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  • 1.
    Abramson, Alex
    et al.
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Khang, Minsoo
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Dellal, David
    MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Silverstein, David
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Gao, Yuan
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Frederiksen, Morten Revsgaard
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Vegge, Andreas
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Hubalek, Frantisek
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Water, Jorrit J.
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Friderichsen, Anders V.
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Fels, Johannes
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kirk, Rikke Kaae
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Cleveland, Cody
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Collins, Joy
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Tamang, Siddartha
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Hayward, Alison
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Div Comparat Med, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Landh, Tomas
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Buckley, Stephen T.
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Rahbek, Ulrik
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Langer, Robert
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Media Lab, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Traverso, Giovanni
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Gastroenterol, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    An ingestible self-orienting system for oral delivery of macromolecules2019In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 363, no 6427, p. 611-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomacromolecules have transformed our capacity to effectively treat diseases; however, their rapid degradation and poor absorption in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract generally limit their administration to parenteral routes. An oral biologic delivery system must aid in both localization and permeation to achieve systemic drug uptake. Inspired by the leopard tortoise's ability to passively reorient, we developed an ingestible self-orienting millimeter-scale applicator (SOMA) that autonomously positions itself to engage with GI tissue. It then deploys milliposts fabricated from active pharmaceutical ingredients directly through the gastric mucosa while avoiding perforation. We conducted in vivo studies in rats and swine that support the applicator's safety and, using insulin as a model drug, demonstrated that the SOMA delivers active pharmaceutical ingredient plasma levels comparable to those achieved with subcutaneous millipost administration.

  • 2.
    Abramson, Alex
    et al.
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Soares, Vance
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Minahan, Daniel
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Tian, Ryan Yu
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Lu, Xiaoya
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Dellal, David
    MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Gao, Yuan
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Kim, Soyoung
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Wainer, Jacob
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Collins, Joy
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Tamang, Siddartha
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Hayward, Alison
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Div Comparat Med, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Yoshitake, Tadayuki
    MIT, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Elect Res Lab, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Lee, Hsiang-Chieh
    MIT, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Elect Res Lab, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Fujimoto, James
    MIT, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Elect Res Lab, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Fels, Johannes
    Global Drug Discovery, Global Res Technol, Malov, Denmark.;Novo Nordisk, Device R&D, Malov, Denmark..
    Frederiksen, Morten Revsgaard
    Global Drug Discovery, Global Res Technol, Malov, Denmark.;Novo Nordisk, Device R&D, Malov, Denmark..
    Rahbek, Ulrik
    Global Drug Discovery, Global Res Technol, Malov, Denmark.;Novo Nordisk, Device R&D, Malov, Denmark..
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems. MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Langer, Robert
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Media Lab, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Traverso, Giovanni
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Gastroenterol, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    A luminal unfolding microneedle injector for oral delivery of macromolecules2019In: Nature Medicine, ISSN 1078-8956, E-ISSN 1546-170X, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 1512-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin and other injectable biologic drugs have transformed the treatment of patients suffering from diabetes(1,2), yet patients and healthcare providers often prefer to use and prescribe less effective orally dosed medications(3-5). Compared with subcutaneously administered drugs, oral formulations create less patient discomfort(4), show greater chemical stability at high temperatures(6), and do not generate biohazardous needle waste(7). An oral dosage form for biologic medications is ideal; however, macromolecule drugs are not readily absorbed into the bloodstream through the gastrointestinal tract(8). We developed an ingestible capsule, termed the luminal unfolding microneedle injector, which allows for the oral delivery of biologic drugs by rapidly propelling dissolvable drug-loaded microneedles into intestinal tissue using a set of unfolding arms. During ex vivo human and in vivo swine studies, the device consistently delivered the microneedles to the tissue without causing complete thickness perforations. Using insulin as a model drug, we showed that, when actuated, the luminal unfolding microneedle injector provided a faster pharmacokinetic uptake profile and a systemic uptake > 10% of that of a subcutaneous injection over a 4-h sampling period. With the ability to load a multitude of microneedle formulations, the device can serve as a platform to orally deliver therapeutic doses of macromolecule drugs.

