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  • 1. Butte, Raphael
    et al.
    Lahourcade, Lise
    UŽdavinys, Tomas Kristijonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Callsen, Gordon
    Mensi, Mounir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Glauser, Marlene
    Rossbach, Georg
    Martin, Denis
    Carlin, Jean-Francois
    Marcinkevičius, Saulius
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Grandjean, Nicolas
    Optical absorption edge broadening in thick InGaN layers: Random alloy atomic disorder and growth mode induced fluctuations2018In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 112, no 3, article id 032106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the impact of random alloying on the optical properties of the InGaN alloy, high-quality InxGa1-xN (0 < x < 0.18) epilayers grown on c-plane free-standing GaN substrates are characterized both structurally and optically. The thickness (25-100 nm) was adjusted to keep these layers pseudomorphically strained over the whole range of explored indium content as checked by x-ray diffraction measurements. The evolution of the low temperature optical absorption (OA) edge line-width as a function of absorption energy, and hence the indium content, is analyzed in the framework of the random alloy model. The latter shows that the OA edge linewidth should not markedly increase above an indium content of 4%, varying from 17 meV to 30 meV for 20% indium. The experimental data initially follow the same trend with, however, a deviation from this model for indium contents exceeding only similar to 2%. Complementary room temperature near-field photoluminescence measurements carried out using a scanning near-field optical microscope combined with simultaneous surface morphology mappings reveal spatial disorder due to growth meandering. We conclude that for thick high-quality pseudomorphic InGaN layers, a deviation from pure random alloying occurs due to the interplay between indium incorporation and longer range fluctuations induced by the InGaN step-meandering growth mode.

  • 2.
    De Luca, Eleonora
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Sanatinia, Reza
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Mensi, Mounir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Modal phase matching in nanostructured zincblende semiconductors for second-harmonic generation2017In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, OSA - The Optical Society , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gallium phosphide nanowaveguide arrays, designed to fulfill the phase matching conditions and field-overlap, are characterized by second-harmonic generation. The bandwidth of 30nm with maximum conversion efficiency of 10-3 is measured for 150fs optical pulses.

  • 3.
    De Luca, Eleonora
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Sanatinia, Reza
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Mensi, Mounir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Modal phase matching in nanostructured zinc-blende semiconductors for second-order nonlinear optical interactions2017In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, no 7, article id 075303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate enhanced second-harmonic generation in arrays of nanowaveguides satisfying modal-phase-matching condition, both theoretically and experimentally. The overlap of interacting fields defined by the fundamental mode of the pump and the second-order mode of the second-harmonic wave is enhanced by the longitudinal component of the nonlinear polarization density. For guided modes with significant longitudinal electric field components, the overlap of fields is comparable to that obtained in the quasi-phase-matching technique leading to higher conversion efficiencies. Thus, the presented method is preferable to achieve higher conversion efficiency in second-order nonlinear processes in nanowaveguides.

  • 4.
    Khachatourian, Malek Adrine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics. Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran.
    Golestani-Fard, F.
    Sarpoolaky, H.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vasileva, Elena
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Mensi, Mounir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Microwave synthesis of Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors: A study on the influence of dopant concentration and calcination temperature on structural and photoluminescence properties2016In: Journal of Luminescence, ISSN 0022-2313, E-ISSN 1872-7883, Vol. 169, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Red fluorescent emitting monodispersed spherical Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf> nanophosphors with different Eu3+ doping concentrations (0-13 mol%) are synthesized by a novel microwave assisted urea precipitation, which is recognized as a green, fast and reproducible synthesis method. The effect of Eu3+ doping and calcination temperature on the structural characteristics and luminescence properties of particles is investigated in detail. The as prepared powders have (Y,Eu)(OH)(CO<inf>3</inf>) structure which converts to Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf>:Eu3+ from 500 °C and become crystalline at higher temperatures. The crystallite size of nanophosphors increased from 15 nm to 25 nm as the calcination temperature increased from 700 °C to 1050 °C. The efficient incorporation of Eu3+ ions in cubic Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf> host matrix is confirmed by the calculated X-ray Powder diffraction (XRPD) structural parameters. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs show that the as obtained and calcined particles are spherical, monodispersed and non-agglomerated. The overall size of particles increases from 61±8 nm to 86±9 nm by increasing Eu3+ concentration from 0 mol% to 13 mol%. High resolution TEM revealed polycrystalline nature of calcined particles. The particles exhibit a strong red emission under ultraviolet (UV) excitation. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the peaks increases proportionally with Eu3+ concentration and the calcination temperature with no luminescence quenching phenomenon observed even for Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf>:13%Eu3+. The fluorescent emission properties combined with the monodispersity and narrow size distribution characteristics make the Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf>:Eu3+ heavy metal free nanophosphors applicable in fluorescence cell imaging and as fluorescence biolabels.

