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  • 1.
    Estévez-Albuja, S.
    et al.
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Spain.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Jiménez, G.
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Spain.
    Modelling of a Nordic BWR containment and suppression pool behavior during a LOCA with GOTHIC 8.12020In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 136, article id 107027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boiling water reactors use the Pressure Suppression Pool (PSP) to relieve the containment pressure in case of an accident. During the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), drywell air and steam are injected into the PSP through blowdown pipes. This may lead to thermal stratification, which is a relevant safety issue as it leads to higher water surface temperatures than in mixed conditions and thus, to higher containment pressures. The Effective Heat (EHS) and Momentum (EMS) Source models were previously introduced to predict the effect of small-scale direct contact condensation phenomena on the large-scale pool water circulation. In this paper, the EHS/EMS models are extended by adding the effect of non-condensable gases on the chugging regime. The EHS/EMS models are implemented in the GOTHIC code to model a full-scale Nordic BWR containment under different LOCA scenarios. The results show that thermal stratification can be developed in the PSP.

  • 2.
    Gallego Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Villanueva, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Modelling of pool stratification and mixing induced by steam injectionthrough blowdown pipes2018In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 112, p. 624-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Containment overpressure is prevented in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) by condensing steam into thepressure suppression pool. Steam condensation is a source of heat and momentum. Competition betweenthese sources results in thermal stratification or mixing of the pool. The interplay between the sources isdetermined by the condensation regime, steam mass flow rate and pool dimensions. Thermal stratificationis a safety issue since it limits the condensing capacity of the pool and leads to higher containmentpressures in comparison to a completely mixed pool with the same average temperature. The EffectiveHeat Source (EHS) and Effective Momentum Source (EMS) models were previously developed for predictingthe macroscopic effect of steam injection and direct contact condensation phenomena on the developmentof stratification and mixing in the pool. The models provide the effective heat and momentumsources, depending on the condensation regimes. In this work we present further development of theEHS/EMS models and their implementation in the GOTHIC code for the analysis of steam injection intocontainment drywell and venting into the wetwell through the blowdown pipes. Based on thePPOOLEX experiments performed in Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), correlations arederived to estimate the steam condensation regime and effective heat and momentum sources as functionsof the pool and steam injection conditions. The focus is on the low steam mass flux regimes withcomplete condensation inside the blowdown pipe or chugging. Validation of the developed methodswas carried out against the PPOOLEX MIX-04 and MIX-06 tests, which showed a very good agreementbetween experimental and simulation data on the pool temperature distribution and containmentpressure.

  • 3.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Steam condensation in a water pool and its effect on thermal stratification and mixing2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pressure Suppression Pool (PSP) of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is a large heat sink designed to limit the containment pressure by condensing steam released from the primary coolant system. The development of thermal stratification is a safety concern since it leads to higher containment pressures than in completely mixed conditions, and can affect the performance of systems such as the emergency core cooling and containment spray, which the use PSP as a source of water.The goal of this thesis is to develop and validate models for the prediction of the PSP behavior during a steam injection in a Nordic BWR. The framework of the Effective Heat Source and Effective Momentum Source (EHS/EMS) models is used to provide the integral heat and momentum sources induced by the steam condensation. The EHS/EMS can be implemented in a containment thermal-hydraulic or a CFD code, where the pool is modelled with a single-phase liquid solver.EHS/EMS models are developed for the low steam mass flux regimes appearing in (i) large diameter blowdown pipes connecting the drywell to the wetwell pool; and (ii) multi-hole sparger pipes connecting the primary system to the pool.Empirical correlations are developed to predict the effective momentum induced by chugging in the blowdown pipes. The correlations are implemented in GOTHIC, where a containment model is proposed to enable capturing the feedback between pool conditions and drywell pressure. Validation is performed against the PPOOLEX experiments.Conceptual designs are proposed for a set of large-scale pool experiments with spargers in the PPOOLEX and PANDA facilities. Correlations are proposed for the erosion velocity of a cold layer, and ranges are estimated for the angle, profile and turbulence of the momentum sources created by steam injection. CFD simulations of the experiments is done to calibrate the momentum sources in the oscillatory bubble regimes. A concept of the Separate Effect Facility (SEF) is proposed to provide a measurements of the effective momentum. Empirical correlations for the bubble radius, velocity, heat transfer coefficient, etc. are also developed and compared to available data from the literature.Application of the developed CFD and EHS/EMS models to full-scale containment behavior shows that thermal stratification can occur during prototypic steam injection conditions. Recommendations are given on how to avoid this.