  • 3.
    Antelius, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Hermetic integration of liquids using high-speed stud bump bonding for cavity sealing at the wafer level2012In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 045021-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a novel room-temperature hermetic liquid sealing process where the access ports of liquid-filled cavities are sealed with wire-bonded stud bumps. This process enables liquids to be integrated at the fabrication stage. Evaluation cavities were manufactured and used to investigate the mechanical and hermetic properties of the seals. Measurements on the successfully sealed structures show a helium leak rate of better than 10 (10) mbarL s (1), in addition to a zero liquid loss over two months during storage near boiling temperature. The bond strength of the plugs was similar to standard wire bonds on flat surfaces.

  • 4.
    Antelius, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wafer-Level Vacuum Sealing by Coining of Wire Bonded Gold Bumps2013In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 1347-1353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the investigation of a novel room-temperature vacuum sealing method based on compressing wire bonded gold bumps which are placed to partially overlap the access ports into the cavity. The bump compression, which is done under vacuum, causes a material flow into the access ports, thereby hermetically sealing a vacuum inside the cavities. The sealed cavity pressure was measured by residual gas analysis to 8x10(-4) mbar two weeks after sealing. The residual gas content was found to be mainly argon, which indicates the source as outgassing inside the cavity and no measurable external leak. The seals are found to be mechanically robust and easily implemented by the use of standard commercial tools and processes.

  • 5.
    Antelius, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Hermetic integration of liquids in MEMS by room temperature, high-speed plugging of liquid-filled cavities at wafer level2011In: Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), IEEE , 2011, p. 356-359Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a novel room temperature hermetic liquid sealing process based on wire bonded "plugs" over the access ports of liquid-filled cavities. The method enables liquids to be integrated already at the fabrication stage. Test vehicles were manufactured and used to investigate the mechanical and hermetic properties of the seals. A helium leak rate of better than 1E-10 mbarL/s was measured on the successfully sealed structures. The bond strength of the "plugs" were similar to standard wire bonds on flat surfaces.

  • 6.
    Antelius, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Room-temperature wafer-level vacuum sealing by compression of high-speed wire bonded gold bumps2011In: Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems (Transducers), IEEE , 2011, p. 1360-1363Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports experimental results of a novel room temperature vacuum sealing process based on compressing wire bonded gold “bumps”, causing a material flow into the access ports of vacuum-cavities. The leak rate out of manufactured cavities was measured over 5 days and evaluated to less than the detection limit, 6×10-12 mbarL/s, per sealed port. The cavities have been sealed at a vacuum level below 10 mbar. The method enables sealing of vacuum cavities at room temperature using standard commercial tools and processes.

  • 7.
    Balslev, Soren
    et al.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Micro & Nanotechnol.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Griss, Patrick
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Kristensen, Anders
    Microfluidic dye laser with compact, low-cost liquid dye dispenser2005In: Micro Total Analysis Systems 2004 / [ed] Laurell T; Nilsson J; Jensen K; Harrison DJ, 2005, no 297, p. 375-377Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a compact system consisting of a miniaturized fluid dispenser, delivering liquid laser dye to a micro-chip dye laser. This demonstrates the elimination of bulk fluid pumps for a microfluidic system by using a miniaturized, electrically and chemically inert dispenser, capable of delivering very low flow for extended periods of time.

  • 8.
    Bleiker, Simon J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Somjit, Nutapong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    High-Aspect-Ratio Through Silicon Vias for High-Frequency Application Fabricated by Magnetic Assembly of Gold-Coated Nickel Wires2015In: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 2156-3950, E-ISSN 2156-3985, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel manufacturing technology for high-aspect-ratio vertical interconnects for high-frequency applications. This novel approach is based on magnetic self-assembly of prefabricated nickel wires that are subsequently insulated with a thermosetting polymer. The high-frequency performance of the through silicon vias (TSVs) is enhanced by depositing a gold layer on the outer surface of the nickel wires and by reducing capacitive parasitics through a low-k polymer liner. As compared with conventional TSV designs, this novel concept offers a more compact design and a simpler, potentially more cost-effective manufacturing process. Moreover, this fabrication concept is very versatile and adaptable to many different applications, such as interposer, micro electromechanical systems, or millimeter wave applications. For evaluation purposes, coplanar waveguides with incorporated TSV interconnections were fabricated and characterized. The experimental results reveal a high bandwidth from dc to 86 GHz and an insertion loss of <0.53 dB per single TSV interconnection for frequencies up to 75 GHz.

