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  • 1.
    Akan, Rabia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Parfeniukas, Karolis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Toprak, M. S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Reaction control of metal-assisted chemical etching for silicon-based zone plate nanostructures2018In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 23, p. 12628-12634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) reaction parameters were investigated for the fabrication of specially designed silicon-based X-ray zone plate nanostructures using a gold catalyst pattern and etching solutions composed of HF and H2O2. Etching depth, zone verticality and zone roughness were studied as a function of etching solution composition, temperature and processing time. Homogeneous, vertical etching with increasing depth is observed at increasing H2O2 concentrations and elevated processing temperatures, implying a balance in the hole injection and silica dissolution kinetics at the gold-silicon interface. The etching depth decreases and zone roughness increases at the highest investigated H2O2 concentration and temperature. Possible reasons for these observations are discussed based on reaction chemistry and zone plate design. Optimum MACE conditions are found at HFH2O2 concentrations of 4.7 M:0.68 M and room temperature with an etching rate of ≈0.7 μm min-1, which is about an order of magnitude higher than previous reports. Moreover, our results show that a grid catalyst design is important for successful fabrication of vertical high aspect ratio silicon nanostructures. 

  • 2.
    Akan, Rabia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Parfeniukas, Karolis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Reaction control of metal-assisted chemical etching for silicon-based zone plate nanostructuresManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) reaction parameters were investigated for the fabrication of specially designed silicon-based x-ray zone plate nanostructures using a gold catalyst pattern and etching solutions composed of HF and H2O2. Etching depth, zone verticality and zone roughness were studied as a function of etching solution composition, temperature and processing time. Homogeneous, vertical etching with increasing depth is observed at increasing H2O2 concentrations and elevated processing temperatures, implying a balance in the hole injection and silica dissolution kinetics at the gold-silicon interface. The etching depth decreases and zone roughness increases at the highest investigated H2O2 concentration and temperature. Possible reasons for these observations are discussed based on reaction chemistry and zone plate design. Optimum MACE conditions are found at HF:H2O2 concentrations of 4.7 M:0.68 M and room temperature with an etching rate of 0.7 micrometers per minute, which is about an order of magnitude higher than previous reports. Moreover, our results show that a grid catalyst design is important for successful fabrication of vertical high aspect ratio silicon nanostructures.

  • 3. Fadeel, B.
    et al.
    Feliu, N.
    Vogt, Carmen Mihaela
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Abdelmonem, A.M.
    Parak, W.J.
    Bridge over troubled waters: Understanding the synthetic and biological identities of engineered nanomaterials2013In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, ISSN 1939-5116, E-ISSN 1939-0041, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 111-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered nanomaterials offer exciting opportunities for 'smart' drug delivery and in vivo imaging of disease processes, as well as in regenerative medicine. The ability to manipulate matter at the nanoscale enables many new properties that are both desirable and exploitable, but the same properties could also give rise to unexpected toxicities that may adversely affect human health. Understanding the physicochemical properties that drive toxicological outcomes is a formidable challenge as it is not trivial to separate and, hence, to pinpoint individual material characteristics of nanomaterials. In addition, nanomaterials that interact with biological systems are likely to acquire a surface corona of biomolecules that may dictate their biological behavior. Indeed, we propose that it is the combination of material-intrinsic properties (the 'synthetic identity') and context-dependent properties determined, in part, by the bio-corona of a given biological compartment (the 'biological identity') that will determine the interactions of engineered nanomaterials with cells and tissues and subsequent outcomes. The delineation of these entwined 'identities' of engineered nanomaterials constitutes the bridge between nanotoxicological research and nanomedicine.

