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  • 1. Brand, Ralf
    et al.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    The ecosystem of expertise: complementary knowledges for sustainable development2007In: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article critically examines the approach of technical experts, including engineers, natural scientists, architects, planners, and other practitioners, who are attempting to create more sustainable forms of economic development, environmental protection, and social equity. The authors identify four principal characteristics of expertise–ontological assumptions, epistemological approaches, power inequalities, and practical issues–and employ this framework to test the capability of traditional experts to deliver sustainable development. The authors then provide four alternatives to conventional forms of expertise: the outreach expert who communicates effectively to non-experts, the interdisciplinary expert who understands the overlaps of neighboring technical disciplines, the meta-expert who brokers the multiple claims of relevance between different forms of expertise, and the civic expert who engages in democratic discourse with non-experts and experts alike. All of these alternative forms are needed to manage the often-competing demands of sustainable development projects and they can be described collectively as an “ecosystem of expertise.”

  • 2. Burton, Kerry
    et al.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Caprotti, Federico
    Smart goes green: digitalising environmental agendas in Bristol and Manchester2019In: Inside Smart Cities: Place, Politics and Urban Innovation / [ed] A. Karvonen, F Cugurullo and F. Caprotti, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 117-148Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bristol and Manchester are at the forefront of the UK smart urbanization agenda, serving as ‘lighthouse’ cities to realise ambitions for city-scale low carbon economies. This chapter uses a comparative approach to the two cities to reveal the similarities in approach as well as the local factors (notably infrastructure and cultural politics) that influence the distinct environmental mobilisations of smart. Bristol has a long history of green innovation and has ambitions to build upon its 2015 designation as European Green Capital to become a leading international ‘smart-green city’. Bristol’s idealised smart-green city is human-centred and able to realise low carbon growth that is equitable for all. Conversely, the Greater Manchester storyline on smart is strongly focused on economic development with environmental protection as a by-product of business innovation. The campuses of two Manchester universities play a central role as testbeds to catalyse a twenty-first century knowledge economy that builds upon the existing economic cornerstones of the city. The Manchester activities have little focus on social equity and inclusion and instead focus on business opportunity as the prime motivation for smart-green urbanisation. The smart-green performances in each city embody particular logics and practices that are at once global in their perspective while simultaneously local in their composition and framing. Bristol and Manchester reveal distinctive pathways of smart urban innovation that are neither top-down nor bottom-up but instead combine principles of IT development with decarbonisation to enhance and extend the existing urban development trajectories of each city.

  • 3. Cauvain, Jenni
    et al.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Petrova, Saska
    Market-based low-carbon retrofit in social housing: Insights from Greater Manchester2018In: Journal of Urban Affairs, ISSN 0735-2166, E-ISSN 1467-9906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, social housing providers in the UK have become influential actors in realizing the national government’s decarborization agenda. However, when decarbonization is considered in light of austerity measures and the privatization of public housing, a number of contradictions arise. From interviews and a workshop with policymakers and registered providers in the city-region of Greater Manchester, three tensions are highlighted. First, since the 1980s, the housing stock condition has been used as a political pawn in successive reforms to demunicipalize social housing. Second, local authorities continue to harness the collectivities that remain in the social housing sector to realize their decarbonization goals. Third, the retrofit practices of social landlords are only superficially aiming for carbon control; instead, they focus on the social aims that are seen as important to the ethos and business model of the landlord. The article concludes that there are unavoidable conflicts between the interests of different actors whose low-carbon economy is conceived at different spatial scales and with different underlying objectives. As social landlords are foregrounded in subregional low-carbon policy, they are effectively co-opted into market-based retrofit, resulting in unintended consequences for the social housing sector.

