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  • 1.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    10 Moral Paradoxes - By Saul Smilansky2009In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 65-66Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Approaches to Ethics for Corporate Crisis Management2009In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ethics of corporate crisis management is a seriously underdeveloped field. Among recent proposals in the area, two contributions stand out: Seeger and Ulmer's (2001) virtue ethics approach to crisis management ethics and Simola's (2003) ethics of care. In the first part of the paper, I argue that both contributions are problematic: Seeger and Ulmer focus on top management and propose virtues that lack substance and are in need of further development. Simola's proposal is also fraught with difficulty, since it seems to conceive of ethics of care as a course of action that can be chosen in a crisis, something which runs contrary to the idea of caring. In the second part of the paper, I argue that Simola and Seeger and Ulmer are nevertheless on the right track, and I propose some directions for further development of the ethics of corporate crisis management. I argue that the value of codes of conduct is limited. Furthermore, I propose a way of identifying relevant virtues for corporate crisis management and discuss a problem that is prevalent in crisis management ethics (the temptation of ad hoc utilitarianism).

  • 3.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Better safe than sorry:: Applying philosophical methods to the debate on risk and the precautionary principle2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present thesis is to apply philosophical methods to the ongoing debate of the precautionary principle, in order to illuminate this debate. The thesis consists of an Introduction and five papers. Paper I con-cerns an objection to the method of conceptual analysis, the Charge from Psychology. After a brief characterisation of conceptual analysis, I argue that the Charge from Psychology is misdirected. In Paper II, the method of conceptual analysis is applied to the concept of precaution which is ana-lysed in terms of precautionary actions. The purpose is explicatory. A definition involving three necessary and jointly sufficient conditions is proposed, and the implications of this analysis for the debate on the pre-cautionary principle are discussed. Paper III attempts to provide an ana-lytical apparatus which may be used for finding improved formulations of the precautionary principle. The approach is lexicographical. Several exist-ing and possible formulations of the precautionary principle are examined, and four common elements and a common structure of the precautionary principle are identified. It is suggested that the analytical apparatus pre-sented can be used in negotiations of the precautionary principle. Paper IV questions the soundness of some arguments against the precautionary prin-ciple. Five common arguments are discussed and rejected. In Paper V, two of these arguments are further discussed. I argue that an attempt at rejec-tion of the precautionary principle delivered by John Harris and Søren Holm is unwarranted, because their arguments against it are based on in-terpretations of the precautionary principle that ignore context. Paper VI deals with the idea of de minimis risk. After a discussion of the distinction between disregarding a risk and accepting it, I examine one way of deter-mining how small a risk ought to be in order to be disregarded, namely the use of natural risk levels as benchmarks. I argue that this approach fails, even if the distinction between what is natural and what is not natural can be upheld.

  • 4.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Bioethics and armed conflict: Moral dilemmas of medicine and war2008In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 131-133Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Firefighting Ethics: Principlism for Burning Issues2009In: Ethical Perspectives, ISSN 1370-0049, E-ISSN 1783-1431, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 225-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ethics of firefighting is a seriously underexplored field. This is unfortunate, since firefighting raises issues of great social importance and has the potential to inform moral theorizing. In the first part of this paper, I explore possible reasons why firefighting ethics has received so little academic attention and argue that it warrants study in its own right. I do so primarily by comparing firefighting ethics to medical ethics, demonstrating their close relationship yet pointing out important differences: firefighting is less professionalized than medicine, the caregiver-patient relationship is not central in firefighting, firefighters need to concern themselves with other values than life and limb, they face greater and qualitatively different risks than medical personnel, and they have to make almost every operative decision under conditions of temporal stress. In the second part of the paper, I argue that some elements from medical ethics may be adapted for use in firefighting ethics. I illustrate this by applying four mid-level principles from mainstream medical ethics to firefighting - the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. I argue that they are indeed applicable in firefighting ethics, but that they need modification and their relative weight is different. Respect for autonomy is of limited importance in firefighting. Non-maleficence is important, and beneficence is central. The special principle of beneficence for firefighters is best thought of as grounded in firefighters' contractual obligations rather than in a general principle that one should help someone in peril. As regards the principle of justice, there is a case for applying a utilitarian principle of justice on the operative level and a principle of a decent minimum aid on the policy level. The latter can be brought about by comparatively simple and low-cost means, such as a volunteer fire service and subsidized fire equipment.

  • 6.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Has psychology debunked conceptual analysis?2006In: Metaphilosophy, ISSN 0026-1068, E-ISSN 1467-9973, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The philosophical method of conceptual analysis has been criticised on the grounds that empirical psychological research has cast severe doubt on whether concepts exist in the form traditionally assumed, and that conceptual analysis therefore is doomed. This objection may be termed the Charge from Psychology. After a brief characterisation of conceptual analysis, I discuss the Charge from Psychology and argue that it is misdirected.

  • 7.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Laws of fear: Beyond the precautionary principle2007In: Environmental Ethics, ISSN 0163-4275, E-ISSN 2153-7895, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 107-110Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Naturalness and de minimis risk2005In: Environmental Ethics, ISSN 0163-4275, E-ISSN 2153-7895, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 191-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In risk management, de minimis risk is the idea that risks that are sufficiently small, in terms of probabilities, ought to be disregarded. In the context of the distinction between disregarding a risk and accepting it, this paper examines one suggested way of determining how small risks ought to be disregarded, specifically, the natural-occurrence view of de minimis, which has been proposed by Alvin M. Weinberg, among others. It is based on the idea that "natural" background levels of risk should be used as benchmarks and de minimis levels should be derived from those levels. This approach fails even if the doubtful distinction between what is natural and what is not can be upheld.