  • 4.
    Fornara, Andrea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Khartsev, Sergiy
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Li, Shanghua
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Qin, Jian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Grishin, Alexander
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Synthesis, characterization and magneto-optical properties of transparent magnetic PMMA/nanoparticles compositeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Larsson, Jakob C.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lundström, Ulf
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Larsson, Daniel H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Laboratory x-ray fluorescence tomography for high-resolution nanoparticle bio-imaging2014In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 2790-2793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that nanoparticle x-ray fluorescence computed tomography in mouse-sized objects can be performed with very high spatial resolution at acceptable dose and exposure times with a compact laboratory system. The method relies on the combination of the 24 keV line-emission from a high-brightness liquid-metal-jet x-ray source, pencil-beam-forming x-ray optics, photon-counting energy-dispersive detection, and carefully matched (Mo) nanoparticles. Phantom experiments and simulations show that the arrangement significantly reduces Compton background and allows 100 mu m detail imaging at dose and exposure times compatible with small-animal experiments. The method provides a possible path to in vivo molecular x-ray imaging at sub-100 mu m resolution in mice.

  • 6. Kertmen, Ahmet
    et al.
    Torruella, Pau
    Coy, Emerson
    Yate, Luis
    Nowaczyk, Grzegorz
    Gapinski, Jacek
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Estrade, Sonia
    Peiro, Francesca
    Milewski, Slawomir
    Jurga, Stefan
    Andruszkiewicz, Ryszard
    Acetate-Induced Disassembly of Spherical Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Clusters into Monodispersed Core-Shell Structures upon Nanoemulsion Fusion2017In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 33, no 39, p. 10351-10365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been long known that the physical encapsulation of oleic acid-capped iron oxide nanoparticles (OA-IONPs) with the cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA(+)) surfactant induces the formation of spherical iron oxide nanoparticle clusters (IONPCs). However, the behavior and functional properties of IONPCs in chemical reactions have been largely neglected and are still not well-understood. Herein, we report an unconventional ligand-exchange function of IONPCs activated when dispersed in an ethyl acetate/acetate buffer system. The ligand exchange can successfully transform hydrophobic OA-IONP building blocks of IONPCs into highly hydrophilic, acetate-capped iron oxide nanoparticles (Ac-IONPs). More importantly, we demonstrate that the addition of silica precursors (tetraethyl orthosilicate and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane) to the acetate/oleate ligand-exchange reaction of the IONPs induces the disassembly of the IONPCs into monodispersed iron oxide-acetate-silica core-shell-shell (IONPs@acetate@SiO2) nanoparticles. Our observations evidence that the formation of IONPs@acetate@SiO2 nanoparticles is initiated by a unique micellar fusion mechanism between the Pickering-type emulsions of IONPCs and nanoemulsions of silica precursors formed under ethyl acetate buffered conditions. A dynamic rearrangement of the CTA(+)-oleate bilayer on the IONPC surfaces is proposed to be responsible for the templating process of the silica shells around the individual IONPs. In comparison to previously reported methods in the literature, our work provides a much more detailed experimental evidence of the silica-coating mechanism in a nanoemulsion system. Overall, ethyl acetate is proven to be a very efficient agent for an effortless preparation of monodispersed IONPs@acetate@SiO2 and hydrophilic Ac-IONPs from IONPCs.