  • 9.
    Ericsson, Per
    et al.
    Acreo AB.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Samel, Björn
    Acreo AB.
    Savage, Susan
    Acreo AB.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Wissmar, Stanley
    Acreo AB.
    Öberg, Olof
    Acreo AB.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Toward 17µm pitch heterogeneously integrated Si/SiGe quantum well bolometer focal plane arrays2011In: Infrared Technology and Applications XXXVII: Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 8012, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2011, p. 801216-1-801216-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of today's commercial solutions for un-cooled IR imaging sensors are based on resistive bolometers using either Vanadium oxide (VOx) or amorphous Silicon (a-Si) as the thermistor material. Despite the long history for both concepts, market penetration outside high-end applications is still limited. By allowing actors in adjacent fields, such as those from the MEMS industry, to enter the market, this situation could change. This requires, however, that technologies fitting their tools and processes are developed. Heterogeneous integration of Si/SiGe quantum well bolometers on standard CMOS read out circuits is one approach that could easily be adopted by the MEMS industry. Due to its mono crystalline nature, the Si/SiGe thermistor material has excellent noise properties that result in a state-ofthe- art signal-to-noise ratio. The material is also stable at temperatures well above 450°C which offers great flexibility for both sensor integration and novel vacuum packaging concepts. We have previously reported on heterogeneous integration of Si/SiGe quantum well bolometers with pitches of 40μm x 40μm and 25μm x 25μm. The technology scales well to smaller pixel pitches and in this paper, we will report on our work on developing heterogeneous integration for Si/SiGe QW bolometers with a pixel pitch of 17μm x 17μm.

  • 10.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Bleiker, Simon J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Very high aspect ratio through-silicon vias (TSVs) fabricated using automated magnetic assembly of nickel wires2012In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 105001-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through-silicon via (TSV) technology enables 3D-integrated devices with higher performance and lower cost as compared to 2D-integrated systems. This is mainly due to smaller dimensions of the package and shorter internal signal lengths with lower capacitive, resistive and inductive parasitics. This paper presents a novel low-cost fabrication technique for metal-filled TSVs with very high aspect ratios (>20). Nickel wires are placed in via holes of a silicon wafer by an automated magnetic assembly process and are used as a conductive path of the TSV. This metal filling technique enables the reliable fabrication of through-wafer vias with very high aspect ratios and potentially eliminates characteristic cost drivers in the TSV production such as advanced metallization processes, wafer thinning and general issues associated with thin-wafer handling.

  • 11.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Bleiker, Simon J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Somjit, Nutapong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    high aspect ratio tsvs fabricated by magnetic self-assembly of gold-coated nickel wires2012In: Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2012 IEEE 62nd, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 541-547Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration is an emerging technologythat vertically interconnects stacked dies of electronics and/orMEMS-based transducers using through silicon vias (TSVs).TSVs enable the realization of devices with shorter signal lengths,smaller packages and lower parasitic capacitances, which can resultin higher performance and lower costs of the system. Inthis paper we demonstrate a new manufacturing technology forhigh-aspect ratio (> 8) through silicon metal vias using magneticself-assembly of gold-coated nickel rods inside etched throughsilicon-via holes. The presented TSV fabrication technique enablesthrough-wafer vias with high aspect ratios and superior electricalcharacteristics. This technique eliminates common issues inTSV fabrication using conventional approaches, such as the metaldeposition and via insulation and hence it has the potential to reducesignificantly the production costs of high-aspect ratio stateof-the-art TSVs for e.g. interposer, MEMS and RF applications.

