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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry (closed 20130101).
    Boyer, Antoine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Sinigoi, Loris
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry (closed 20130101).
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Hult, Karl
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry (closed 20130101).
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Martinelle, Mats
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry (closed 20130101).
    One-Pot Enzymatic Route to Tetraallyl Ether Functional Oligoesters: Synthesis, UV Curing, and Characterization2010In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 48, no 23, p. 5289-5297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An enzymatic one-pot route in bulk was used to synthesize tetraallyl ether (tAE) functional oligomers based on divinyl adipate, 1,4-butanediol and trimethylolpropane diallyl ether. By using lipase B from Candida antarctica as catalyst and varying the stoichiometric ratio of monomers, it was possible to reach targeted molecular weights (from 1300 to 3300 g mol(-1)) of allyl-ether functional polyesters. The enzyme catalyzed reaction reached completion (>98% conversion based on all monomers) within 24 h at 60 degrees C, under reduced pressure (72 mbar) resulting in similar to 90% yield after filtration. The tAE-functional oligoesters were photopolymerized, without any purification other than removal of the enzyme by filtration, with thiol functional monomers (dithiol, tetrathiol) in a 1: 1 ratio thiol-ene reaction. The photo-initiator, 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone, was used to improve the rate of reaction under UV light. High conversions (96-99% within detection limits) were found for all thiol-ene films as determined by FT-Raman spectroscopy. The tAE-functional oligoesters were characterized by NMR, MALDI, and SEC. The UV-cured homopolymerized films and the thiol-ene films properties were characterized utilizing DSC and DMTA.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Hult, Karl
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Martinelle, Mats
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry.
    Enzymatic One-Pot Route to Telechelic Polypentadecalactone Epoxide: Synthesis, UV Curing, and Characterization2009In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 3108-3113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an enzymatic one-pot procedure immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica was used to synthesize semicrystalline diepoxy functional macromonomers based on glycidol, pentadecalactone, and adipic acid. By changing the stoichiometry of the building blocks. macromonomers of controlled molecular weight front 1400 to 2700 g mol(-1) could be afforded. The enzyme-catalyzed reaction went to completion (conversion >= 95%) within 24 h at 60 degrees C. After removal of the enzyme, the produced macromonomers were used for photopolymerization without any purification. The macromonomers readily copolymerized cationically with a cycloaliphatic diepoxide (Cyracure UVR-6110; CA-dE) to high conversion. The cross-linked copolymers formed a durable film with a degree of crystallinity depending on the macromonomer size and amount of CA-dE used, without CA-dE the macromonomers homopolymerized only to a low degree. Combined with CA-dE conversions of 85-90% were determined by FT-Raman spectroscopy. The films became more durable once reinforced with CA-dE, increasing the cross-link density and reducing the crystallinity of the PDL segments in the films.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Hult, Karl
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Martinelle, Mats
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry.
    One-pot synthesis to functional free-standing polymer film for sensor applicationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4. Hassel, Beatriz I.
    et al.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    A Study on the Morphology, Mechanical, and Electrical Performance of Polyaniline-modified Wood - A Semiconducting Composite Material2014In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 5007-5023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the morphology, electrochemical modification with respect to the wood fiber direction, and mechanical properties of wood modified by in situ polymerization with polyaniline (PANI). This polymerization formed a composite material with applications as an antistatic, electromagnetic, anti-corrosion, and heavy metal purifying materials. The polymer was found throughout the entire structure of the wood and was quantified within the wood cell wall and middle lamella by SEM-EDX. The presence of PANI affected the conductivity of the composite specimens, which was found to be higher in the fiber direction, indicating a more intact percolation pathway of connected PANI particles in this direction. The PANI modification resulted in a small reduction of the storage modulus, the maximum strength, and the ductility of the wood, with decreases in the properties of specimens conditioned in an environment above 66% relative humidity. The in situ-polymerized PANI strongly interacted with the lignin component of the veneers, according to the decrease in the lignin glass transition temperature (T-g) noted in DMA studies.