  • 7.
    Khachatourian, Malek Adrine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics. Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran.
    Golestani-Fard, F.
    Sarpoolaky, H.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vasileva, Elena
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Mensi, Mounir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Microwave synthesis of Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors: A study on the influence of dopant concentration and calcination temperature on structural and photoluminescence properties2016In: Journal of Luminescence, ISSN 0022-2313, E-ISSN 1872-7883, Vol. 169, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Red fluorescent emitting monodispersed spherical Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf> nanophosphors with different Eu3+ doping concentrations (0-13 mol%) are synthesized by a novel microwave assisted urea precipitation, which is recognized as a green, fast and reproducible synthesis method. The effect of Eu3+ doping and calcination temperature on the structural characteristics and luminescence properties of particles is investigated in detail. The as prepared powders have (Y,Eu)(OH)(CO<inf>3</inf>) structure which converts to Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf>:Eu3+ from 500 °C and become crystalline at higher temperatures. The crystallite size of nanophosphors increased from 15 nm to 25 nm as the calcination temperature increased from 700 °C to 1050 °C. The efficient incorporation of Eu3+ ions in cubic Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf> host matrix is confirmed by the calculated X-ray Powder diffraction (XRPD) structural parameters. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs show that the as obtained and calcined particles are spherical, monodispersed and non-agglomerated. The overall size of particles increases from 61±8 nm to 86±9 nm by increasing Eu3+ concentration from 0 mol% to 13 mol%. High resolution TEM revealed polycrystalline nature of calcined particles. The particles exhibit a strong red emission under ultraviolet (UV) excitation. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the peaks increases proportionally with Eu3+ concentration and the calcination temperature with no luminescence quenching phenomenon observed even for Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf>:13%Eu3+. The fluorescent emission properties combined with the monodispersity and narrow size distribution characteristics make the Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf>:Eu3+ heavy metal free nanophosphors applicable in fluorescence cell imaging and as fluorescence biolabels.

  • 8.
    Khachatourian, Malek Adrine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics. IUST-Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran.
    Golestani-Fard, F.
    Sarpoolaky, H.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Green synthesis of Y2O3:Eu3+ nanocrystals for bioimaging2015In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Materials Research Society, 2015, Vol. 1720, p. 59-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rare earth (e.g., Eu, Er, Yb, Tm) doped Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf> nanocrystals are promising fluorescent bioimaging agents which can overcome well known problems of currently used organic dyes like photobleaching, phototoxicity, and light scattering. Furthermore, the alternative quantum dots (QDs) composed of heavy metals (e.g., CdSe) possess inherently low biocompatibility due to the heavy metal content. In the present work, monodisperse spherical Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf>:Eu3+ nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by microwave assisted urea precipitation method followed by thermochemical treatment. This is a green, fast and reproducible synthesis method, which is surfactant and hazardous precursors free. The as prepared particles were non-aggregated, spherical particles with a narrow size distribution. The calcined particles have a polycrystalline structure preserving the monodispersity and the spherical morphology of the as prepared particles. After calcination of Y(OH)CO<inf>3</inf>:Eu3+ precursors at 900°C for 2 hours, a highly crystalline cubic Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf> structure was obtained. The Y<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf>:Eu3+ spherical particles showed a strong red emission peak at 613nm due to the 5D<inf>0</inf>-7F<inf>2</inf> forced electric dipole transition of Eu3+ ions under UV excitation (235 nm) as revealed by the photoluminescence analysis (PL). The effect of reaction time on size and photoluminescence properties of calcined particles and also the effect of reaction temperature and pressure on the size and the yield of the precipitation process have been studied. The intense red fluorescent emission, excellent stability and potential low toxicity make these QDs promising for applications in bio-related areas such as fluorescence cell imaging or fluorescence bio labels.