  • 4. Evans, James
    et al.
    Jones, Ross
    Karvonen, Andrew
    Millard, Lucy
    Wendler, Jana
    Living labs and co-production: university campuses as platforms for sustainability science2015In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 16, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Evans, James
    et al.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    'Give Me a Laboratory and I Will Lower Your Carbon Footprint!' - Urban Laboratories and the Governance of Low-Carbon Futures2014In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, ISSN 0309-1317, E-ISSN 1468-2427, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 413-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing threat of climate change has created a pressing need for cities to lower their carbon footprints. Urban laboratories are emerging in numerous cities around the world as a strategy for local governments to partner with public and private property owners to reduce carbon emissions, while simultaneously stimulating economic growth. In this article, we use insights from laboratory studies to analyse the notion of urban laboratories as they relate to experimental governance, the carbonization agenda and the transition to low-carbon economies. We present a case study of the Oxford Road corridor in Manchester in the UK that is emerging as a low-carbon urban laboratory, with important policy implications for the city's future. The corridor is a bounded space where a public-private partnership comprised of the City Council, two universities and other large property owners is redeveloping the physical infrastructure and installing monitoring equipment to create a recursive feedback loop intended to facilitate adaptive learning. This low-carbon urban laboratory represents a classic sustainable development formula for coupling environmental protection with economic growth, using innovation and partnership as principal drivers. However, it also has significant implications in reworking the interplay of knowledge production and local governance, while reinforcing spatial differentiation and uneven participation in urban development.

  • 6. Evans, James
    et al.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    Living laboratories for sustainability: exploring the politics and epistemology of urban transition2011In: Cities and Low Carbon Transitions / [ed] Harriet Bulkeley, Vanesa Castán Broto, Mike Hodson, and Simon Marvin, London: Routledge , 2011, Vol. 35, p. 130-140Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7. Evans, James
    et al.
    Karvonen, AndrewRaven, Rob
    The Experimental City2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 8. Evans, James
    et al.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    Raven, Rob
    The experimental city: new modes and prospects of urban transformation2016In: The Experimental City / [ed] James Evans, Andrew Karvonen, Rob Raven, London: Routledge , 2016, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9. Grandclement, Catherine
    et al.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    Guy, Simon
    Negotiating comfort in low energy housing: The politics of intermediation2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 84, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimising the energy performance of buildings is technically and economically challenging but it also has significant social implications. Maintaining comfortable indoor conditions while reducing energy consumption involves careful design, construction, and management of the built environment and its inhabitants. In this paper, we present findings from the study of a new low energy building for older people in Grenoble, France where conflicts emerged over the simultaneous pursuit of energy efficiency and comfort. The findings contribute to the contemporary literature on the sociotechnical study of buildings and energy use by focusing on intermediation, those activities that associate a technology to end users. Intermediation activities take many forms, and in some cases, can result in the harmonisation or alignment of energy efficiency goals and comfort goals. In other cases, intermediation is unsuccessful, leading to the conventional dichotomy between optimising technical performance and meeting occupant preferences. By highlighting the multiple ways that comfort and energy efficiency is negotiated, we conclude that buildings are provisional achievements that are constantly being intermediated. This suggests that building energy efficiency policies and programmes need to provide opportunities for intermediaries to negotiate the desires and preferences of the multiple stakeholders that are implicated in low energy buildings.

