We investigate the persistent currents, spin-polarized local density of states, and spectral functions of topological superconductors constructed by placing ferromagnetic impurities on top of an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit interaction. We solve self-consistently for the superconducting order parameter and investigate both two-dimensional blocks and one-dimensional wires of ferromagnetic impurities, with the magnetic moments pointing both perpendicular and parallel to the surface. We find that the topologically protected edge states of ferromagnetic blocks give rise to spin-polarized edge currents, but that the total persistent current flows in opposite direction to what is expected from the dispersion relation of the edge states. We also show that the Majorana fermions at the end points of one-dimensional wires are spin polarized, which can be directly related to the spin polarization of the edge currents of two-dimensional blocks. Connections are also made to the physics of the Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states for zero-dimensional impurities.

We calculate the energy spectrum of a Dirac double layer, where each layer has the Dirac electronic dispersion, in the presence of a tilted magnetic field and small interlayer tunneling. We show that the energy splitting between the Landau levels has an oscillatory dependence on the in-plane magnetic field and vanishes at a series of special tilt angles of the magnetic field. Using a semiclassical analysis, we show that these special tilt angles are determined by the Berry phase of the Dirac Hamiltonian. The interlayer tunneling conductance also exhibits an oscillatory dependence on the magnetic field tilt angle, known as the angular magnetoresistance oscillations (AMRO). Our results are applicable to graphene double layers and thin films of topological insulators.

We show that superconducting currents are generated around magnetic impurities and ferromagnetic islands proximity coupled to superconductors with finite spin-orbit coupling. Using the Ginzburg-Landau theory, T-matrix calculation, as well as self-consistent numerical simulation on a lattice, we find a strong dependence of the current on the direction and magnitude of the magnetic moment. We establish that in the case of point magnetic impurities, the current is carried by the induced Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) subgap states. In the vicinity of the phase transition, where the YSR states cross at zero energy, the current increases dramatically. Furthermore, we show that the currents are orthogonal to the local spin polarization and, thus, can be probed by measuring the spin-polarized local density of states.

We consider a superconductor proximity coupled to a two-dimensional ferromagnetic film with a skyrmion texture. Using the T-matrix calculations and numerical modeling we calculate the spin-polarized local density of states in the superconductor in the vicinity of the skyrmion. We predict the skyrmion bound states that are induced in the superconductor, similar to the well-known Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states. The bound-state wave functions have spatial power-law decay. It is suggested that superconductivity could facilitate an effective long-range interaction between skyrmions when bound-state wave functions overlap.

In s-wave systems, it has been theoretically shown that a ferromagnetic film hosting a skyrmion can induce a bound state embedded in the opposite-spin continuum. In this work, we consider a case of skyrmion-induced state in a p-wave superconductor. We find that the skyrmion induces a bound state that generally resides within the spectral gap and is isolated from all other states, in contrast to the case of conventional superconductors. To this end, we derive an approximate expression for the T matrix, through which we calculate the spin-polarized local density of states which is observable in scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. We find the unique spectroscopic features of the skyrmion-induced bound state and discuss how our predictions could be employed as experimental probes for p-wave superconducting states.