  • 12.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Bleiker, Simon J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Integrating MEMS and ICs2015In: Microsystems & Nanoengineering, ISSN 2055-7434, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-16, article id 15005Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices must be combined with integrated circuits (ICs) for operation in larger electronic systems. While MEMS transducers sense or control physical, optical or chemical quantities, ICs typically provide functionalities related to the signals of these transducers, such as analog-to-digital conversion, amplification, filtering and information processing as well as communication between the MEMS transducer and the outside world. Thus, the vast majority of commercial MEMS products, such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and micro-mirror arrays, are integrated and packaged together with ICs. There are a variety of possible methods of integrating and packaging MEMS and IC components, and the technology of choice strongly depends on the device, the field of application and the commercial requirements. In this review paper, traditional as well as innovative and emerging approaches to MEMS and IC integration are reviewed. These include approaches based on the hybrid integration of multiple chips (multi-chip solutions) as well as system-on-chip solutions based on wafer-level monolithic integration and heterogeneous integration techniques. These are important technological building blocks for the ‘More-Than-Moore’ paradigm described in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. In this paper, the various approaches are categorized in a coherent manner, their merits are discussed, and suitable application areas and implementations are critically investigated. The implications of the different MEMS and IC integration approaches for packaging, testing and final system costs are reviewed.

  • 13.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Zimmer, F.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Heterogeneous Integration for Optical MEMS2010In: 2010 23RD ANNUAL MEETING OF THE IEEE PHOTONICS SOCIETY, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2010, p. 487-488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present different large-scale heterogeneous integration technologies for optical MEMS that enable the integration of optical MEMS with standard CMOS-based ICs. Examples that are presented include various monocrystalline silicon micro-mirror arrays and infrared bolometer arrays.

  • 14.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Grange, M.
    Department of Engineering, Centre for Microsystems Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Weerasekera, R.
    Department of Engineering, Centre for Microsystems Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK.
    Pamunuwa, D.
    Department of Engineering, Centre for Microsystems Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Wire-bonded through-silicon vias with low capacitive substrate coupling2011In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 085035-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional integration of electronics and/or MEMS-based transducers is an emerging technology that vertically interconnects stacked dies with through-silicon vias (TSVs). They enable the realization of circuits with shorter signal path lengths, smaller packages and lower parasitic capacitances, which results in higher performance and lower costs. This paper presents a novel technique for fabricating TSVs from bonded gold wires. The wires are embedded in a polymer, which acts both as an electrical insulator, resulting in low capacitive coupling toward the substrate and as a buffer for thermo-mechanical stress.

  • 15.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Korvink, Jan G.
    University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany .
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wallrabe, Ulrike
    University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany .
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Unconventional applications of wire bonding create opportunities for microsystem integration2013In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 083001-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic wire bonding is a highly mature, cost-efficient and broadly available back-endprocess, intended to create electrical interconnections in semiconductor chip packaging. Modern production wire-bonding tools can bond wires with speeds of up to 30 bonds per second with placement accuracies of better than 2 mu m, and the ability to form each wire individually into a desired shape. These features render wire bonding a versatile tool also for integrating wires in applications other than electrical interconnections. Wire bonding has been adapted and used to implement a variety of innovative microstructures. This paper reviews unconventional uses and applications of wire bonding that have been reported in the literature. The used wire-bonding techniques and materials are discussed, and the implemented applications are presented. They include the realization and integration of coils, transformers, inductors, antennas, electrodes, through silicon vias, plugs, liquid and vacuum seals, plastic fibers, shape memory alloy actuators, energy harvesters and sensors.