  • 10. Guy, Simon
    et al.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    District heating comes to Ecotown: zero-carbon housing and the rescaling of UK energy provision2016In: Beyond the Networked City: Infrastructure Reconfigurations and Urban Change in the North and South / [ed] Olivier Coutard, Jonathan Rutherford, London: Routledge , 2016, p. 72-93Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11. Guy, Simon
    et al.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    Using sociotechnical methods: researching human-technological dynamics in the city2011In: Understanding Social Research: Thinking Creatively about Method / [ed] Jennifer Mason,Angela Dale, London: Sage Publications, 2011, p. 120-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12. Guy, Simon
    et al.
    Lewis, Alan
    Karvonen, Andrew
    Conditioning demand: Older people, thermal comfort and low-carbon housing2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 84, p. 191-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Afterword: planning and the non-modern city2018In: Relational Planning: Tracing Artefacts, Agency and Practices / [ed] M. Kurath, M. Marskamp, J. Paulos and J. Ruegg, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 317-325Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14. Karvonen, Andrew
    Book review: Design on the Edge: The Making of a High-Performance Building by David W. Orr2008In: Environmental Ethics, ISSN 0163-4275, E-ISSN 2153-7895, Vol. 30, p. 105-106Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Book review: Eco-Cities and the Transition to Low Carbon Economies by Federico Caprotti2015In: LSE Review of BooksArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 16. Karvonen, Andrew
    Book review: Rachel Carson: Legacy and Challenge edited by Lisa H. Sideris and Kathleen Dean Moore2009In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 17. Karvonen, Andrew
    Book review: Social Power and the Urbanization of Water: Flows of Power by Erik Swyngedouw2005In: Planning Forum, Vol. 11, p. 91-92Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 18. Karvonen, Andrew
    Book review: The Greening of Architecture: A Critical History and Survey of Contemporary Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design by Phillip James Tabb and A. Senem Deviren2014In: LSE Review of BooksArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 19. Karvonen, Andrew
    Book review: The New Science of Cities by Michael Batty2014In: LSE Review of BooksArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Book Review:: The Politics of Evidence: From Evidence-Based Policy to the Good Governance of Evidence by Justin Parkhurst2017In: LSE Review of BooksArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 21. Karvonen, Andrew
    Book Review: The SAGE Handbook of Architectural Theory2014In: Progress in Human Geography, ISSN 0309-1325, E-ISSN 1477-0288, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 624-625Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 22. Karvonen, Andrew
    Book Review: Toward the Healthy City: People, Places, and The Politics of Urban Planning by Jason Corburn2011In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, ISSN 0309-1317, E-ISSN 1468-2427, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 469-470Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 23. Karvonen, Andrew
    Book review: Unbuilding Cities: Obduracy in Urban Sociotechnical Change by Anique Hommels2006In: Planning Forum, Vol. 12, p. 122-125Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 24. Karvonen, Andrew
    Book review: Urban Assemblages: How Actor-Network Theory Changes Urban Studies edited by Ignacio Farías and Thomas Bender2011In: Space and CultureArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    University of Texas at Austin, USA.
    Botanizing the Asphalt: Politics of Urban Drainage2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 26. Karvonen, Andrew
    Cation effects on chromium removal in permeable reactive walls2004In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 130, no 8, p. 863-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Permeable reactive walls have proven to be successful in laboratory and pilot-scale field applications. However, the long-term efficacy of reactive permeable walls has not been established due to the novelty of the technology. Also, the impact of common groundwater ions such as calcium and magnesium (i.e., hardness) on permeable reactive walls is unknown. In theory, the ions may react competitively with chromium in solution and/or other materials on the surface of the zero-valent iron. The ions may also form precipitates that could clog the reactive zone over time, resulting in decreased contaminant removal and a shorter wall lifetime. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of common groundwater ions on permeable reactive walls. A range of calcium and magnesium concentrations was tested in laboratory columns to determine the effect of these ions on removal of a constant chromium concentration (100 mg/L). Results from the laboratory tests indicated that calcium and magnesium had a significant impact on chromium removal. The most dramatic effects were witnessed at hardness levels up to 140 mg/L as CaCO3 where zero-valent iron capacity was reduced by 45%.

  • 27.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Community housing retrofit in the UK and the civics of energy consumption2018In: Retrofitting Cities for Tomorrow’s World / [ed] M. Eames, T. Dixon, M. Hunt, and S. Lannon, London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2018, p. 19-32Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    From bioregions to heterotopias: alternative pathways to territorialising the environment2017In: Territorial Policy and Governance: Alternative Paths / [ed] I. Deas, S. Hincks, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 165-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Low-carbon devices and desires in community housing retrofit2016In: Towards a Cultural Politics of Climate Change: Devices, Desires and Dissent / [ed] Harriet Bulkeley,Matthew Paterson, Johannes Stripple, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2016, p. 51-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Matthew Gandy2017In: Key Thinkers on Cities / [ed] R. Koch and A. Latham, London: Sage Publications, 2017, p. 87-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31. Karvonen, Andrew
    Metronatural (TM): Inventing and reworking urban nature in Seattle2010In: Progress in Planning, ISSN 0305-9006, E-ISSN 1873-4510, Vol. 74, p. 153-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seattle has long been considered a city in harmony with nature, a metropolis inseparable from and infused with the dramatic and picturesque Pacific Northwest landscape. Today, the city is frequently cited as a leader in sustainable urban development and this is due in large part to its unique relationship with its natural surroundings. However, the historical record of Seattle reveals this harmonious relationship between humans and nature to be a social construction. The founders of Seattle adopted an urban development approach similar to other North American cities and implemented large-scale engineering projects to rationalise the landscape while solidifying the municipal government as the ultimate arbiter of human/nature relations. The unintended economic, environmental, and social consequences of this so-called 'Promethean' approach to urban nature would be debunked in the 1950s, catalyzing a wide array of approaches by the municipality and residents to restore, protect, and live with nature in more benign ways. In this article, I examine the politics of nature in Seattle to understand how changing perceptions of the urban landscape are related to different forms of expertise, governance, and citizenship. I focus specifically on activities to reorient urban water flows because they reveal the multiple tensions between humans and nature. The article adds to contemporary scholarship in landscape architecture, human geography, and environmental history on the dilemma of urban nature while highlighting the central role of technical experts, practices, and networks as well as issues of governance, citizenship, and management. Seattle's reputation as a green metropolis serves as an entry point to interpret the various relationships between humans, technology, and nature while also suggesting potential routes to realise more sustainable urban futures.