  • 4.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Grishchenko, Dmitry
    Kudinov, Pavel
    Thermal Stratification and Mixing in a Nordic BWR Pressure Suppression PoolManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pressure suppression pool of a Nordic Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) serves as a heat sink to condense steam from the primary coolant system in normal operation and accident conditions. Thermal stratification can develop in the pool when buoyancy forces overcome the momentum created by the steam injection. In this case, hot condensate forms a hot layer at the top of the pool, reducing the pool cooling and condensation capacity compared to mixed conditions. The Effective Heat Source and Effective Momentum Source (EHS/EMS) models were previously proposed to model the large-scale pool behavior during a steam injection. In this work, we use CFD code of ANSYS Fluent with the EHS/EMS models to simulate the transient behavior of a Nordic BWR pool during a steam injection through spargers. First, a validation against a Nordic BWR pool test is presented. Prediction of the pool behavior for other possible injection scenarios show that stratification can occur at prototypic steam injection conditions, and that the hot layer temperature above the injection point can be non-uniform. In cases with significant steam condensation inside the sparger pipes, the 95 oC pool temperature limit for the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) pumps was reached ~7 h after the beginning of the blowdown.

  • 5.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Grishchenko, Dmitry
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Thermal Stratification and Mixing in a Nordic BWR Pressure Suppression PoolIn: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pressure suppression pool of a Nordic Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) serves as a heat sink to condense steam from the primary coolant system in normal operation and accident conditions. Thermal stratification can develop in the pool when buoyancy forces overcome the momentum created by the steam injection. In this case, hot condensate forms a hot layer at the top of the pool, reducing the pool cooling and condensation capacity compared to mixed conditions. The Effective Heat Source and Effective Momentum Source (EHS/EMS) models were previously proposed to model the large-scale pool behavior during a steam injection. In this work, we use CFD code of ANSYS Fluent with the EHS/EMS models to simulate the transient behavior of a Nordic BWR pool during a steam injection through spargers. First, a validation against a Nordic BWR pool test is presented. Prediction of the pool behavior for other possible injection scenarios show that stratification can occur at prototypic steam injection conditions, and that the hot layer temperature above the injection point can be non-uniform. In cases with significant steam condensation inside the sparger pipes, the 95 oC pool temperature limit for the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) pumps was reached ~7 h after the beginning of the blowdown.

  • 6.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Grishchenko, Dmitry
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Thermal stratification and mixing in a Nordic BWR pressure suppression pool2019In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 132, p. 442-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pressure suppression pool of a Nordic Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) serves as a heat sink to condense steam from the primary coolant system in normal operation and accident conditions. Thermal stratification can develop in the pool when buoyancy forces overcome the momentum created by the steam injection. In this case, hot condensate forms a hot layer at the top of the pool, reducing the pool cooling and condensation capacity compared to mixed conditions. The Effective Heat Source and Effective Momentum Source (EHS/EMS) models were previously proposed to model the large-scale pool behavior during a steam injection. In this work, we use CFD code of ANSYS Fluent with the EHS/EMS models to simulate the transient behavior of a Nordic BWR pool during a steam injection through spargers. First, a validation against a Nordic BWR pool test with complete mixing is presented. Prediction of the pool behavior for other possible injection scenarios show that stratification can occur at prototypic steam injection conditions, and that the hot layer temperature above the injection point can be non-uniform. In cases with significant steam condensation inside the sparger pipes, the 95 degrees C pool temperature limit for the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) pumps was reached similar to 7 h after the beginning of the blowdown.