  • 16.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Antelius, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Selective electroless nickel plating on oxygen-plasma-activated gold seed-layers for the fabrication of low contact resistance vias and microstructures:  2010In: Proceedings: Micronano System Technology Event MSW 2010, Stockholm: - , 2010, , p. 86p. 86-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Selective electroless nickel plating on oxygen-plasma-activated gold seed-layers for the fabrication of low contact resistance vias and microstructures2010In: MEMS 2010: (MEMS), 2010 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, IEEE , 2010, p. 472-475Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel technique to selectively deposit nickel by electroless plating on gold seed layers using an oxygen-plasma-activation step. No prior wet surface pre- treatments or metal oxide etches are required. This enables the manufacturing of low-resistance vias for heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) integration of MEMS but it is also a suitable technique for the fabrication of arbitrary shaped nickel-microstructures using chemically stable and cost-effective electroless nickel plating baths.

  • 18.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Heinig, Nora
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Fabrication of high aspect ratio through silicon vias (TSVs) by magnetic assembly of nickel wires2011In: Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2011 IEEE 24th International Conference on, IEEE , 2011, p. 37-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration of electronics and/or MEMS-based transducers is an emerging technology that vertically interconnects stacked dies using through silicon vias (TSVs). They enable the realization of devices with shorter signal lengths, smaller packages and lower parasitic capacitances, which can result in higher performance and lower costs of the system. This paper presents a novel low-cost fabrication technique for solid metal-filled TSVs using nickel wires as conductive path. The wires are placed in the via hole of a silicon wafer by magnetic self-assembly. This metal filling technique enables through-wafer vias with high aspect ratios and potentially eliminates characteristic cost drivers of the TSV production such as metallization processes, wafer thinning and general issues associated with thin-wafer handling.

  • 19.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Method for plugging a hole and a plugged hole2009Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A method for at least partially inserting a plug into a hole, said method comprising the steps of a) providing a at least one substrate with at least one hole wherein said at least one hole has a largest dimension of from 1 μm to 300 μm, b) providing a piece of material, wherein said piece of material has a larger dimension than said at least one hole, c) pressing said piece of material against the hole with a tool so that a plug is formed, wherein at least a part of said piece of material is pressed into said hole, d) removing the tool from the piece of material. There is further disclosed a plugged hole manufactured with the method. One advantage of an embodiment is that an industrially available wire bonding technology can be used to seal various cavities. The existing wire bonding technology makes the plugging fast and cheap.

  • 20.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Low-cost Through Silicon Vias (Tsvs) with wire-bonded metal cores and low capacitive substratecoupling:  2010In: Proceedings: 8th Micronano System Technology Event (MSW 2010), Stockholm: - , 2010, , p. 30p. 30-30Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Low-Cost Through Silicon Vias (Tsvs) With Wire-Bonded Metal Cores And Low Capacitive Substrate-Coupling2010In: MEMS 2010: 23RD IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS, TECHNICAL DIGEST, IEEE , 2010, p. 480-483Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The three-dimensional (3D) integration of electronics and/or MEMS-based transducers is an emerging technology that vertically interconnects stacked dies using through silicon vias (TSVs). They enable the realization of devices with shorter signal lengths, smaller packages and lower parasitic capacitances, which can result in higher performance and lower costs. This paper presents a novel low-cost fabrication technique for metal-filled TSVs using bonded gold-wires as conductive path. In this concept the wires are surrounded by polymer, which acts both as an electrical insulator causing low capacitive coupling towards the substrate and as a buffer for thermo-mechanical stress.

  • 22.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Samel, Björn
    Acreo AB.
    Eriksson, Per
    Acreo AB.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Heterogeneous 3D integration of 17 mu m pitch Si/SiGe quantum well bolometer arrays for infrared imaging systems2013In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 045017-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the realization of 17 mu m x 17 mu m pitch bolometer arrays for uncooled infrared imagers. Microbolometer arrays have been available in primarily defense applications since the mid-1980s and are typically based on deposited thin films on top of CMOS wafers that are surface-machined into sensor pixels. This paper instead focuses on the heterogeneous integration of monocrystalline Si/SiGe quantum-well-based thermistor material in a CMOS-compliant process using adhesive wafer bonding. The high-quality monocrystalline thermistor material opens up for potentially lower noise compared to commercially available uncooled microbolometer arrays together with a competitive temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Characterized bolometers had a TCR of -2.9% K-1 in vacuum, measured thermal conductances around 5 x 10(-8) WK-1 and thermal time constants between 4.9 and 8.5 ms, depending on the design. Complications in the fabrication of stress-free bolometer legs and low-noise contacts are discussed and analyzed.

