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  • 1.
    Aullón Alcaine, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Schulz, C.
    Mörth, C. M.
    Distribution and mobility of geogenic arsenic in the shallow aquifers of the northeast of La Pampa, Argentina2012In: Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, As 2012 - 4th International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment, 2012, p. 132-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater contamination with elevated Arsenic (As) and other toxic trace elements has been studied in the central part of the vast Chaco-Pampean Plain, in the city of Quemú Quemú, northeastern La Pampa, Argentina. The groundwater samples were mostly alkaline with pH ranging up to 9.18, oxidizing and characterized by high EC. The concentration of total As (5.58-535 μg/L) and fluoride (0.5-14.2 mg/L) in some samples exceeded the recommended WHO drinking water guideline and the Argentine national drinking water standard. Arsenic was positively correlated with bicarbonate (HCO 3 -), Boron (B), Fluoride (F) and Vanadium (V). Long-term consumption of the groundwater could pose a severe health threat for the local community.

  • 2. Greger, M.
    et al.
    Bergqvist, C.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Landberg, T.
    Influence of silicon on arsenic uptake and toxicity in lettuce2015In: Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality / Angewandte Botanik, ISSN 1613-9216, E-ISSN 1439-040X, Vol. 88, p. 234-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lettuce grown in soil is found to contain high concentrations of arsenic (As). This paper investigates the uptake and speciation of As in lettuce as well as the influence of silicon (Si) on As uptake, since Si may decrease it. Lettuce plants were cultivated in nutrient solution containing arsenite or arsenate with or without silicate. The uptake and distribution of As between roots and shoots, As accu-mulation in cell walls, As speciation, and toxic effects on growth were analysed. Results indicate that arsenite was more toxic to lettuce than was arsenate. Silicate decreased arsenate toxicity but had little effect on arsenite toxicity. In contrast, Si decreased arsenite uptake more than arsenate uptake. The concentration of arsenate was higher than that of arsenite in the plants independent of the As species added. When arsenate was added, the As concentration in shoots was half of that in the roots and this distribution did not change with Si addition. When arsenite was added, approximately 10% of As was found in the shoots and 90% in the roots; this pattern changed in the presence of Si, and As became evenly distributed in the plant. In both roots and shoots, approximately 40% of the As was found in the cell wall fraction; when arsenite was added, the presence of Si increased this fraction to 47%, but only in the shoots. The extraction efficiency when analysing the As species was lower in shoots than in roots, especially in the presence of arsenite and Si. The opposite was found for As concentration in pellets after extraction. This indicated variation in the binding strength of arsenite and arsenate between roots and shoots and between Si-and non-Si-treated plants.

  • 3.
    Ramos, Oswaldo E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Quintanilla, J.
    Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Bolivia.
    Bioaccessibility of arsenic and other selective trace elements in soils around the mining areas of Bolivian Altiplano2013In: 12th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements (ICOBTE), 2013, p. Abstract 0220 - 000167-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of trace elements (TEs) in the soils from sites of historic and present activities both open pit (extracted Au, Ag) and underground mines (Ag, Zn, Pb, Sn) mining in Bolivian Altiplano and their toxicity is one of the major environmental concerns. The aim of this study is to assess the levels of toxic trace elements such as As, Cd, Pb and Zn in the soil and their bioavailability in three sub-basins along selected transects. A combination of DTPA, and sequential extraction procedure was adapted for assessment the As content in different fraction in the soils. The results showed that TE´s were mobilized under low pH in upstream segment, thus could be considered an important factor controlling their chemical behavior in these soils. In the downstream segment of the three sub-basins, the TE enrichments were related to an increased proportion of clay contents through adsorption processes. The bioavailable fractions of the TE´s in soils indicated considerable variability for As (< 2%), Cd (<32%), Cu (<9%), Ni (<11%), Pb (<5%) and Zn (<10%). By using As sequential extraction procedure found that the less than 11% of the total As is easily mobilized in soils, they are associated to fraction related to nonspecifically (F1) and specifically sorbed (F2) fraction, which could predict a helpful tool for environmental risk assessment of these trace element contamination on Bolivian Altiplano. Enrichment factors (EF) in the soils were significantly high for As and Cd, moderate for Pb and Zn, and low for Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni contents of TE´s were high in all crops along the studied transects, and the distribution followed the trend Zn>Cu>Pb>As>Ni>Cd. The bio-concentration factor (BCF) for As, Pb and Zn were lower (< 0.5) in all crops which indicate a limited bioavailability of these TE´s, except Cd that showed high BCF values in the study area. The bioavailable TE’s might take up by the crops and finally threat human health as potential impacts.