  • 5. Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Englund, Finn
    Henriksson, Marielle
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ziethen, Rune
    Gonzales, Sergio
    Segui, Luis
    Development of a novel wood based panel for use in internal door manufacture2012In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Environmentally-Compatible Forest Products, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Dendrimers in Thiol-ene Crosslinked Networks and the Effect on Subsequent Generations on Thermoset Properties2009In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 589-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of well-defined allyl-ether functionalized polyester dendrimers has been synthesized via the divergent approach using traditional esterification reactions. Two commercially available trifunctional thiols, trimethylolpropane tri(3-mercaptopropanoate) (TRIS) and ethoxylated trimethylolpropane tri(3-mercaptopropanoate) (ETTMP), were incorporated with the dendrimers into the thiol-ene polymer networks. The thiol-ene reactions were conducted at room temperature and cured by UV light without the addition of photoinitiatior. Highly crosslinked films were obtained and characterized with respect to mechanical (DMA) and thermal (DSC and TGA) properties.

  • 7.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Methacrylated Dendrimers in Thiol-Methacrylate Networks and the Effect of Conversion on the Thermoset Properties2009In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 47, no 21, p. 5815-5826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of well-defined methacrylate-functionalized polyester dendrimers based on 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid (bis-MPA) has been synthesized divergently. The thermal properties and conversion of the methacrylate functional dendrimers are investigated along with the structure-property relationship of networks composed of the methacrylate dendrimers and two commercially available trifunctional thiols, trimethylolpropane tri(3-mercaptopropanoate) (TRIS) and ethoxylated trimethylolpropane tri(3-mercaptopropanoate) (ETTMP). The thiol-methacrylate reactions were conducted at room temperature, under ambient conditions, and triggered by UV light in the presence of a photoinitiator. Crosslinked films were obtained and characterized with respect to conversion (FT-Raman) and thermal (DSC and TGA) properties.

  • 8.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Wood Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Wentin, Mats
    Östmark, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Wood Technology, Sweden.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Wood Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of lignin structures on the reactions with epoxidized vegetable oilsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Rüdiger, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hendil-Forssell, Peter
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Hedfors, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry (closed 20130101).
    Martinelle, Mats
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. SP Trätek, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Chemoenzymatic Route to Renewable Thermosets Based on a Suberin Monomer2013In: Journal of renewable materials, ISSN 2164-6341, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 124-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the use of an epoxy functional fatty acid, 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (EFA), extracted from birch (Betula pendula) outer bark to produce thermosets. The purified epoxy fatty acid was polymerized by enzyme-catalyzed polycondensation utilizing Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB) to form oligomers with targeted degrees of polymerization (DP) of 3, 6, and 9 and obtained DPs of 2.3, 5.9 and 7.3, respectively. It was determined that it is possible to first enzymatically polymerize and aliphatically endcap the epoxy functional fatty acid resulting in controlled oligomer lengths while also maintaining the epoxy functionality for further reaction by main-chain homo-epoxy cationic photopolymerization. The enzymatic polymerized oligomers were characterized in terms of conversion of the residual epoxy groups (FT-IR), the thermal properties (DSC, TGA) and the purity by MALDI-TOF and 1H-NMR. The amorphous thermoset films with varying degrees of crosslinking resulting from the cationically photopolymerized oligomers, were characterized in terms of their thermal properties and residual epoxy content (FT-IR ATR). The crosslinked polyesters formed insoluble, amorphous, and transparent films. This work demonstrates that thermoset films with designed properties can be effectively made with the use of forest products to reduce the petroleum-based plastics market.