  • 23.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Ericsson, Per
    Acreo AB.
    Samel, Björn
    Acreo AB.
    High-Performance Infrared Micro-Bolometer Arrays Manufactured Using Very Large Scale Heterogeneous Integration2011In: OMN2011: 16TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL MEMS AND NANOPHOTONICS, 2011, p. 9-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the implementation and characterization of arrays of uncooled infrared bolometers containing mono-crystalline Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) thermistors. The bolometer arrays are integrated on silicon fan-out wafers using very-large scale heterogeneous integration that is compatible with standard CMOS wafers. Infrared bolometer arrays with 320x240 pixels and pixel pitches of 25 mu m x 25 mu m and 17 mu m x 17 mu m have been implemented, respectively.

  • 24.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Lapadatu, Adriana
    Kittilsland, Gjermund
    Martinsen, Stian
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    Stemme, Goran
    Samel, Bjorn
    Ericsson, Per
    Hoivik, Nils
    Bakke, Thor
    Bring, Martin
    Kvisteroy, Terje
    Ror, Audun
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    CMOS-Integrated Si/SiGe Quantum-Well Infrared Microbolometer Focal Plane Arrays Manufactured With Very Large-Scale Heterogeneous 3-D Integration2015In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, ISSN 1077-260X, E-ISSN 1558-4542, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate infrared focal plane arrays utilizing monocrystalline silicon/silicon-germanium (Si/SiGe) quantum-well microbolometers that are heterogeneously integrated on top of CMOS-based electronic read-out integrated circuit substrates. The microbolometers are designed to detect light in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range from 8 to 14 mu m and are arranged in focal plane arrays consisting of 384 x 288 microbolometer pixels with a pixel pitch of 25 mu m x 25 mu m. Focal plane arrays with two different microbolometer designs have been implemented. The first is a conventional single-layer microbolometer design and the second is an umbrella design in which the microbolometer legs are placed underneath the microbolometer membrane to achieve an improved pixel fill-factor. The infrared focal plane arrays are vacuum packaged using a CMOS compatible wafer bonding and sealing process. The demonstrated heterogeneous 3-D integration and packaging processes are implemented atwafer-level and enable independent optimization of the CMOS-based integrated circuits and the microbolometer materials. All manufacturing is done using standard semiconductor and MEMS processes, thus offering a generic approach for integrating CMOS-electronics with complex miniaturized transducer elements.

  • 25.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Colinge, C.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Integration of distributed Ge islands onto Si wafers by adhesive wafer bonding and low-temperature Ge exfoliation2015In: 2015 28th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2015), IEEE , 2015, p. 280-283Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel and highly efficient wafer-level batch transfer process for populating silicon (Si) wafers with distributed islands of thin single-crystalline germanium (Ge) layers. This is achieved by transferring Ge from a Si wafer containing thick Ge dies to a Si target wafer by adhesive wafer-bonding and subsequent low-temperature Ge exfoliation.

  • 26.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Ericsson, Per
    Wissmar, Stanley
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    High-performance quantum-well silicon-germanium bolometers using IC-compatible integration for low-cost infrared imagers2009In: TRANSDUCERS 2009: 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, 2009, Vol. Actuators and Microsystems, p. 2214-2217Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the realization and characterization of the very first quantum-well (QW) mono-crystalline Si/SiGe 18x18 pixel infrared bolometer arrays that are manufactured using IC compatible heterogeneous 3D integration on fan-out wafers. This integration process enables bolometer materials on top of CMOS-based integrated circuits that can not be integrated with conventional monolithic deposition techniques. The manufactured bolometer arrays have a negative temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of 2.8%/K. Measurements of the 1/f noise showed a higher value than expected for the bolometers. This result can be compared to lower values of noise achieved for samples of the thermistor material and is believed to result from imperfect metal contacts.