  • 9.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Supreme Emergencies Without the Bad Guys2009In: Philosophia (Ramat Gan), ISSN 0048-3893, E-ISSN 1574-9274, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 153-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the application of the supreme emergency doctrine from just-war theory to non-antagonistic threats. Two versions of the doctrine are considered: Michael Walzer's communitarian version and Brian Orend's prudential one. I investigate first whether the doctrines are applicable to non-antagonistic threats, and second whether they are defensible. I argue that a version of Walzer's doctrine seems to be applicable to non-antagonistic threats, but that it is very doubtful whether the doctrine is defensible. I also argue that Orend's version of the doctrine is applicable to non-antagonistic threats, but that his account is not defensible, regardless of whether the threats are antagonistic or not.

  • 10.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The ethics of hormesis - no fuss?2008In: Human and Experimental Toxicology, ISSN 0960-3271, E-ISSN 1477-0903, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 643-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that the phenomenon of hormesis should prompt us to revise current regulatory policy in order to take beneficial effects of small doses of various agents into account. I argue that three problems - the comparative smallness of hormetic effects, the fine-tuning problem, and the problem of aggregated actions - should lead us not to overemphasize the importance of hormesis for policy, and that they, if anything, points towards a non-consequentialist approach to the ethics of risk.

  • 11.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The ethics of war: Shared problems in different traditions2007In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 73, p. 244-247Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The precautionary principle and food safety2006In: Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, ISSN 1661-5751, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 2-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review gives an overview of the arguments for and against the precautionary principle that have been advanced in the area of food safety. Extensive but not comprehensive coverage of relevant references is given. It begins with an introduction to the precautionary principle itself. After reviewing the arguments a rationale for the precautionary principle in the context of food safety is sketched.

  • 13.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    The precautionary principle and the concept of precaution2004In: Environmental Values, ISSN 0963-2719, E-ISSN 1752-7015, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 461-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The precautionary principle is frequently invoked in environmental law and policy, and the debate around the principle indicates that there is little agreement on what 'taking precautions' means. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an improved conceptual foundation for this debate in the form of an explication of the concept of precaution. Distinctions between precaution and two related concepts, prevention and pessimism, are briefly discussed. The concept of precaution is analysed in terms of precautionary actions. It is argued that precautionary actions are implicitly assumed to be precautionary with respect to something, and that this assumption should be made explicit. A definition of a precautionary action involving three necessary and jointly sufficient conditions (intentionality, uncertainty and reasonableness) is proposed, and the implications of this analysis for the debate on the precautionary principle are discussed.

  • 14.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    The precautionary principle in the 20th century: Late lessons from early warnings2004In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 365-367Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Virtual child pornography and utilitarianism2004In: Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, ISSN 1477-996X, E-ISSN 1758-8871, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 217-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most common argument against child pornography is that children are harmed in the process of producing it. This is the argument from abusive production. However, it does not apply to ‘virtual’ child pornography, i.e. child pornography produced using computer technology without involving real children. Autilitarian who wishes to condemn virtual child pornography cannot appeal to the argument from abusive production. I discuss three possible ways out of this: (1) abandoning the intuition that virtual child pornography is wrong, (2) abandoning utilitarianism, or (3)circumventing the problem. I propose a version of the third way out.

  • 16.
    Sandin, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Bengtsson, B. E.
    Bergman, A.
    Brandt, I.
    Dencker, L.
    Eriksson, P.
    Forlin, L.
    Larsson, P.
    Oskarsson, A.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Sodergren, A.
    Woin, P.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Precautionary defaults - A new strategy for chemical risk management2004In: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, ISSN 1080-7039, E-ISSN 1549-7860, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to give adequate support to risk managers, new risk assessment methods should be developed that are (1) scientifically sound, (2) simplified, and (3) suited for precautionary risk management. In this Perspective we propose that the notion of a precautionary default can be a useful tool in the development of such methods. A precautionary default is a cautious or pessimistic assumption that is used in the absence of adequate information and that should be replaced when such information is obtained. Furthermore, we point out some promising research areas for the development of such indicators, viz. connections between chemical characteristics such as persistence and effect parameters, monitoring of contaminants in polar regions, monitoring of contaminants in breast milk, application of results from (human) toxicology in ecotoxicology and vice versa, (eco) toxicological test systems that are sensitive to effects on reproduction, and the application of bioinformatic methods to complex data, both in genomic research and in ecotoxicology. We conclude that precautionary decision-making does not require less science, but to the contrary it requires more science and improved communication between scientists and risk managers.

  • 17.
    Sandin, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The Moral Black Hole2009In: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, ISSN 1386-2820, E-ISSN 1572-8447, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 291-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly believed that people become selfish and turn to looting, price gouging, and other immoral behaviour in emergencies. This has been the basis for an argument justifying extraordinary measures in emergencies. It states that if emergencies are not curtailed, breakdown of moral norms threaten ('the moral black hole'). Using the example of natural disasters, we argue that the validity of this argument in non-antagonistic situations, i.e. situations other than war and armed conflict, is highly questionable. Available evidence suggests that people in such emergencies typically do not display panic reactions or exaggerated selfishness, and that phenomena such as looting and price gouging are rare. Furthermore, a version of the moral-black-hole argument based on the mere possibility of a moral black hole occurring runs into problems similar to those of Pascal's Wager. We conclude that we should be wary against applying the moral-black-hole argument to non-antagonistic cases.

1 - 17 of 17
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