  • 10.
    Salehi Movahed, Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Effect of model wood compounds on the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and oil-wood interaction studies2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Salehi Muvahed, Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Tray, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Pages, Guilhem
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Dvinskikh, Sergey
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Effect of wood constituents oxidation on unsaturated fatty acids2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12. Tondi, Gianluca
    et al.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. SP Tecnical Research Institute of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. SP Tecnical Research Institute of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Tannin based foams modified to be semi-conductive: Synthesis and characterization2015In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 78, p. 488-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to modify highly insulative and lightweight biorenewable foam thermosets to be semi-conductive for primarily building material applications. The foams were formed and then posttreated with in-situ polymerization of polyaniline, both doped and undoped, adsorbing and possibly absorbing (observed by SEM-EDX) to the foam structure at levels of 100-120 wt%. The modified tannin foams were shown to be semi-conductive in comparison to the highly insulative structure prior to polyaniline modification. While the 50% protonated polyaniline modified foams, or doped foams, had a higher conductivity than the undoped polyaniline modified foams, the acid used in fabrication of the foams provided some degree of conductivity to the undoped PANI modified foams. Moreover, the modified foams had an increased volume of 15% after modification, were more sensitive to moisture, and the polyaniline did not affect the degradation temperature of the foams.

  • 13. Treu, Andreas
    et al.
    Bardage, Stig
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Fungal durability of polyaniline modified wood and the impact of a low pulsed electric field2014In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 87, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New wood protection technologies should be effective against biodeterioration and at the same time minimize environmental impact. The present study investigates the effect of polyaniline modification of wood and the effect of a pulsed electric field on fungal protection. The effect of fungi and a pulsed electric field on the conductivity of the modified wood was also measured. It was found that it is possible to polymerize polyaniline particles in-situ homogeneously throughout the wood specimens. The polyaniline particles themselves were not found to be anti-fungal, however when in contact with water they affected the pH drastically and inhibited fungal growth. The wood treatment with polyaniline and the connection to a pulsed electric field were found to be effective in protecting the wood from deterioration when exposed to Postia placenta. The unmodified samples that were connected to a pulsed electric field lost under 10 wt% due to fungal degradation. The combination of polyaniline treatment with the connection to a pulsed electric field showed a slight synergistic effect which resulted in less weight loss due to fungal degradation. However, a more brittle wood structure was observed. Leached and fungal exposed samples showed a significant drop in the conductivity, indicating that the network has broken down slightly.

  • 14.
    Trey, Stacy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Jafarzadeh, Shadi
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    In situ Polymerization of Polyaniline in Wood Veneers2012In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 1760-1769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the possibility to polymerize aniline within wood veneers to obtain a semi-conducting material with solid wood acting as the base template. It was determined that it is possible to synthesize the intrinsically conductive polymer (ICP) polyaniline in situ within the wood structure of Southern yellow pine veneers, combining the strength of the natural wood structure with the conductivity of the impregnated polymer. It was found that polyaniline is uniformly dispersed within the wood structure by light microscopy and FT-IR imaging. A weight percent gain in the range of 3-12 wt % was obtained with a preferential formation in the wood structure and cell wall, rather than in the lumen. The modified wood was found to be less hydrophilic with the addition of phosphate doped polyaniline as observed by equilibrium water swelling studies. While wood itself is insulating, the modified veneers had conductivities of 1 X 10(-4) to 1 x 10(-9) S cm(-1), demonstrating the ability to tune the conductivity and allowing for materials with a wide range of applications, from anti-static to charge-dispersing materials. Furthermore, the modified veneers had lower total and peak heat releases, as determined by cone calorimetry, because of the char properties of the ICP. This is of interest if these materials are to be used in building and furniture applications where flame retardance is of importance.

  • 15.
    Trey, Stacy M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lundstrom, Mikael
    Stahlberg, Daniel
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Effects of thiol additives on urethane acrylate UV primers for SMC applications2009In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 64, no 2-3, p. 238-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sheet molded compound (SMC) is a highly filled, glass fiber reinforced, thermoset material used in trim and body panel automotive parts. When SMC-substrates are coated with conventional thermally cured paints, inherent porosity and entrapped volatiles of the substrate result in popping ("paint pops") defects. UV-curable primers (UVP) provide an order of magnitude reduction of paint defects in SMC coatings, but typically have poor adhesion. Mercaptan polymers have a long history, dating back to 1928. of use in adhesives and sealant applications. The present study investigates a series of UVPs, showing the effect of resin functionality and thiol functional additive content on the adhesion of the coatings to SMC substrates. The SMC formulation is also considered when evaluating UVP adhesion, regarding variables such as surface chemistry, morphology, and surface area. The present study brings to light how adhesion of acrylate UVP can be enhanced with mercaptan moieties in additive amounts. The effect is most apparent on SMC substrates that have been treated to expose inorganic fillers as opposed to untreated surfaces of polyester. Additionally annealing the films boosts adhesion, but only in thiol containing formulations. This is a result of the decrease in T(g)s and modulus of the films with the addition of mercaptans, thus providing better contact with the substrate in comparison to non-thiol containing formulations.