  • 9.
    Kunzmann, Andrea
    et al.
    Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Britta
    Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Feliu, Neus
    Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ye, Fei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Gabrielsson, Susanne
    Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina
    Labortory for Materials, Biology Interactions, Swiss Federal Laboratories of Materials Testing and Research, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Laurent, Sophie
    NMR and Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of General, Organic and Biomedical Chemistry, University of Mons, Belgium.
    Vahter, Marie
    Krug, Harald
    Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Insitutetet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Scheynius, Annika
    Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Universty Hospital Solan, Sweden.
    Fadeel, Bengt
    Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Efficient internalization of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles of different sizes by primary human macrophages and dendritic cells2011In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, ISSN 0041-008X, E-ISSN 1096-0333, Vol. 253, no 2, p. 81-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered nanoparticles are being considered for a wide range of biomedical applications, from magnetic resonance imaging to "smart" drug delivery systems. The development of novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of their biocompatibility. In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the possible interactions between nanoparticles and cells of the immune system, our primary defense system against foreign invasion. On the other hand, labeling of immune cells serves as an ideal tool for visualization, diagnosis or treatment of inflammatory processes, which requires the efficient internalization of the nanoparticles into the cells of interest. Here, we compare novel monodispersed silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with commercially available dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles displayed excellent magnetic properties. Furthermore, they were nontoxic to primary human monocyte-derived macrophages at all doses tested whereas dose-dependent toxicity of the smaller silica-coated nanoparticles (30 nm and 50 nm) was observed for primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but not for the similarly small dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. No macrophage or dendritic cell secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed upon administration of nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were taken up to a significantly higher degree when compared to the dextran-coated nanoparticles, irrespective of size. Cellular internalization of the silica-coated nanoparticles was through an active, actin cytoskeleton-dependent process. We conclude that these novel silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising materials for medical imaging, cell tracking and other biomedical applications. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Larsson, Jakob C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vågberg, William
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Dzieran, Johanna
    Arsenian-Henriksson, Marie
    Hertz, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    High-spatial-resolution x-ray fluorescence tomography with spectrally matched nanoparticles2018In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 63, p. 164001-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Present macroscopic biomedical imaging methods provide either morphology with high spatial resolution (e.g. CT) or functional/molecular information with lower resolution (e.g. PET). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) from targeted nanoparticles allows molecular or functional imaging but sensitivity has so far been insufficient resulting in low spatial resolution, despite long exposure times and high dose. In the present paper, we show that laboratory XRF tomography with metal-core nanoparticles (NPs) provides a path to functional/molecular biomedical imaging with ~100 µm resolution in living rodents. The high sensitivity and resolution rely on the combination of a high-brightness liquid-metal-jet x-ray source, pencil-beam optics, photon-counting energy-dispersive detection, and spectrally matched NPs. The method is demonstrated on mice for 3D tumor imaging via passive targeting of in-house-fabricated molybdenum NPs. Exposure times, nanoparticle dose, and radiation dose agree well with in vivo imaging.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Jakob C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vågberg, William
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lundström, Ulf
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Larsson, Daniel H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    High-spatial-resolution nanoparticle X-ray fluorescence tomography2016In: MEDICAL IMAGING 2016: PHYSICS OF MEDICAL IMAGING, 2016, article id 97831VConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray fluorescence tomography (XFCT) has potential for high-resolution 3D molecular x-ray bio-imaging. In this technique the fluorescence signal from targeted nanoparticles (NPs) is measured, providing information about the spatial distribution and concentration of the NPs inside the object. However, present laboratory XFCT systems typically have limited spatial resolution (>1 mm) and suffer from long scan times and high radiation dose even at high NP concentrations, mainly due to low efficiency and poor signal-to-noise ratio. We have developed a laboratory XFCT system with high spatial resolution (sub-100 mu m), low NP concentration and vastly decreased scan times and dose, opening up the possibilities for in-vivo small-animal imaging research. The system consists of a high-brightness liquid-metal-jet microfocus x-ray source, x-ray focusing optics and an energy-resolving photon-counting detector. By using the source's characteristic 24 keV line-emission together with carefully matched molybdenum nanoparticles the Compton background is greatly reduced, increasing the SNR. Each measurement provides information about the spatial distribution and concentration of the Mo nanoparticles. A filtered back-projection method is used to produce the final XFCT image.

  • 12.
    Li, Yuyang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Shaker, Kian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Larsson, Jakob C.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    A Library of Potential Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for X-Ray Fluorescence Tomography Bioimaging2018In: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1555-4309, E-ISSN 1555-4317, article id UNSP 8174820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as contrast agents for several bioimaging modalities. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) tomography can provide sensitive and quantitative 3D detection of NPs. With spectrally matched NPs as contrast agents, we demonstrated earlier in a laboratory system that XRF tomography could achieve high-spatial-resolution tumor imaging in mice. Here, we present the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of a library of NPs containing Y, Zr, Nb, Rh, and Ru that have spectrally matched K-shell absorption for the laboratory scale X-ray source. The K-shell emissions of these NPs are spectrally well separated from the X-ray probe and the Compton background, making them suitable for the lab-scale XRF tomography system. Their potential as XRF contrast agents is demonstrated successfully in a small-animal equivalent phantom, confirming the simulation results. The diversity in the NP composition provides a flexible platform for a better design and biological optimization of XRF tomography nanoprobes.