  • 4.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    ARSENIC REMOVAL BY PHYTOFILTRATION AND SILICON TREATMENT: A POTENTIAL SOLUTION FOR LOWERING ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN FOOD CROPS2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of arsenic-rich groundwater for crop irrigation can increase the arsenic (As) content in food crops and act as a carcinogen, compromising human health. Using aquatic plant based phytofiltration is a potential eco-technique for removing arsenic from water. The aquatic moss species Warnstorfia fluitans grows naturally in mining areas in northern Sweden, where high concentrations of arsenic occur in lakes and rivers. This species was selected as a model for field, climate chamber and greenhouse studies on factors governing arsenic removal and arsenic phytofiltration of irrigation water. The arsenic and silicon (Si) concentrations in soil, water and plant samples were measured by AAS (atomic absorption spectrophotometry), while arsenite and arsenate species were determined using AAS combined with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an anion exchange column. The arsenic content in grains of hybrid and local aromatic rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars with differing arsenic accumulation factor (AF) values was investigated in an arsenic hotspot in Bangladesh. The results showed that arsenic AF was important in identifying arsenic-safer rice cultivars for growing in an arsenic hotspot. The study based on silicon effect on arsenic uptake in lettuce showed that arsenic accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) could be reduced by silicon addition. The aquatic moss had good phytofiltration capacity, with fast arsenic removal of up to 82% from a medium with low arsenic concentration (1 µM). Extraction analysis showed that inorganic arsenic species were firmly bound inside moss tissue. Absorption of arsenic was relatively higher than adsorption in the moss. Regarding effects of different abiotic factors, plants were stressed at low pH (pH 2.5) and arsenic removal rate was lower from the medium, while arsenic efflux occurred in arsenate-treated medium at low (12°C) and high (30°C) temperature regimes. Besides these factors, low oxygenation increased the efficiency of arsenic removal from the medium. Finally, combining W. fluitans as a phytofilter with a lettuce crop on a constructed wetland significantly reduced the arsenic content in edible parts (leaves) of lettuce. Thus W. fluitans has great potential for use as an arsenic phytofilter in temperate regions.

  • 5.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, Bashir
    Ahmed, K. M.
    DEpartment of Geology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Arsenic levels in soil, water, and rice in Southeastern region of Bangladesh2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of high level of arsenic (As) in soil and water is one of the most significant environmental disasters in the world and most affected countries are located in South Asia specifically in the Bengal Delta region. In Bangladesh the source of arsenic in soil is geogenic and dependence on well water for irrigation leads to an increase in the level of arsenic in food stuffs also. This study presents the preliminary overview of As level in soil, water and rice in the Matlab located southeastern region of Bangladesh. During this study, an evaluation of the irrigation water sources, soils and food stuffs are analyzed in the laboratory and questionnaire system for dietary survey has been followed. The level of arsenic in irrigation well water ranged from (6 – 513 µg/L As, n = 10) and correlated with their depth. In contrary compared to irrigation water high level of arsenic (1.85 - 5.02 mg/kg As, n =36) present in agricultural soil. Cultivation on contaminated sediment and application of arsenic contained water, expand arsenic pathway towards food chain. The amount of arsenic in rice significantly depends on the husk of rice grain, those collected from local fields, found (0.01 to 0.15 mg/kg As, n =20) and 0.02 mg/kg of As in with husk and without husk grain respectively. The analysis of As in soil, water and rice was done with help of hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry and field As test kit. Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, inhabitants of Matlab area are exposed to 0.2 to 0.4 mg of As/day and 0.01 to 0.16 mg/kg As through drinking water and rice consumption respectively. It is important to note that the level of As intake through drinking water is higher than the exposure of As due to the consumption of food stuffs in Bangladesh. Llong term future research initiatives are needed for understanding the dynamics of As in the soil-water system and food chain of the community in As affected areas coupled with the execution of various mitigation strategies.