  • 5.
    Marcinkevicius, S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Uzdavinys, T. K.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Ivanov, R.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Mensi, M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    MULTIMODE SCANNING NEAR-FIELD PHOTOLUMINESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY AND ITS APPLICATION FOR STUDIES OF InGaN EPITAXIAL LAYERS AND QUANTUM WELLS2018In: Lithuanian Journal of Physics, ISSN 1648-8504, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 76-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reviews our recent achievements in developing a multimode scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) technique. The multimode SNOM apparatus allows us to simultaneously measure spatial variations of photoluminescence spectra in the illumination and illumination-collection modes, their transients and sample surface morphology. The potential of this technique has been demonstrated on a polar InGaN epitaxial layer and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells. SNOM measurements have allowed revealing a number of phenomena, such as the band potential fluctuations and their correlation to the surface morphology, spatial nonuniformity of the radiative and nonradiative lifetimes, as well as the extended band nature of localized states. The combination of different modes enabled measurements of the ambipolar carrier diffusion and its anisotropy.

  • 6.
    Marcinkevičius, Saulius
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Photonics.
    Mensi, Mounir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Ivanov, Ruslan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Kuritzky, Leah Y.
    DenBaars, Steven P.
    Nakamura, Shuji
    Speck, James S.
    Multimode scanning near-field photoluminescence spectroscopy of InGaN quantum wells2018In: 2018 IEEE RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS OF PHOTONICS IN DEFENSE CONFERENCE (RAPID), IEEE , 2018, p. 93-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimode scanning near-field photoluminescence spectroscopy was developed and applied to study carrier localization and dynamics in m-plane InGaN quantum wells. The study showed that localized hole states maintain properties of extended bands, radiative and nonradiative carrier lifetimes are spatially nonuniform, and hole diffusion is anisotropic.

  • 7.
    Mensi, Mounir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Becerra, D. L.
    Ivanov, Ruslan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Marcinkevičius, Saulius
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Nakamura, S.
    Denbaars, S. P.
    Speck, J. S.
    Properties of near-field photoluminescence in green emitting single and multiple semipolar (2021) plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells2016In: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning near-field photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been applied to green emitting (2021) plane InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures with 1, 5 and 10 wells to reveal the influence of the number of QWS on PL properties and their spatial variation. The data show no additional broadening or shift of the PL spectra related to the increase of the number of QWs. The QWs in the multiple QW structures are found to be nearly identical and the well width and/or alloy composition fluctuations uncorrelated. In spite that the thickness of the 10 QW structure is over the critical, no PL changes related to a structural relaxation have been detected.