  • 16.
    Trey, Stacy. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lundström, M.
    Ståhlberg, D.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Effects of dual cure and surface treatments on coating adhesion to different SMC substrates2009In: Plastics, rubber and composites, ISSN 1465-8011, E-ISSN 1743-2898, Vol. 38, no 2-4, p. 131-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sheet moulded compound (SMC) is a highly filled, glass fibre reinforced, thermoset material used in trim and body panel automotive parts. When SMC substrates are coated with conventional thermally cured paints, inherent porosity and entrapped volatiles of the substrate result in popping ('paint pops') defects. UV curable primers (UVP) provide an order of magnitude reduction of paint defects in SMC coatings, but typically have poor adhesion. The present study investigates a series of UVPs, showing the effect of resin functionality and isocyanate additive content on the adhesion of the coatings to SMC substrates. The SMC formulation is also considered regarding how variables such as surface chemistry, morphology, surface area and degree of post-mould emissions affect UVP adhesion. The present study reveals the crucial factors involved in achieving adhesion including the importance of low post-mould emissions, high surface areas, glass fibre and other oxygen moieties on the surface, and improved wetting of the surface.

  • 17.
    Trey, Stacy M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Netrval, Julia
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Electron-Beam-Initiated Polymerization of Poly(ethylene glycol)-Based Wood Impregnants2010In: ACS APPL MATER INTERFACES, ISSN 1944-8244, Vol. 2, no 11, p. 3352-3362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study demonstrates that methacrylate and acrylate poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) functional oligomers can be effectively impregnated into wood blocks and cured efficiently to high conversions without catalyst by e-beam radiation, allowing for less susceptibility to leaching, and favorable properties including higher Brinell hardness values. PEG based monomers were chosen because there is a long history of this water-soluble monomer being able to penetrate the cell wall, thus bulking it and decreasing the uptake of water which further protects the wood from fungal attack. Diacrylate dimethacrylate and dihydroxyl functional PEG of M-v, 550-575 of concentration 0-30, 60 and 100 wt % in water, were vacuum pressure impregnated into Scots Pine blocks of 15 x 25 x 50 mm in an effort to bulk the cell wall. The samples were then irradiated and compared with nonirradiated samples it was shown by IR, DSC that the acrylate polymers were fully cured to much higher conversions than can be reached with conventional methods Leaching studies indicated a much lower amount of oligomer loss from the cured to much higher conversions than can be reached with conventional methods functional PEG indication a high degree of fastening of the polymer in the wood. The Brinell hardness indicated a significant increase in hardness to hardwood levels in the modified samples compared to the samples of hydroxyl functional PEG and uncured vinyl PEC samples, which actually became softer than the untreated Scots Pine. By monitoring the dimensions of the sample it was found by weight percent gain calculations WPC %) that water helps to swell the wood structure and allow better access of the oligomers into the cell wall as this was not observed for methyl methacrylate which is well-cocumented to remain in the lumen. However dimensional stability of the viny ploymer modified blocks when placed in water was not observed to the same extent as PEG.