  • 7.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Villanueva, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Kapulla, R.
    Paranjape, S.
    Paladino, D.
    Laine, J.
    Puustinen, M.
    Räsänen, A.
    Pyy, L.
    Kotro, E.
    Pool stratification and mixing during a steam injection through spargers: analysis of the PPOOLEX and PANDA experiments2018In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, ISSN 0029-5493, E-ISSN 1872-759X, Vol. 337, p. 300-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spargers are multi-hole injection pipes used in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and Advanced Pressurized (AP) reactors to condense steam in large water pools. A steam injection induces heat, momentum and mass sources that depend on the steam injection conditions and can result in thermal stratification or mixing of the pool. Thermal stratification reduces the steam condensation capacity of the pool, increases the pool surface temperature and thus the containment pressure. Development of models with predictive capabilities requires the understanding of basic phenomena that govern the behavior of the complex multi-scale system. The goals of this work are (i) to analyze and interpret the experiments on steam injection into a pool through spargers performed in the large-scale facilities of PPOOLEX and PANDA, and (ii) to discuss possible modelling approaches for the observed phenomena. A scaling approach was developed to address the most important physical phenomena and regimes relevant to prototypic plant conditions. The focus of the tests was on the low steam mass flux and oscillatory bubble condensation regimes, which are expected during a long-term steam injection transient, e.g. in the case of a Station Black Out (SBO). Exploratory tests were also done for chugging and stable jet conditions. The results showed a similar behavior in PPOOLEX and PANDA in terms of jet induced by steam condensation, pool stratification, and development of hot layer and erosion of the cold one. A correlation using the Richardson number is proposed to model the erosion rate of the cold layer as a function of the pool dimensions and steam injection conditions.

  • 8.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Villanueva, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Kapulla, Ralf
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Div Nucl Energy & Safety Res, Villigen, Switzerland..
    Paranjape, Sidharth
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Div Nucl Energy & Safety Res, Villigen, Switzerland..
    Paladino, Domenico
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Div Nucl Energy & Safety Res, Villigen, Switzerland..
    Laine, Jani
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Unit Nucl Safety Res, Lappeenranta, Finland..
    Puustinen, Markku
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Unit Nucl Safety Res, Lappeenranta, Finland..
    Rasanen, Antti
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Unit Nucl Safety Res, Lappeenranta, Finland..
    Pyy, Lauri
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Unit Nucl Safety Res, Lappeenranta, Finland..
    Kotro, Eetu
    Pool stratification and mixing induced by steam injection through spargers: CFD modelling of the PPOOLEX and PANDA experiments2019In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, ISSN 0029-5493, E-ISSN 1872-759X, Vol. 347, p. 67-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spargers are multi-hole injection pipes used in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and Generation III/III+ Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) to condense steam in large water pools. During the steam injection, high pool surface temperatures induced by thermal stratification can lead to higher containment pressures compared with completely mixed pool conditions, the former posing a threat for plant safety. The Effective Heat Source (EHS) and Effective Momentum Source (EMS) models were previously developed and validated for the modelling of a steam injection through blowdown pipes. The goal of this paper is to extend the EHS/EMS model capabilities towards steam injection through multi-hole spargers. The models are implemented in ANSYS Fluent 17.0 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code and calibrated against the spargers experiments performed in the PPOOLEX and PANDA facilities, analysed by the authors in Gallego-Marcos et al. (2018b). CFD modelling guidelines are established for the adequate simulation of the pool behaviour. A new correlation is proposed to model the turbulent production and dissipation caused by buoyancy. Sensitivity studies addressing the effect of different assumptions on the effective momentum magnitude, profile, angle and turbulence are presented. Calibration of the effective momentum showed an inverse proportionality to the sub-cooling. Differences between the effective momentum calibrated for PPOOLEX and PANDA are discussed. Analysis of the calculated flow above the cold stratified layer showed that the erosion of the layer is induced by the action of turbulence rather than mean shear flow.

