safety I to Safety II within supervisory work within aviation. Data for this case study research was collected through semi-structured interviews with inspectors at the civil aviation authority in Sweden. The study showed that the important building stone of proactivity in Safety II could be promoted by the Safety Management System (SMS), the Safety Performance Indicator, and systems for reporting incidents and near-accidents. These systems constituted examples of Technology. Similarly, the Humans consisted of the inspectors, and the Organization included international and national regulations that the inspectors needed to follow during inspections. In the analysis, it was clear that an internal HTO-perspective could be taken. The study indicated that the shift towards Safety II should first be done within the supervisory authority by applying an internal HTO-perspective. This could later be developed to an external HTO-perspective also including the operator organizations.

  • 4.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Guinery, Jane
    Production planning aligning customer requests with production capabilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Guinery, Jane
    The influence of production planners and schedulers at manufacturing and commercial interfaces2008In: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, E-ISSN 1520-6564, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 548-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes empirical research undertaken to identify how production planners and schedulers in manufacturing businesses exert influence on employees in production and commercial departments. Through the analysis of observations and interviews conducted in four case studies, sources of power were identified and categorized. It was found that although production planners and schedulers often did not have formal authority, in practice they had considerable influence. In the main, their sources of influence resided in their access to information. company agendas, and influential arenas, as well as their knowledge and social skills. The discussion draws from the findings examining influencing behaviors and considering their implications. The findings inform associated research on the processes, behaviors. and roles that schedulers and planners perform at functional interfaces, in support of effective and responsive order fulfillment. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 6.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Guinery, Jane
    Karltun, Johan
    The unsung contribution of production planners and schedulers at production and sales interfaces2011In: Behavioral Operations in Planning and Scheduling / [ed] J.C. Fransoo, Springer, 2011, p. 47-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter sets out to demonstrate the unsung contribution of production planners and schedulers in manufacturing businesses. In particular it focuses on their contribution at production and sales interfaces by highlighting their activities and influence across functional interfaces, and the knowledge and skills they apply to make and implement planning and scheduling decisions. To achieve this it addresses the following questions in relation to these interfaces: What tasks and work activities does planning, scheduling and control consist of in relation to these interfaces? How do planners and schedulers perform their tasks? How can planners’ and schedulers’ activities related to production and sales interfaces be captured and modelled? How do planners and schedulers influence others in the organization? What knowledge do they contribute and how is it incorporated into decisions?

  • 7.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    Human, technological and organizational aspects influencing the production scheduling process2007In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 110, no 1-2, p. 160-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of scheduling work in practice addresses how the production-scheduling processes in four companies are influenced by human, technological, and organizational aspects. A conclusion is that the outcome of the scheduling process is influenced by the scheduler adding human capabilities that cannot be automated, by technical constraints in the scheduled production system and by the available scheduling software tools. Furthermore, the outcome is influenced not only by how the scheduling process is formally organized, but also by the scheduler's informal authority and the role taken to interconnect activities between different organizational groups. The findings from the study support a number of previous studies done on scheduling in practice whilst giving new insights into their interpretation. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, KTH Syd.
    Karltun, Johan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH .
    Schedulers reality expectations and dependencies2001In: In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Production Research, July 29-August 3, Prague, Czech Republic, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH.
    Schedulers’ work content – a quantified analysis2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Karltun, Johan
    Dep. of Industrial Engineering and Management, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Berglund, Martina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Linköping University, Sweden.
    HTO: a complementary ergonomics perspective2014In: Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management - XI, 2014, p. 355-360Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the broad field of ergonomics and human factors provides a strong potential in systems analysis, design and improvement, the focus risks being perceived unclear for different stakeholders. This paper addresses how focusing the interactions between Humans, Technology and Organization by using the HTO concept contributes to the understanding, communication and use of systems thinking inherent in the discipline of Ergonomics and Human Factors. The authors’ experiences illustrate how the use of the HTO concept in various industries and in academic teaching gives advantages regarding interactions, communicativeness, attractiveness, activity and pedagogical benefits.

  • 11.
    Karltun, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH.
    Berglund, Martina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Contextual conditions influencing the scheduler's work at a sawmill2010In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 359-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study addresses the issue of how contextual conditions influence scheduling work in practice at a sawmill in Sweden. Based on observations and interviews, activity analysis was used to study the work activities of the main scheduler. It is shown how the contextual conditions related to constraints, either in the technical system and the technical scheduling tools used by the scheduler or in the social system, delimit the possible ways for the scheduler to perform his work. It is furthermore illustrated how the scheduler sometimes used the contextual conditions as a means to control the sawmill production. Moreover, the presence of the numerous uncertainties in the production process is shown. Finally, the study demonstrates that the scheduler's thorough knowledge, experience, and skills of both the technical and the social systems had immense influence in his ability to perform during daily scheduling work.

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