  • 27.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Ericsson, Per
    Wissmar, Stanley
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Quantum-Well Silicon-Germanium Bolometers for Low-Cost Infrared Imagers2010In: Proceedings: MSW2010, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Samel, Björn
    Acreo AB.
    Ericsson, Per
    Acreo AB.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Very Large Scale Heterogeneous Integration (VLSHI) and Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging for Infrared Bolometer Focal Plane Arrays2013In: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 60, p. 251-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imaging in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range from 8 to 14 μm is an extremely useful tool for non-contact measurement and imaging of temperature in many industrial, automotive and security applications. However, the cost of the infrared (IR) imaging components has to be significantly reduced to make IR imaging a viable technology for many cost-sensitive applications. This paper demonstrates new and improved fabrication and packaging technologies for next-generation IR imaging detectors based on uncooled IR bolometer focal plane arrays. The proposed technologies include very large scale heterogeneous integration for combining high-performance, SiGe quantum-well bolometers with electronic integrated read-out circuits and CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packing. The fabrication and characterization of bolometers with a pitch of 25 μm × 25 μm that are arranged on read-out-wafers in arrays with 320 × 240 pixels are presented. The bolometers contain a multi-layer quantum well SiGe thermistor with a temperature coefficient of resistance of −3.0%/K. The proposed CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packaging technology uses Cu–Sn solid–liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding. The presented technologies are suitable for implementation in cost-efficient fabless business models with the potential to bring about the cost reduction needed to enable low-cost IR imaging products for industrial, security and automotive applications.

  • 29.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Liu, Yitong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Batch Transfer of Radially Expanded Die Arrays for Heterogeneous Integration Using Different Wafer Sizes2012In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1077-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the realization of a novel method for batch transfer of multiple separate dies from a smaller substrate onto a larger wafer substrate by using a standard matrix expander in combination with an elastic dicing tape and adhesive wafer bonding. We demonstrate the expansion and transfer of about 30 000 dies from a 100-mm wafer format to a 200-mm wafer. Furthermore, multiple expansions of 100-mm wafers diced into 60 000 dies are evaluated to determine the position accuracy between different expansions. Fabrication, evaluation method, and results are presented.

  • 30. Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    Stemme, Göran
    Niklaus, Frank
    HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION METHOD FOR TRANSFER OFEXPANDED DIE MATRICES TO LARGE FORMAT WAFERS USINGAN EXPANDABLE TAPE2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the realization of a novel method for batch transfer of multiple separate dies from a smallersubstrate onto a larger wafer substrate by using a standard matrix expander in combination with adhesive waferbonding and an elastic dice tape. We demonstrate the expansion and transfer of about 30000 chips from a 100mm wafer to a 200 mm wafer with a 22 μm standard deviation of positioning accuracy.

  • 31.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Use of Expandable Handle Substrate for Wafer-Level Transfer of Dies in Heterogeneous Integration and Packaging of MEMS2011In: WaferBond´11, 2011, p. 105-106Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR COMBINATION OF DIFFERENT WAFER SIZES USING AN EXPANDABLE HANDLE SUBSTRATE2011In: PROC IEEE MICR ELECT: IEEE MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS, 2011, p. 268-271Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the realization of a novel method for batch transfer of multiple separate dies from a smaller substrate onto a larger wafer substrate by using a standard matrix expander in combination with adhesive wafer bonding and an elastic dice tape. We demonstrate the expansion and transfer of about 30000 chips from a 100 mm wafer to a 200 mm wafer with a 22 mu m standard deviation of positioning accuracy. Fabrication, evaluation method and results are presented.