  • 8.
    Mensi, Mounir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Ivanov, Ruslan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Uzdavinys, Tomas Kristijonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Kelchner, Kathryn M.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mat, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Nakamura, Shuji
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mat, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    DenBaars, Steven P.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mat, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Speck, James S.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mat, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Marcinkevicius, Saulius
    Direct Measurement of Nanoscale Lateral Carrier Diffusion: Toward Scanning Diffusion Microscopy2018In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 528-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multimode scanning near-field optical microscopy technique that allows the mapping of surface morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra in illumination and illumination-collection modes, and PL dynamics, all in one scan, has been developed along with a method to use it for evaluation of carrier diffusion. The method allows measuring diffusion lengths as small as similar to 100 nm and their anisotropy and spatial distribution, parameters remaining inaccessible to conventional far-field techniques. The procedure has been applied to study ambipolar carrier diffusion in a nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well. The diffusion was found to be highly anisotropic with diffusion coefficients along and perpendicular to the wurtzite c axis equal to 0.4 and 1.9 cm(2)/s, respectively. The large diffusion anisotropy confirms band structure calculations that suggest that the topmost valence band in an m-plane InGaN quantum well is highly anisotropic.

  • 9.
    Mounir, Mensi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Ivanov, Ruslan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Uždavinys, Tomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Kelchner, Kathryn
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara.
    Nakamura, Shuji
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara.
    DenBaars, Steven P.
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara.
    Speck, James S.
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara.
    Marcinkevičius, Saulius
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Direct measurement of nanoscale lateral carrier diffusion: toward scanning diffusion microscopy2017In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A multimode scanning near-field optical microscopy technique allowing to map surface morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra in illumination and illumination-collection modes, as well as PL dynamics, all in one scan, has been developed along with a method to use it for evaluation of carrier diffusion. The method allows to measure diffusion lengths as small as ~100 nm, their anisotropy and spatial distribution, parameters remaining inaccessible to conventional far-field techniques. The procedure has been applied to study ambipolar carrier diffusion in a nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well. The diffusion was found to be highly anisotropic with diffusion coefficients along and perpendicular to the wurtzite c axis equal to 0.4 and 1.9 cm2/s, respectively. The large diffusion anisotropy confirms band structure calculations that suggest that the top-most valence band in m-plane InGaN quantum well is highly anisotropic

  • 10.
    Noroozi, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Jayakumar, Ganesh
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lu, Jun
    Mensi, Mounir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Hamawandi, Bejan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Zahmatkesh, Katayoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Tafti, Mohsen. Y
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Marcinkevičius, Saulius
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Hultman, Lars
    Ergül, Adem
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Ikonic, Zoran
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Significant Improvement of Thermoelectric Efficiency in SiGe NanowiresArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermoelectric (TE) properties of SiGe nanowires (NWs) with width of 60 nm in a back-gate configuration have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The carrier transport in NWs was modified by biasing voltage to the gate for different temperatures. The original wafers were SiGe-on-oxide (SGOI), which were formed through condensation of SiGe on Si-on-oxide wafers (SOI).  The power factor of SiGe NWs was enhanced by a factor of >2 in comparison with SiGe bulk material over a temperature range of 273 K to 450 K. This enhancement is mainly attributed to the energy filtering of carriers in SiGe NWs which were introduced by the roughness in the shape of NWs, non-uniform SiGe composition and the induced defects during the manufacturing of SGOI wafers or processing of NWs. These defects create potential barriers which may significantly enhance the Seebeck coefficient, while the conductivity can be boosted by tuning the back-gate bias.

  • 11.
    Noroozi, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Linköping University, Sverige.
    Jayakumar, Ganesh
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Zahmatkesh, Katayoun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Lu, J.
    Hultman, L.
    Mensi, Mounir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Marcinkevicius, Saulius
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Hamawandi, Bejan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Yakhshi Tafti, Mohsen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Ergül, Adem
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Ikonic, Z.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Unprecedented thermoelectric power factor in SiGe nanowires field-effect transistors2017In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, E-ISSN 2162-8777, Vol. 6, no 9, p. Q114-Q119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a novel CMOS compatible process for Si-based materials has been presented to form SiGe nanowires (NWs) on SiGe On Insulator (SGOI) wafers with unprecedented thermoelectric (TE) power factor (PF). The TE properties of SiGe NWs were characterized in a back-gate configuration and a physical model was applied to explain the experimental data. The carrier transport in NWs was modified by biasing voltage to the gate at different temperatures. The PF of SiGe NWs was enhanced by a factor of >2 in comparison with bulk SiGe over the temperature range of 273 K to 450 K. This enhancement is mainly attributed to the energy filtering of carriers in SiGe NWs, which were introduced by imperfections and defects created during condensation process to form SiGe layer or in NWs during the processing of NWs.