  • 13.
    Malek Khachatourian, Adrine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM. Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran .
    Golestani-Fard, Farhad
    Sarpoolaky, Hossein
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Microwave assisted synthesis of monodispersed Y2O3 and Y2O3:Eu3+ particles2015In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 2006-2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monodisperse spherical Y2O3 and Y2O3:Eu3+ nanocrystalline particles with particle size between 100 nm and 350 nm were successfully prepared by microwave assisted urea precipitation method followed by a thermochemical treatment. Fast microwave heating, controlled decomposition of urea and burst nucleation of metal ions in aqueous solution led to the formation of non-aggregated spherical particles with narrow size dispersion. The particle size and size dispersion was controlled by adjusting the urea/metal ions ratio, the metal ions concentration, the reaction time and the temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the as prepared particles have Y(OH)CO3 composition, which converted to highly crystalline cubic Y2O3 after calcination at temperatures above 600 degrees C. The calcined Y2O3 particles preserved the spherical morphology of the as prepared particles and exhibited polycrystalline structure. The size of the crystallites increased from similar to 8 nm to similar to 37 nm with the increase of the calcination temperature from 500 degrees C to 900 degrees C. In order to transform these nanostructures to luminescent composition, Eu3+ doping has been performed. Y2O3:Eu3+ particles inherited the morphology and polycrystalline structure of the host Y2O3 particles. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis of Y2O3:Eu3+ particles showed a strong red emission peak at 613 nm corresponding to D-5(0)-F-7(2) forced electric dipole transition of Eu3+ ions under UV excitation. All these critical characteristics, and being heavy-metal free, make these particles useful for bioimaging, and display devices.

  • 14. Mukherjee, S. P.
    et al.
    Gliga, A. R.
    Lazzaretto, B.
    Brandner, B.
    Fielden, Matthew
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Newman, L.
    Rodrigues, A. F.
    Shao, W.
    Fournier, P. M.
    Toprak, Muhammet Sadaka
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Star, A.
    Kostarelos, K.
    Bhattacharya, K.
    Fadeel, B.
    Graphene oxide is degraded by neutrophils and the degradation products are non-genotoxic2018In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 1180-1188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutrophils were previously shown to digest oxidized carbon nanotubes through a myeloperoxidase (MPO)-dependent mechanism, and graphene oxide (GO) was found to undergo degradation when incubated with purified MPO, but there are no studies to date showing degradation of GO by neutrophils. Here we produced endotoxin-free GO by a modified Hummers' method and asked whether primary human neutrophils stimulated to produce neutrophil extracellular traps or activated to undergo degranulation are capable of digesting GO. Biodegradation was assessed using a range of techniques including Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and mass spectrometry. GO sheets of differing lateral dimensions were effectively degraded by neutrophils. As the degradation products could have toxicological implications, we also evaluated the impact of degraded GO on the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. MPO-degraded GO was found to be non-cytotoxic and did not elicit any DNA damage. Taken together, these studies have shown that neutrophils can digest GO and that the biodegraded GO is non-toxic for human lung cells.