  • 9.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Villanueva, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Kapulla, Ralf
    Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland.
    Paranjape, Sidharth
    Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland.
    Paladino, Domenico
    Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland.
    Laine, Jani
    Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland.
    Puustinen, Markku
    Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland.
    Räsänen, Antti
    Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland.
    Pyy, Lauri
    Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland.
    Kotro, Eetu
    Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland.
    Pool Stratification and Mixing Induced by Steam Injection through Spargers: CFD modelling of the PPOOLEX and PANDA experimentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spargers are multi-hole injection pipes used in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and Advanced Pressurized (AP) reactors to condense steam in large water pools. During the steam injection, high pool surface temperatures induced by thermal stratification can lead to higher containment pressures compared with completely mixed pool conditions, the former posing a threat for plant safety. The Effective Heat Source (EHS) and Effective Momentum Source (EMS) models were previously developed and validated for the modelling of a steam injection through blowdown pipes. The goal of this paper is to extend the EHS/EMS model capabilities towards steam injection through multi-hole spargers. The models were implemented in the CFD code of ANSYS Fluent 17.0 and calibrated against the PPOOLEX and PANDA experiments with spargers analysed by the authors in [1] (Gallego-Marcos, I., et al., 2018). Modelling guidelines are established for the adequate simulation of the pool behaviour. A new correlation is proposed to model the turbulent production and dissipation caused by buoyancy. Sensitivity studies addressing the effect of different assumptions on the effective momentum magnitude, profile, angle and turbulence are presented. Calibration of the momentum magnitude showed that it varies between 0.2 to 1.2 times the steam momentum at the injection holes. Differences of this fraction between the PPOOLEX and PANDA simulations are discussed. Analysis of the calculated flow above the cold stratified layer shows that the erosion of the layer is induced by the action of turbulence rather than mean shear flow.

  • 10.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Villanueva, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Puustinen, Markku
    Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland.
    Räsänen, Antti
    Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland.
    Tielinen, Kimmo
    Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland.
    Kotro, Eetu
    Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland.
    Effective momentum induced by steam condensation in the oscillatory bubble regimeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The spargers used in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) discharge steam from the primary coolant system into a pool of water. Direct steam condensation in subcooled water creates sources of heat and momentum determined by the condensation regimes, called “effective sources” in this work. Competition between the effective sources can result in thermally stratification or mixing of the pool. Thermal stratification is a safety concern in BWRs since it reduces the steam condensation and pressure suppression capacity of the pool. In this work, we present semi-empirical correlations to predict the effective momentum induced by steam condensation in the oscillatory bubble regime, relevant for the operation of spargers in BWRs. A Separate Effect Facility (SEF) was designed and built at LUT, Finland, in order to provide the necessary data. An empirical correlation for the effective momentum as a function of the Jakob number is proposed. The Kelvin Impulse theory was also applied to estimate the effective momentum based on information about the bubble dynamics. To do this, new correlations for the bubble collapse frequencies, maximum bubble radius, velocities, pressure gradient and heat transfer coefficient are proposed and compared to available data from the literature. The effective momentum induced by sonic steam jets appears to be constant in a wide range of studied Jakob number. However, further experimental data is necessary at larger Jakob numbers and steam mass fluxes.

  • 11.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Villanueva, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Puustinen, Markku
    Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland.
    Räsänen, Antti
    Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland.
    Tielinen, Kimmo
    Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland.
    Kotro, Eetu
    Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland.
    Effective momentum induced by steam condensation in the oscillatory bubble regimeIn: International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322, E-ISSN 1879-3533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spargers used in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) discharge steam from the primary coolant system into a pool of water. Direct steam condensation in subcooled water creates sources of heat and momentum determined by the condensation regimes, called “effective sources” in this work. Competition between the effective sources can result in thermally stratification or mixing of the pool. Thermal stratification is a safety concern in BWRs since it reduces the steam condensation and pressure suppression capacity of the pool. In this work, we present semi-empirical correlations to predict the effective momentum induced by steam condensation in the oscillatory bubble regime, relevant for the operation of spargers in BWRs. A Separate Effect Facility (SEF) was designed and built at LUT, Finland, in order to provide the necessary data. An empirical correlation for the effective momentum as a function of the Jakob number is proposed. The Kelvin Impulse theory was also applied to estimate the effective momentum based on information about the bubble dynamics. To do this, new correlations for the bubble collapse frequencies, maximum bubble radius, velocities, pressure gradient and heat transfer coefficient are proposed and compared to available data from the literature. The effective momentum induced by sonic steam jets appears to be constant in a wide range of studied Jakob number. However, further experimental data is necessary at larger Jakob numbers and steam mass fluxes.