  • 32.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Pathways of urban nature: Diversity in the Greening of the Twenty-First-Century City2015In: Now Urbanism: The Future City is Here / [ed] Jeff Hou, Ben Spencer, Thaisa Way, and Ken Yocom, London: Routledge , 2015, p. 274-286Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33. Karvonen, Andrew
    Politics of Urban Runoff: Nature, Technology, and the Sustainable City2011Book (Refereed)
  • 34. Karvonen, Andrew
    Rachel Carson: Legacy and Challenge2009In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 924-926Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    The city of permanent experiments?2018In: Innovating Climate Governance: Moving Beyond Experiments / [ed] Bruno Turnheim, Paula Kivimaa, and Frans Burkhout, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 201-215Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, a multitude of urban climate change experiments have emerged to go beyond traditional role of the state in environmental governance. These activities provide a real world evidence base for how a low-carbon world could be realised and they have the potential to fundamentally change the way that cities are conceived, built, and managed. Most urban climate change experiments are designed to be geographically and temporally bounded to accelerate innovation activities and realise actual changes on the ground. But what if urban experiments did not scale up? What if, instead of informing existing modes of urban governance, they became the dominant approach to governing cities? What would a ‘city of permanent experiments’ look like and how would it function? This chapter speculates on the implications of experimentation as the new mode of governance for twenty-first century cities. Here, experiments are not interpreted as one-off trials to provide evidence and justification for new low-carbon policies, regulations, and service provision; instead, they are emerging as a new mode of governance in themselves. This emerging form of urban governance is characterised by uncertainty, recursive learning processes, and spatial fragmentation with multiple unknown implications on the politics of cities in the future.

  • 36.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    The politics of green transformations2017In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 904-906Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 37. Karvonen, Andrew
    Towards systemic retrofit: a social practices approach2013In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 563-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UK housing stock will play an important role in achieving the 2050 national carbon reduction targets. Upgrading the energy performance of the existing housing stock is a significant challenge because retrofit activities are shaped by a wide range of fragmented policies, programmes and actors. Existing approaches to housing retrofit focus on regulations, financial incentives and information provision, but it is argued these are insufficient to realize large-scale, deep changes in energy consumption. An agenda is proposed for systemic domestic retrofit to realize radical changes in the housing stock through community-based partnerships. These programmes are based on a social practices approach that promotes social innovation. Wide-ranging energy-efficiency upgrades can be achieved through the development and realization of customized solutions to local groups of houses through facilitated engagement between occupants, housing providers, community groups, local authorities and construction professionals. Community-based domestic retrofit programmes serve to reframe the governance of household energy performance and suggest alternative routes for realizing significant reductions in energy demand through changes in the socio-technical configuration of materials, competences and images of domestic energy practices.

  • 38.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Brand, Ralf
    Expertise: Specialized knowledge in environmental politics and sustainability2014In: Routledge Handbook of Global Environmental Politics / [ed] P.G. Harris, London: Routledge , 2014, p. 215-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39. Karvonen, Andrew
    et al.
    Brand, Ralf
    Technical expertise, sustainability, and the politics of knowledge2011In: Environmental Governance: Power and Knowledge in a Local-Global World / [ed] Gabriela Kütting, Ronnie Lipschutz, London: Routledge , 2011, p. 38-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Cugurullo, Federico
    Caprotti, Federico
    Conclusions: the long and unsettled future of smart cities2019In: Inside Smart Cities: Place, Politics and Urban Innovation / [ed] A. Karvonen, F. Cugurullo and F. Caprotti, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 291-298Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The contributions to this volume situate the processes of smart urbanisation in particular material, social and political contexts, ranging from Seoul, Dublin and Philadelphia to Cape Town, Abu Dhabi and Bristol. Collectively, they reveal that the digitisation of cities is unavoidably bound up in the governance of cities, existing material and social conditions, and messy processes of translating ambitious theoretical visions into real world applications. For future research on the ‘actually existing smart city’, we can benefit from historical insights on sociotechnical urban dramas from the past. We should also be attentive to scalar issues to understand the macro dynamics of smart and how ideas travel to other places as well as the micro dynamics of how smart influences the individual. Finally, there is a need to proactively develop alternative visions and pathways of smart that can support emancipatory and progressive modes of urban development. The future of smart cities is long and unsettled but it will have profound influence on urban life in the coming decades.