  • 15.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Active Cooperative Assemblies Towards Nanocomposites2009In: ADVANCES IN MATERIAL DESIGN FOR REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, DRUG DELIVERY AND TARGETING/IMAGING    / [ed] Shastri VP; Lendlein A; Liu L; Mikos A; Mitragotri S, 2009, Vol. 1140, p. 197-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on the fabrication of novel type of assemblies bearing magnetic nanoparticles and inorganic shells prepared via a biomimetic route of complex coacervation. Magnetic nanoparticles fabricated under controlled conditions were surface modified with polyacrylic acid (PAA). Subsequently, PAA spontaneously formed spherical assemblies in contact with certain ions, such as Ca2+. The stability of these microspheres against environmental alterations such as pH, ionic strength, and dilution was increased through cross-linking. Ethylene diammine (EDA) was used as a cross-linker, which resulted in mechanically stabilized system that does not show sensitivity towards the external pH values. Important parameters for the formation of these coacervates as well as mechanism of formation and cross-linking have been evaluated by FTIR analysis. The cooperative assemblies are still active for further reaction and were used for the growth of an inorganic aluminum oxide shell. SEM analysis of these spheres showed that the structures are hollow with a large interior volume. A biocompatible outer surface combined with the magnetic functionality is very important for the targeted drug delivery devices for biomedical applications.

  • 16.
    Vogt, Carmen M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Kunzmann, Andrea
    Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torres, Neus Feliu
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Insitutet.
    Thurnherr, Tina
    Laboratory for Materials-Biology Interactoins, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Gallen, Switzerland.
    Laurent, Sophie
    University of Mons-Hainaut, Belgium.
    Bridot, Jean-Luc
    University of Mons-Hainaut, Belgium.
    Müller, Robert N.
    University of Mons-Hainaut, Belgium.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Krug, Harald F.
    Laboratory for Materials-Biology.
    Fadeel, Bengt
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Biocompatibility of tuneable silica shell-magnetic core nanoparticles evaluated in vitro using primary human monocute-derived macrophagesManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Vogt, Carmen M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Laurent, Sophie
    University of Mons-Hainaut, Belgium.
    Bridot, Jean-Luc
    University of Mons-Hainaut, Belgium.
    Müller, Robert N.
    University of Mons-Hainaut.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    High quality and tuneable silica shell-magnetic core nanoparticles2010In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1137-1147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obtaining small (<50 nm), monodispersed, well-separated, single iron oxide core-silica SiO2) shell nanoparticles for biomedical applications is still a challenge. Preferably, they are synthesized by inverse microemulsion method. However, substantial amount of aggregated and multicore core- shell nanoparticles is the undesired outcome of the method. In this study, we report on the production of less than 50 nm overall size, monodispersed, free of necking, single core iron oxide-SiO2 shell nanoparticles with tuneable shell thickness by a carefully optimized inverse microemulsion method. The high degree of control over the process is achieved by understanding the mechanism of core-shell nanoparticles formation. By varying the reaction time and recursor concentration, the thickness of silica layer an the core nanoparticles can be finely adjusted from to 13 nm. Residual reactions during the workup were inhibited by a combination of pH control with hock freezing and ultracentrifuging. These highquality tuneable core-shell nanocomposite particles exhibit superparamagnetic character and sufficiently high magnetization with great potential for biomedical applications (e.g. MRI, cell separation and magnetically driven drug delivery systems) either as-prepared or by additional surface modification for improved biocompatibility.

  • 18.
    Vogt, Carmen M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Shi, J.
    Torres, N. F.
    Fadeel, B.
    Laurent, S.
    Bridot, J. -L
    Müller, R. N.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Optimised synthetic route for tuneable shell Si02@Fe304 core-shell nanoparticles2009In: Advances in material design for regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and targeting/imaging, Materials Research Society, 2009, p. 209-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multifunctional nanoparticles (that have in their structure different components that can perform various functions) are subject of intensive research activities as they find a large variety of applications in numerous biomedical fields from enhancement of image contrast in MRI to different magnetically controllable drug delivery systems. In this study we report on the synthesis of well-separated, monodisperse single core-shell Si02@Fe304 nanoparticles with an overall diameter of ̃30 nm. The influence of stirring rate and reaction time on synthesis of tuneable shell thickness core-shell nanoparticles is reported. Particles' cell toxicity and performance as MRI contrast agents were also studied due to their promising biological applications (as contrast agents, cell labelling and separation, drug delivery systems, etc.) and results are promising in terms of MRI performance as well as having no significant cytotoxicity.