  • 18.
    Trey, Stacy M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Thiol-ene networks and reactive surfaces via photoinduced polymerization of allyl ether functional hyperbranched polymers2010In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 348-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of allyl ether functionalized hyperbranched (HB) polyester of three generations was synthesized from commercially available Boltorn (R). These modified HB polymers were homopolymerized to form films with a large number of residual allyl ether groups available for post film formation reactions. Additionally, the polyester Multifunctional molecules were cured with a di and tetrathiol monomer in a one to one molar ratio to determine the effect of conversion on the resulting network thermal and physical properties. The same UV-cure chemistries were carried out with a similar second generation polyester dendrimer for comparison. This was in an effort to determine if there is any significant difference in the film chemical conversion and properties with dendrimers in comparison to HB molecules. The highly crosslinked films were obtained and characterized with respect to physical (DMTA) and thermal (DSC and TGA) properties. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Trey, Stacy M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Thiol-ene networks and reactive surfaces via photoinduced polymerization of allyl ether functional hyperbranched polymers2010In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 68, no 1-2, p. 151-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of allyl ether functionalized hyperbranched (HB) polyester of three generations was synthesized from commercially available Boltorn (R). These modified HB polymers were homopolymerized to form films with a large number of residual allyl ether groups available for post-film formation reactions. Additionally, the polyester multifunctional molecules were cured with a di and tetrathiol monomer in a one to one molar ratio to determine the effect of conversion on the resulting network thermal and physical properties. The same UV-cure chemistries were carried out with a similar second generation polyester dendrimer for comparison. This was in an effort to determine if there is any significant difference in the film chemical conversion and properties with dendrimers in comparison to HB molecules. The highly crosslinked films were obtained and characterized with respect to physical (DMTA) and thermal (DSC and TGA) properties.

  • 20.
    Trey, Stacy M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Sidenvall, Peter
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Alavi, Kamyar
    Stahlberg, Daniel
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Dual cure (UV/thermal) primers for composite substrates-Effect of surface treatment and primer composition on adhesion2009In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 489-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It can be concluded by the Study of UV primer formulations on sheet molding compound (SMC) substrates that all studied formulation parameters affect adhesion. Moreover, the dual cure approach can result in acceptable adhesion of UV primers on SMC substrates if the coating procedure and composition are well designed. Adhesion of UV cure primers as determined by the cross-cut test is significantly improved in formulations containing solvent. This is a result of enhanced wetting and interaction of the solvent with the SMC Substrate, confirmed by contact angle and gravimetric swelling studies. Furthermore, sanded SMC surfaces demonstrated superior UV primer adhesion. This results from the increased surface area of the topography, confirmed by CSLM and the exposure of more oxygen moieties such as pigments and silanols at the air-substrate interface as confirmed by AFM and XPS, The UV films have a higher modulus with increasing resin functionality and resulting cross-link density which correlated with reduced adhesion in formulations without an added isocyanate functional UV monomer. This indicates that cure shrinkage may play a role in the adhesion of UV cure primers and will be investigated further. Also, the added adhesion that an isocyanate functional UV monomer provides results in a significant increase in the glass transition temperature (T-g) giving a glassier film at room temperature.

  • 21.
    Trey, Stacy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ström, Valter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Engineering Material Physics.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Controlled deposition of magnetic particles within the 3-D template of wood: making use of the natural hierarchical structure of wood2014In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, no 67, p. 35678-35685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a promising method to make three-dimensional lattices of structured nanomaterials by using wood templates for in situ (confined) directed growth of inorganic material in the ordered cell walls. The wood was impregnated by transition metal ion precursors (iron, manganese and cobalt) at 5 bars pressure that were further transformed into magnetic particles (Fe3O4, MnFe2O4 and CoFe2O4) by addition of alkaline solutions. It was found that by this method, it was possible to produce lightweight ferromagnetic functionalized wood materials in an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way. It was possible to functionalise the wood throughout the structure with a high weight percent of particles from 15-20 wt% as observed by TGA. These were not only adsorbed to the surface of the lumen, but also found by SEM-EDX throughout the cell wall and middle lamella and in higher amounts in early wood. The magnetic properties were nearly unaffected by the incorporation into the wood samples as compared to powder compacts obtained as particles that precipitated separately in the impregnation solution, both for soft and hard magnetic materials. Whereas the hard magnetic phase CoFe2O4 showed insignificant leaching, the soft magnetic Fe3O4, MnFe2O4 lost around 50 wt% during repeated washing in deionized water, suggesting that the CoFe2O4 particles were more readily attached in the structure of the wood. The crystal structure of the magnetic particles was determined to be the same in the wood structure as those formed in solution.

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