  • 12. Sekatskii, S. K.
    et al.
    Dukenbayev, K.
    Mensi, Mounir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Vivante, Switzerland.
    Mikhaylov, A. G.
    Rostova, E.
    Smirnov, A.
    Suriyamurthy, N.
    Dietler, G.
    Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer scanning near-field optical microscopy: Potentials and challenges2015In: Faraday discussions (Online), ISSN 1359-6640, E-ISSN 1364-5498, Vol. 184, p. 51-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A few years ago, single molecule Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope (FRET SNOM) images were demonstrated using CdSe semiconductor nanocrystal-dye molecules as donor-acceptor pairs. Corresponding experiments reveal the necessity to exploit much more photostable fluorescent centers for such an imaging technique to become a practically used tool. Here we report the results of our experiments attempting to use nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers in nanodiamond (ND) crystals, which are claimed to be extremely photostable, for FRET SNOM. All attempts were unsuccessful, and as a plausible explanation we propose the absence (instability) of NV centers lying close enough to the ND border. We also report improvements in SNOM construction that are necessary for single molecule FRET SNOM imaging. In particular, we present the first topographical images of single strand DNA molecules obtained with fiber-based SNOM. The prospects of using rare earth ions in crystals, which are known to be extremely photostable, for single molecule FRET SNOM at room temperature and quantum informatics at liquid helium temperatures, where FRET is a coherent process, are also discussed.

  • 13.
    UŽdavinys, Tomas Kristijonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Marcinkevicius, Saulius
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Mensi, Mounir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Lahourcade, Lise
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Phys, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;OSRAM Opto Semicond GmbH, D-93055 Regensburg, Germany..
    Carlin, Jean-Francois
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Phys, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Martin, Denis
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Phys, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Butte, Raphael
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Phys, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Grandjean, Nicolas
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Phys, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Impact of surface morphology on the properties of light emission in InGaN epilayers2018In: APPLIED PHYSICS EXPRESS, ISSN 1882-0778, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 051004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning near-field optical microscopy was used to study the influence of the surface morphology on the properties of light emission and alloy composition in InGaN epitaxial layers grown on GaN substrates. A strong correlation between the maps of the photoluminescence (PL) peak energy and the gradient of the surface morphology was observed. This correlation demonstrates that the In incorporation strongly depends on the geometry of the monolayer step edges that form during growth in the step-flow mode. The spatial distribution of nonradiative recombination centers-evaluated from PL intensity maps-was found to strongly anticorrelate with the local content of In atoms in the InGaN alloy. 

  • 14.
    Vasileva, Elena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Mensi, Mounir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Lasing from Organic Dye Molecules Embedded in Transparent Wood2017In: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2162-7568, E-ISSN 2195-1071, Vol. 5, no 10, article id 1700057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The report on a study of laser emission from a conceptually new organic material based on transparent wood (TW) with embedded dye Rhodamine 6G molecules is presented in this paper. The lasing performance is compared to a reference organic material containing dye in a poly-methyl-methacrylate matrix. From experimental results, one can conclude that the optical feedback in dye-TW material is realized within cellulose fibers, which play the role of tiny optical resonators. Therefore, the output emission is a collective contribution of individual resonators. Due to this fact, as well as low Q-factor of the resonators/fibers and their length variation, the spectral line of laser emission is broadened up to several nanometers.

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