  • 19.
    Vogt, Carmen M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Shi, Jingwen
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Torres, Neus Feliu
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Fadeel, Bengt
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Laurent, Sophie
    University of Mons-Hainaut, Belgium.
    Bridot, Jean-Luc
    University of Mons-Hainaut, Belgium.
    Müller, Robert N.
    University of Mons-Hainaut.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Optimised Synthetic Route for Tuneable Shell SiO2@Fe3O4 Core-Shell Nanoparticles2009In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2009, Vol. 1140, p. 209-214Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multifunctional nanoparticles (that have in their structure different components that can perform various functions) are subject of intensive research activities as they find a large variety of applications in numerous biomedical fields from enhancement of image contrast in MRI to different magnetically controllable drug delivery systems. In this study we report on the synthesis of well-separated, monodisperse single coreshell SiO2@Fe3O4 nanoparticles with an overall diameter of ~30 nm. The influence of stirring rate and reaction time on synthesis of tuneable shell thickness core-shell nanoparticles is reported. Particles’ cell toxicity and performance as MRI contrast agents were also studied due to their promising biological applications (as contrast agents, cell labelling and separation, drug delivery systems, etc.) and results are promising in terms of MRI performance as well as having no significant cytotoxicity.

     

  • 20.
    Vogt, Carmen Mihaela
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Engineered core-shell nanoparticles for biomedical applications2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The necessity for synthesis of nanoparticles with well controlled size and morphology emerged with the development in recent years of novel advanced applications especially in biomedical related fields. These applications require nanoparticles with more complex architecture such as multifunctional nanoparticles (i.e. core–shell structures) that can carry several components with different embedded functionalities. In this thesis, we developed core–shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with finely tuned silica shell on iron oxide core as model system for advanced applications in nanomedicine such as MRI, drug delivery and hyperthermia.

    The synthesis of monodispersed, and well separated, single iron oxide core–silica (SiO2) shell nanoparticles for biomedical applications is still a challenge. Substantial amount of aggregated and multicore CSNPs are generally the undesired outcome. In this thesis, synthesis of monodispersed, free of necking, single core iron oxide-SiO2 different distinct overall size and tuneable shell thickness was performed using an inverse microemulsion method. The influence of the reaction time, hydrodynamic conditions and precursor concentration on the synthesis process and thickness of the silica layer was investigated and the process was optimised. The residual reactions during the post synthesis processing were inhibited using a combination of pH adjustment and alternating shock freezing with ultracentrifuging.

    The second part of the thesis is concerning thorough characterisation of the CSNPs with different shell thickness. The non-aggregated tuneable shell CSNPs maintained the superparamagnetic character of the cores with high magnetisation, showing great potential for their applications in nanomedicine. Magnetic measurements and relaxivity tests were performed and the comparison of the CSNPs with commercial products revealed the fact that relaxation time ratios (r2/r1) obtained are higher than those of the commercially available MRI contrast agents which indicates a better T2 contrast.

    In the last part of the thesis the in-vitro toxicity investigation results are reported. For the investigation of cytotoxicity (3- 4, 5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cells were exposed to a wide range of concentrations of nanoparticles (between 0.5 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml). The cell toxicity results indicated no severe toxic effects on human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) as model system. The internalisation of the nanoparticles by HMDM was monitored using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

    The CSNPs have the capacity of forming stable colloidal dispersions at physiological pH, with desired magnetic properties, low toxicity, and the potential for further functionalisation via surface modification of the silica shell or by adding new components (i.e. quantum dots, therapeutics). These characteristics make them highly promising for drug delivery, medical imaging, hyperthermia, magnetic cell marking and cell separation as well as many other biomedical applications.

     

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