  • 12.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Villanueva, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Kapulla, R
    Paranjape, S
    Paladino, D
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Modeling of Thermal Stratification and Mixing Induced by Steam Injection Through Spargers Into a Large Water Pool2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pressure suppression pool of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is designed to protect the containment from over pressure by condensing steam. Under certain steam injection conditions, thermal stratification can develop in the pool and significantly reduce its pressure suppression capacity. In this work, we propose a model to simulate the pool behavior during a steam injection through spargers, which are multi-hole injection pipes connecting the main steam lines to the wetwell pool. The aim of the model is to predict the global pool behavior. Effective Heat and Momentum Sources (EHS/EMS) approach is used to model time averaged effects of small scale direct contact condensation phenomena on the large scale pool circulation. The model was implemented in Fluent 16.2 and validated against experimental data obtained in PANDA facility at PSI (Switzerland). The scaling of the experiments was done to address the most important physical phenomena that can occur in plant scale. The results show that the global pool behavior can be predicted using the Standard Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH) in k-Omega turbulence model.

  • 13.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Villanueva, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Modeling of Thermal Stratification and Mixing in a Pressure Suppression Pool Using GOTHIC2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of thermal stratification in the pressure suppression pool of a BWR is a safety issue since it can lead to higher containment pressures than in completely mixed conditions. The thermal hydraulic code of GOTHIC offers a very suitable platform to simulate the pool and containment behavior during a long term accident. However, for a computationally efficient code such as GOTHIC, direct contact condensation cannot be resolved accurately enough to obtain a good estimation of the momentum induced by the condensing steam, and thus, to predict the pool behaviour. In this paper, we present how to implement the previously validated Effective Heat Source (EHS) and Effective Momentum Source (EMS) models, developed for pool analysis during a steam injection, in GOTHIC. The implementation was done using control variables and Dynamically Linked Libraries (DLL). A time averaging model to minimize the effect of the numerical oscillations appearing in GOTHIC when steam is injected into the pool is also proposed.

  • 14.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Villanueva, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Possibility of Air Ingress into a BWR Containment during a LOCA in case of Activation of Containment Venting System2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pressure relief systems installed in BWRs protect the containment from overpressure in case of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This paper analyzes the possibility of air ingress, which can cause hydrogen burn, through the rupture disks of the filtered and non-filtered venting systems. Two scenarios were considered: a LOCA without SBO (Station Blackout) and a LOCA with SBO. The thermal-hydraulic code GOTHIC® was used with 3D models of the drywell and wetwell of a Nordic-type BWR. In the LOCA event, we found no activation of the rupture disks within the considered transient simulation. Moreover, the containment spray ensured a low pressure in the drywell and induced a continuous mixing of the wetwell pool. In the LOCA with SBO event, the development of thermal stratification in the wetwell pool accelerated the pressure increase in the drywell, which led to activation of the rupture disk of the filtered venting system. However, no air ingress through the vent was found during the depressurization of the containment, and hence no risk of hydrogen burn under the given assumptions.

  • 15.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Villanueva, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Scaling and CFD Modelling of the Pool Experiments with Spargers Performed in the PANDA Facility2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of thermal stratification in the pressure suppression pool of a BWR is a safety issue since it reduces its cooling capability and leads to higher containment pressures than in completely mixed conditions. In this work, we propose a model to simulate the pool behavior during a steam injection through spargers. The model provides the time averaged heat and momentum transferred from the steam condensation to the large scale pool circulation. Small scale phenomena such as direct contact condensation is not resolved, only its effect on the pool behaviour. The model was implemented in Fluent 16.2 and validated against experimental data obtained in PANDA facility at PSI (Switzerland). The scaling of the experiments, done to preserve the most important physical phenomena occurring in plant scale is also presented in the paper. The results show that the model is able to predict well the global pool behavior. However, flow instabilities were observed to induce a sudden mixing of the upper part of the stratified layer during the transition from the stratification to the mixing phases. This led to a faster erosion of the layer than in the experiment. Simulations done with 2D and 3D meshes and scale adaptive turbulence models were performed to clarify this issue and are presented in the paper.