  • 6.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholms Universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Arsenic in irrigation water: a threat for rice cultivation?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequent cultivation of high yielding rice varieties (HYV) for increased food production are the key reasons for massive application of groundwater based irrigation in the rice fields of Bangladesh. Including the Asian continent, more than half of the world’s population chooses rice as their staple food and it is already considered as one of the major sources of inorganic arsenic (As) intake in the human body through food stuffs. The water logged rice cultivation method also has influence on As accumulation in rice grain. The study area Matlab located in southeastern Bangladesh, which is identified as a prominent As hotspot with incidences of high level of As in the groundwater. The objective of this study was to find out the influence of irrigation water quality and soil on the level of As in rice grain and more specifically identify the influence of iron (Fe), silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) in the soil on the As uptake in the rice grain. A number of previous laboratory based studies has found, all three elements exert significant control on the biogeochemical interactions of As in soils and uptake in the plants.

    The aim of this study was to compare the level of As in rice grain and bran of different HYVs and local rice varieties, grown in this region and to compare the results with the levels of Fe, Si and P in the irrigated soils. The ICP-OES based analysis showed that the total As concentration (5.74-16.78 mg Askg

    -1) in the soil samples from the rice fields of the area (n=9) has exceeded the average global As concentration in the crust and soils. The concentration of Fe and Si in the soil was positively correlated with total As in the soil. The As analogue, P was positively correlated with As (R2=0.52) in the soil samples. The arsenic concentration in the irrigation water of that particular area was (> 200 μg As l -1) The AAS based analysis found that the total arsenic concentration ranged (0.017- 0.23 mg As kg-1) in the grain whereas [Asbran] was higher compared with the grains. High level of Fe present in the soil could play a significant role on the bioavailability of As due to its sorption onto the surface of the Fe-oxide colloids and roots of the rice plants. To address the As bioavailability in the rice grain, the level of As influencing elements in both grain and bran should be focused in further investigation.

  • 7.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Greger, M.
    Phytostablization of arsenic: Is it possible by growing Salix spp. in the contaminated sites?2012In: Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, As 2012 - 4th International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment, 2012, p. 328-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presence of high level of Arsenic (As) in soil and groundwater is considered as one of the major global environmental problems. Using plant-based phytoremediation technology could be an eco-friendly, economic alternative for cleaning up the contaminated areas. The aim of this study was to screen the possibility of local grown Salix spp. for phytostablization of As in a mine area located in Pezinok, Slovakia. A hydroponic experiment with arsenate and arsenite treatment was performed in a controlled climate chamber. After measurement of total As concentration in different parts of Salix spp., it was found that major portion of As bound in its root part and As translocation rate was low. This study suggested it could be possible to use native Salix spp. for phytostabilization of As in the mining areas to decrease the availability of As without creating conflict with other organisms in the local ecosystem.

  • 8.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Greger, Maria
    Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Arsenic concentrations in local aromatic and high-yielding hybrid rice cultivars and the potential health risk: A study in an arsenic hotspot2017In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 189, no 184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of high levels of arsenic (As) in rice fields has negative effects on the health ofthose consuming rice as their subsistence food. This study determined the variation in total Asconcentration in local aromatic rice (LAR) (kalijira) and two high yielding varieties (HYVs)(BRRI dhan 32 and BRRI dhan 28) grown in paddy fields in Matlab, Bangladesh, an As hotspot with elevated As levels in groundwater. Mature rice grain samples and soil samples were collected from different paddy fields and the As concentrations in both the de-husked grains and the husks of the three rice cultivars were analysed to identify the safest of the threecultivars for human consumption. The results showed that the total As concentration washigher (0.09-0.21 mg As kg-1) in the de-husked grains of LAR than in the husks, while theopposite was found for the HYV rice. Moreover, the As concentration in soil samples was 2-to 5-fold higher for the LAR than for the HYVs, but the As accumulation factor (AF) waslower in the LAR (0.2-0.4%) than in the HYVs (0.9-1%). Thus, LAR can be considered thesafest of the three cultivars for human consumption owing to its low AF value. Furthermore,due to the low AF, growing LAR instead of HYVs in soils with slightly elevated As levelscould help improve the food safety level in the food chain.

