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  • 1.
    Bartlett, Michael A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Westermark, Mats O.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    A study of humidified gas turbines for short-term realization in midsized power generation - Part I: Nonintercooled cycle analysis2005In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 91-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humidified Gas Turbine (HGT) cycles are a group of advanced gas turbine cycles that use water-air mixtures as the working media. In this article, three known HGT configurations are examined in the context of short-term realization for small to midsized power generation: the Steam Injected Gas Turbine, the Full-flow Evaporative Gas Turbine, and the Part-flow Evaporative Gas Turbine. The heat recovery characteristics and performance potential of these three cycles are assessed, with and without intercooling, and a preliminary economic analysis is carried out for the most promising cycles.

  • 2.
    Bartlett, Michael A.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Westermark, Mats O.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    An evaluation of the thermodynamic potential of high-pressure part-flow evaporative gas turbine cycles2004In: Energy-Efficient, Cost-Effective and Environmentally-Sustainable Systems and Processes, Vols 1-3 / [ed] Rivero, R; Monroy, L; Pulido, R; Tsatsaronis, G, 2004, p. 1053-1066Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaporative gas turbine cycles (EvGT) are advanced gas turbine cycles which utilise an air-water mixture as the working fluid in the turbine expander. The EvGT cycles studied in this article are further characterised by their use of humidification towers to introduce water vapour to the compressed working fluid. This article examines the thermodynamic potential of intercooled EvGT cycles, with the focus on working pressures over 50 bar and part-flow configurations. Along with known evaporative cycles, a new configuration is introduced and studied: the so-called high-pressure part-flow EvGT cycle (HP-PEvGT). The study found that all intercooled evaporative gas turbine cycles have efficiency optimums at pressures well over 40 bar for relevant firing temperatures, with the pressure optimum defined by internal cycle dynamics. The novel part-flow configuration and self-recuperative humidification circuit of the HP-PEvGT allow this cycle to reach higher pressures and efficiencies than conventional evaporative cycle configurations. Boilers should be utilised where the gas turbine exhaust temperatures are high to enable the humidification tower to operate more effectively. While a triple pressure combined cycle was found to be more efficient than evaporative cycles at current gas turbine operating pressures (20-40 bar), the HP-PEvGT cycle has a significantly higher efficiency potential, Furthermore, much higher power densities are found for evaporative cycles, especially when they are simulated at high pressure. Despite the technical challenges of high-pressure evaporative cycles, the gains in efficiency and power density plus the more compact heat recovery system may make such a development worthwhile.

  • 3.
    Bartlett, Michael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Westermark, Mats O.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    A study of humidified gas turbines for short-term realization in midsized power generation - Part II: Intercooled cycle analysis and final economic evaluation2005In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humidified gas turbine (HGT) cycles are a group of advanced gas turbine cycles that use water-air mixtures as the working media. In this article, three known HGT configurations are examined in the context of short-term realization for small to mid-sized power generation: the steam injected gas turbine, the full-flow evaporative gas turbine, and the part-flow evaporative gas turbine. The heat recovery characteristics and performance potential of these three cycles are assessed, with and without intercooling, and a preliminary economic analysis is carried out for the most promising cycles.

  • 4. Fiaschi, D
    et al.
    Gamberi, F
    Bartlett, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Griffin, T
    The air membrane-ATR integrated gas turbine power cycle: A method for producing electricity with low CO2 emissions2005In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 46, no 15-16, p. 2514-2529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The air membrane-auto thermal reforming (AM-ATR) gas turbine cycle combines features of the R-ATR power cycle, introduced at the University of Florence, with ceramic, air separation membranes to achieve a novel combined cycle process with fuel decarbonisation and near-zero CO2 emissions. Within this process, the natural gas fuel is converted to H-2 and CO through the auto thermal reforming process (ATR), i.e. combined partial oxidation and steam methane reforming, within the air separation membrane reactor. In a subsequent process unit, the H-2 Content of the reformed fuel is enriched by the well known CO-CO2 shift reaction. This fuel is then sent to an amine based carbon dioxide removal unit and, finally, to two combustors: the first one is located upstream of the membrane reformer (in order to achieve the required working temperature) and the second one is downstream of the membrane to reach the desired turbine inlet temperature (TIT). The main advantage of the proposed concept over other decarbonisation processes is the coupling of the membrane and the ATR reactor. This coupling greatly reduces the mass flow of syngas with respect to the air blown ATR contained in the previously proposed R-ATR, thus lowering the size of the syngas treatment section. Furthermore, as the oxygen production is integrated at high temperatures in the power cycle, the efficiency penalty of producing oxygen is much smaller than for the traditional cryogenic oxygen separation. The main advantages over other integrated GT-membrane concepts are the lower membrane operating temperature, lower levels of required air separation at high partial pressure driving forces (leading to lower membrane surface areas) and the possibility to achieve a higher TIT with top firing without increasing CO2 emissions. When compared to power plants with tail end CO2 separation, the CO2 removal process treats a gas at pressure and with a significantly higher CO2 concentration than that of gas turbine exhausts, which allows a compact carbon dioxide removal unit with a lower energy penalty. Starting from the same basis, various configurations were considered and optimised, all of which targeted a 65 MW power output combined cycle. The efficiency level achieved is around 45% (including recompression of the separated CO2), which is roughly 10% less than the reference GT-CC plant (without CO2 removal). A significant part of the efficiency penalty (4.3-5.6% points) is due to the fuel reforming, whereas further penalties come from the recompression units, loss of working fluid through the expander and the steam extracted for the ATR reactor and CO2 separation. The specific CO2 emissions of the MCM-ATR are about 120 kg CO2/kWh, representing 30% of the emissions without CO2 removal. This may be reduced to 10-15% with a better design of the shift reactors and the CO2 removal unit. Compared to other concepts with air membrane technology, such as the AZEP concept, the efficiency loss is much greater when used for fuel de-carbonisation than for previous integration options.

  • 5.
    Rydstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Westermark, Mats O.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Bartlett, Michael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    An analysis of the efficiency and economy of humidified gas turbines in district heating applications2004In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 29, no 15-dec, p. 1945-1961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the performance of gas turbine cycles operating with air/water working fluids, so-called humidified cycles, are examined in district heating applications. The investigated cycles are based on a GTX100 core from ALSTOM Power Sweden AB (ALSTOM)(1) and utilise a two-stage flue gas condenser and an inlet air humidifier (pre-humidifier) to provide elevated quantities of district heating. Simulations have shown that electrical efficiencies up to 50% and total efficiencies above 100% can be reached calculated on the lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel. Based on cost data from ALSTOM, humidified cycles have a potential to give much lower (40% per kW(el) and 60% per kW(DH)) specific investment costs compared to combined cycles, mainly due to the absence of steam turbine. The humidified cycles are predicted to be cost-effective investments at market electricity prices Euro5-8/MWh(el) lower than the conventional alternatives in district heating applications.

1 - 5 of 5
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