  • 41.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Cugurullo, FedericoCaprotti, Federico
    Inside Smart Cities: Place, Politics and Urban Innovation2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The era of the smart city has arrived. Only a decade ago, the promise of optimising urban services through the widespread application of information and communication technologies was largely a techno-utopian fantasy. Today, smart urbanisation is occurring via urban projects, policies and visions in hundreds of cities around the globe. This book provides real world evidence on how local authorities, small and medium enterprises, corporations, utility providers and civil society groups are creating smart cities at the neighbourhood, city and regional scales. Twenty-one empirically detailed case studies from the Global North and South, ranging from Cape Town, Stockholm, and Abu Dhabi to Philadelphia, Hong Kong, and Santiago, illustrate the multiple and diverse incarnations of smart urbanism. The contributors draw on ideas from urban studies, geography, urban planning, science & technology studies and innovation studies to go beyond the rhetoric of technological innovation and reveal the political, social and physical implications of digitising the built environment. Collectively, the practices of smart urbanism raise fundamental questions about the sustainability, liveability and resilience of the cities in the future. The findings are relevant to academics, students, practitioners and urban stakeholders who are questioning how urban innovation relates to politics and place.

  • 42.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Cugurullo, Federico
    Caprotti, Federico
    Introduction: situating smart cities2019In: Inside Smart Cities: Place, Politics and Urban Innovation / [ed] A. Karvonen, F. Cugurullo and F. Caprotti, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, smart cities are being realised through hundreds of projects around the world. Information and communication technologies are rapidly being woven into new and existing urban policies, agendas, narratives and visions by a wide range of local authorities, small and medium enterprises, utility providers, corporations and civil society groups. This book provides the first collection of evidence on how smart urbanisation is being realised in 21 cities through detailed empirical and comparative accounts. The contributions reveal how the rhetoric of smart cities is gradually being transformed into a range of realities through simultaneous processes of grounding and contextualising, integrating and aligning, contradicting and challenging, and experiencing and encountering. The diversity of approaches to smart urbanisation are resulting in different ways of governing and experiencing the city of the future, and will have both anticipated and unanticipated outcomes for all urban actors.

  • 43.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Evans, James
    van Heur, Bas
    The politics of urban experiments: realising radical change or reinforcing business as usual?2014In: After Sustainable Cities? / [ed] Mike Hodson, Simon Marvin, London: Routledge , 2014, p. 104-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Guy, Simon
    Urban energy landscapes and the rise of heat networks in the United Kingdom2018In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decade, district heat networks have emerged as a key strategy for the UK government to achieve its 2050 decarbonization targets. Reports and analyses have focused on the technical and economic challenges of introducing networked heat provision in a country where this is a relatively novel energy service. Meanwhile, there has been little emphasis on the spatial and physical aspects of heat provision and their influence on the spatial development of cities. In this paper, we contribute to current debates on urban energy transitions with insights on the implications of heat networks to cities including scale, density, mixed-use, and materiality. The study reveals the embeddedness of energy services and the emergence of new forms of local governance that combine spatial and energy planning to realize new urban energy landscapes.

  • 45. Karvonen, Andrew
    et al.
    van Heur, Bas
    Urban Laboratories: Experiments in Reworking Cities2014In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, ISSN 0309-1317, E-ISSN 1468-2427, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 379-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of the ‘urban laboratory’ is increasingly striking a chord with actors involved in urban change. Is this term simply a metaphor for urban development or does it suggest urbanization by substantially different means? To answer this question, we review the work of science and technology studies (STS) scholars who have empirically investigated laboratories and practices of experimentation over the past three decades to understand the significance of these spaces of experimentation in urban contexts. Based on this overview of laboratory studies, we argue that urban laboratories and experimentation involve three key achievements — situatedness, change-orientation and contingency — that are useful for evaluating and critiquing those practices that claim to be urban laboratories. We conclude by considering some future directions of research on urban laboratories.