  • 9.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Greger, Maria
    Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effect of pH, temperature, and oxygenation on arsenic phytofiltration by aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans)2018In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 3918-3925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytofiltration of arsenic (As)-contaminated water could reduce As in irrigation and surface water. In a previous study, we found that the aquatic moss Warnstorfia fluitans efficiently removes arsenic from water contaminated with arsenate and arsenite. This work investigates how factors such as pH, temperature, and oxygenation influence As removal, since these factors vary in the environment. Plants were grown in a medium with 5 or 10 μM arsenite or arsenate and: 1) a pH of 2.5, 6.5, or 9.5; 2) a temperature of 12, 20, or 30 °C; and 3) oxygenation of <2 or 13 mg O2 L−1. Removal of As was monitored over 48–96 h, and the content and speciation of As were analysed in moss plants at the termination of the experiments. Results indicate that As removal was faster in arsenite than arsenate solutions. Arsenic removal from arsenite solution was the fastest, i.e., 80–90% within 2 h, at pH 6.5 and 9.5 and at 20 and 30 °C. At pH 2.5, plants were stressed and the net removal was low throughout the treatment period. Arsenic removal was more efficient at low than high oxygenation levels. Besides this, no As net efflux process was seen in the water system except after 48 h in arsenate-treated medium in high-temperature (30 °C) regimes. Regardless of As species added, usually only arsenite was found in the plants after treatment. Most internal As, i.e., 95% in the arsenate and 85% in the arsenite treatments, was firmly bound to the tissue. The study found that at 20 °C, neutral pH, and low oxygenation, this aquatic moss has great potential for As phytofiltration.

  • 10.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Greger, Maria
    Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Phytofiltration of arsenic by aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans)2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates whether aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) originating from an arsenic (As)-contaminated wetland close to a mine tailings impoundment may be used for phytofiltration of As. The aim was to elucidate the capacity of W. fluitans to remove As from arsenite and arsenate contaminated water, how nutrients affect the As uptake and the proportion of As adsorption and absorption by the moss plant, which consists of dead and living parts.

    Arsenic removal from 0, 1, or 10% Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0–100 μM arsenate was followed over 192 h, and the total As in aquatic moss after treatment was analysed. The uptake and speciation of As in moss cultivated in water containing 10 μM arsenate or arsenite were examined as As uptake in living (absorption + adsorption) and dead (adsorption) plant parts.

    Results indicated that W. fluitans removed up to 82% of As from the water within one hour when 1 μM arsenate was added in the absence of nutrients. The removal time increased with greater nutrient and As concentrations. Up to 100 μM As had no toxic effect on the plant biomass. Both arsenite and arsenate were removed from the solution to similar extents and, independent of the As species added, more arsenate than arsenite was found in the plant. Of the As taken up, over 90% was firmly bound to the tissue, a possible mechanism for resisting high As concentrations. Arsenic was both absorbed and adsorbed by the moss, and twice as much As was found in living parts as in dead moss tissue. This study revealed that W. fluitans has potential to serve as a phytofilter for removing As from As-contaminated water without displaying any toxic effects of the metalloid.

  • 11. Vithanage, M.
    et al.
    Dabrowska, B.B.
    Mukherjee, A.B.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Arsenic uptake by plants and possible phytoremediation applications: A brief overview2012In: Environmental Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1610-3653, E-ISSN 1610-3661, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 217-224Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review focuses the behaviour of arsenic in plant-soil and plant-water systems, arsenic-plant cell interactions, phytoremediation, and biosorption. Arsenate and arsenite uptake by plants varies in different environment conditions. An eco-friendly and low-cost method for arsenic removal from soil-water system is phytoremediation, in which living plants are used to remove arsenic from the environment or to render it less toxic. Several factors such as soil redox conditions, arsenic speciation in soils, and the presence of phosphates play a major role. Translocation factor is the important feature for categorising plants for their remediation ability. Phytoremediation techniques often do not take into account the biosorption processes of living plants and plant litter. In biosorption techniques, contaminants can be removed by a biological substrate, as a sorbent, bacteria, fungi, algae, or vascular plants surfaces based on passive binding of arsenic or other contaminants on cell wall surfaces containing special active functional groups. Evaluation of the current literature suggests that understanding molecular level processes, and kinetic aspects in phytoremediation using advanced analytical techniques are essential for designing phytoremediation technologies with improved, predictable remedial success. Hence, more efforts are needed on addressing the molecular level behaviour of arsenic in plants, kinetics of uptake, and transfer of arsenic in plants with flowing waters, remobilisation through decay, possible methylation, and volatilisation.

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