  • 16. Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    Villanueva, Walter
    Kudinov, Pavel
    Scaling of the Erosion of a Thermally Stratified Layer in a Large Water Pool during a Steam Injection Through Spargers2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of thermal stratification in the pressure suppression pool of a BWR is a safety issue since it reduces its cooling capability and leads to higher containment pressures than in completely mixed conditions. In this work, we analyzed the experiments on pool thermal stratification and mixing performed with spargers in the PPOOLEX facility at Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), and in the PANDA facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). It was observed that at high momentum injections the mean flow was able to penetrate into the stratified layer and induce complete mixing of the pool. At lower momentum injections, the stratified layer was slowly eroded at the interface by the action of small scale turbulence and the breakup of waves. We demonstrated that the erosion mechanism and erosion velocity can be obtained as a function of a single non dimensional number, the Richardson number. Based on this finding, a preliminary coarse resolution model was implemented in the thermal-hydraulic code of GOTHIC to simulate pool behavior during a steam injection through spargers.

  • 17.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Villanueva, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Water Distribution in a Nordic BWR Containment During a LOCA2016In: 2016 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants, ICAPP 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During a main steam line break in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) the pressure suppression pool is used as a water source for the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) and the Containment Spray (CS). These systems drain water from the pool through strainers, which are long perforated plates or cylinders submerged to a certain depth. Proper functioning of the ECCS and the CS must be ensured to maintain the water inventory in the vessel and to limit the containment pressure. However, if the liquid level in the suppression pool goes below the level of the strainers intake, the operators would be forced to stop their pumps. The liquid level in the suppression pool can be reduced when a significant fraction of ECCS and CS flow is relocated to the lower drywell. In this work, we use the thermal-hydraulic code GOTHIC to simulate the containment evolution during a main steam line break inside the biological shield. The containment volumes and their connections were modeled with 2D and 3D volumes. With this model, scenarios considering different operational conditions were assessed: (i) full capacity of all the safety systems, (ii) half capacity of all the safety systems, (iii) ECCS stops injecting water after a certain liquid level is restored in the vessel, and (iv) the pipes used to drain water from the suppression pool and flood the lower drywell are partially or totally clogged in different directions. The results showed that there is a risk of an early shut down of the ECCS and CS systems in the case of main steam line break inside the biological shield. It was observed that when the ECCS provided a continuous water injection into the vessel, the water spilled through the break into the biological shield flowed downwards driven by gravity and went directly into the lower drywell. This caused a fast decrease in the liquid level of the suppression pool, which led to an uncovery of the ECCS and CS strainers about 2000 s after the break. The activation at 1800 s of the flooding of the lower drywell led to a backward flow, from the lower drywell to the suppression pool, since at that time the liquid level in the suppression pool was lower than in the lower drywell. However, this backward flow was not enough to maintain the liquid level in the suppression pool, which continued to decrease. In the case where the pipes used for the flooding were clogged in the direction of the suppression pool, uncovery of the strainers was observed even earlier.

  • 18.
    Hultgren, Ante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Villanueva, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Simulation of Large Scale Erosion of a Stratified Helium Layer by a Vertical Air Jet using the GOTHIC Code2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In case of a severe core degradation in a Light Water Reactor (LWR), significant amount of hydrogen can be produced posing a risk of hydrogen burning and detonation. Reliable prediction of hydrogen build-up, stratification, and mixing in the containment is of paramount importance since the phenomena affect hydrogen distribution in the containment. In this paper, we present a modeling approach using the GOTHIC code. The simulation results were compared against experimental data from the ST1-7 experiment performed in the PANDA facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The ST1-7 experiment consists of an air jet impingement onto a stratified helium layer. The modelling approach uses coupled volumes to introduce in each region of the computational domain (i) adequate mesh resolutions to resolve the gradients of the flow and (ii) appropriate turbulence models in order to resolve locally dominant flow structures. With the adaptive mesh, only about 7400 cells for the 2 PANDA vessels (4 m diameter by 8 m in height cylinders with an interconnecting pipe) is enough to provide reasonably accurate results. We found that using the k-epsilon standard model for the jet region and the mixing length model for the rest of the domain, has provided remarkably good agreement with the experimental data. The erosion of the helium stratified layer before and after the air injection is discussed in detail.

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