  • 46. Karvonen, Andrew
    et al.
    van Heur, Bas
    Urban laboratories: experiments in reworking cities2014In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, ISSN 0309-1317, E-ISSN 1468-2427, Vol. 38, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of the 'urban laboratory' is increasingly striking a chord with actors involved in urban change. Is this term simply a metaphor for urban development or does it suggest urbanization by substantially different means? To answer this question, we review the work of science and technology studies (STS) scholars who have empirically investigated laboratories and practices of experimentation over the past three decades to understand the significance of these spaces of experimentation in urban contexts. Based on this overview of laboratory studies, we argue that urban laboratories and experimentation involve three key achievements - situatedness, change-orientation and contingency - that are useful for evaluating and critiquing those practices that claim to be urban laboratories. We conclude by considering some future directions of research on urban laboratories.

  • 47. Karvonen, Andrew
    et al.
    Yocom, Ken
    The civics of urban nature: enacting hybrid landscapes2011In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1305-1322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban nature is typically managed through top-down, bureaucratic, and expert-driven approaches that tend to rationalize and simplify the interactions between humans and their surroundings. In the last few decades, there has been a significant push in cultural geography and the design disciplines to develop a relational ontology of urban nature, a perspective that emphasizes the hybrid connections between humans and nonhumans, built and unbuilt, social and natural. This perspective offers new and exciting ways of conceptualizing urban nature but it has not produced alternatives to conventional governance. In other words, thinking differently about urban nature has yet to produce different ways of interacting with it. In this paper we argue that civic environmentalism can enact a relational ontology by engaging urban residents in processes of democratic deliberation and action in the reworking of urban nature. We illustrate this approach with a case study of a community-led project to construct a pedestrian trail along an urban creek in Seattle, Washington. The example demonstrates how the concept of civic environmentalism embraces a relational perspective of urban nature, while also producing generative forms of political action.

  • 48. Karvonen, Andy
    The gentle subversive: Rachel Carson, silent spring, and the rise of the environmental movement2008In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 242-244Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 49. Martin, Chris J.
    et al.
    Evans, James
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Smart and sustainable?: Five tensions in the visions and practices of the smart-sustainable city in Europe and North America2018In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 133, p. 269-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart cities are increasingly advocated by governments and the private sector as the primary means to deliver urban sustainability. Particularly in Europe and North America, the smart city is envisioned as a place where digital technologies are deployed to ‘solve’ urban sustainability problems. Such visions have been broadly critiqued in the urban studies literature for reflecting techno-utopian, neoliberal approaches to urban development that exert corporate control over cities, but there has been little empirical verification of these critiques. More recently, a disparate and interdisciplinary body of literature has emerged documenting the impacts of smart city initiatives in practice. This paper provides a state-of-the-art, empirically informed analysis of smart-sustainability, which considers established critiques of smart city policy and visions alongside the increasing body of evidence concerning the actual experiences of smart city initiatives. Through a systematic review of the smart city literature pertaining to Europe and North America, we identify and test five tensions between the smart city and the goals of sustainable urban development. These tensions involve: (1) reinforcing neoliberal economic growth; (2) focusing on more affluent populations; (3) disempowering and marginalising citizens; (4) neglecting environmental protection; and, (5) failing to challenge prevailing consumerist cultures. On the basis of these findings we propose how digital technologists, urban developers, municipalities and citizens might address these tensions. A key finding is that the potential to empower and include citizens represents the key to unlocking forms of smart-sustainable urban development that emphasise environmental protection and social equity, rather than merely reinforcing neoliberal forms of urban development.

  • 50. Moore, Steven A.
    et al.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    Sustainable architecture in context: STS and design thinking2008In: Science Studies, ISSN 0786-3012, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 29-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been little emphasis in STS scholarship to date on the design of the built environment. This paper attempts to address this oversight by examining alternative design practices in the growing field of sustainable architecture. We propose a geohistorical framework that includes three design dispositions?"context-bound, context-free, and context-rich?"and illustrate each with a prominent sustainable building practice. The principal argument of the paper is that each of these dispositions embodies distinct assumptions and attitudes about how to improve social and material conditions of the built environment, and as such, offers unique opportunities for STS scholars to shape the sociotechnical aspects of cities through intervention in design activities.

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