  • 33.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Saharil, Farizah
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A Comparative study of the bonding energy in adhesive wafer bonding2013In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion energies are determined for three different polymers currently used in adhesive wafer bonding of silicon wafers. The adhesion energies of the polymer off-stoichiometry thiol-ene-epoxy OSTE+ and the nano-imprint resist mr-I 9150XP are determined. The results are compared to the adhesion energies of wafers bonded with benzocyclobutene, both with and without adhesion promoter. The adhesion energies of the bonds are studied by blister tests, consisting of delaminating silicon lids bonded to silicon dies with etched circular cavities, using compressed nitrogen gas. The critical pressure needed for delamination is converted into an estimate of the bond adhesion energy. The fabrication of test dies and the evaluation method are described in detail. The mean bond energies of OSTE+ were determined to be 2.1 and 20 J m(-2) depending on the choice of the epoxy used. A mean bond energy of 1.5 J m(-2) was measured for mr-I 9150XP.

  • 34.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Saharil, Farizah
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Low temperature adhesive wafer bonding using OSTE(+) for heterogeneous 3D MEMS integration2013In: Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2013 IEEE 26th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 342-346Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the use of off stoichiometry thiolene-epoxy, OSTE(+) for adhesive wafer bonding. The dual cure system, with an initial UV-curing step followed by a second thermal cure, allows for high bond strength and potentially high quality material interfaces. We show that cured OSTE(+) is easily removed in oxygen plasma and that the characteristics of OSTE(+) make it a potential candidate for use in heterogeneous 3D MEMS integration. Furthermore, we show how the bond energies of wafers bonded with OSTE(+) adhesive compares with the bond energies of wafers bonded with Cyclotene 3022-46 (BCB) and mr-I 9150XP nanoimprint resist.

  • 35.
    Frisk, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    MEMS for medical technology applications2007In: MEMS Adaptive Optics / [ed] Olivier, S.S., Bifano T.G., Kubby J.A., 2007, Vol. 6467, p. 46513-46513Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an in-depth description of two recent projects at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) which utilize MEMS and microsystem technology for realization of components intended for specific applications in medical technology and diagnostic instrumentation. By novel use of the DRIE fabrication technology we have developed side-opened out-of-plane silicon microneedles intended for use in transdermal drug delivery applications. The side opening reduces clogging probability during penetration into the skin and increases the up-take area of the liquid in the tissue. These microneedles offer about 200 mu m deep and pain-free skin penetration. We have been able to combine the microneedle chip with an electrically and heat controlled liquid actuator device where expandable microspheres are used to push doses of drug liquids into the skin. The entire unit is made of low cost materials in the form of a square one cm-sized patch. Finally, the design, fabrication and evaluation of an integrated miniaturized Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) based "electronic nose" microsystem for detection of narcotics is described. The work integrates a novel environment-to-chip sample interface with the sensor element. The choice of multifunctional materials and the geometric features of a four-component microsystem allow a functional integration of a QCM crystal, electrical contacts, fluidic contacts and a sample interface in a single system with minimal assembly effort, a potential for low-cost manufacturing, and a few orders of magnitude reduced in system size (12*12*4 mm) and weight compared to commercially available instruments. The sensor chip was successfully used it for the detection of 200 ng of narcotics sample.

  • 36.
    Gatty, Hithesh K
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Antelius, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niclas, Roxhed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A ppb-level miniaturized amperometric nitric oxide sensor2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Gatty, Hithesh K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Antelius, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    An amperometric nitric oxide sensor with fast response and ppb-level concentration detection relevant to asthma monitoring2015In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 209, p. 639-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A MEMS-based amperometric nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor is reported in this paper. The sensor is designed to detect NO gas for the purpose of asthma monitoring. The unique property of this sensor lies in the combination of a microporous high-surface area electrode that is coated with Nafion (TM), together with a liquid electrolyte. The sensor is able to detect gas concentrations of the order of parts-per-billion (ppb) and has a measured NO sensitivity of 0.045 nA/ppb and an operating range between 25 and 65% relative humidity. The settling time of the sensor is measured to 8s. The selectivity to interfering gases such as ammonia (NH3) and carbon monoxide (CO) was high when placing an activated carbon fiber filter above the sensor. The ppb-level detection capability of this sensor combined with its relatively fast response, high selectivity to CO and NH3 makes the sensor potentially applicable in gas monitoring for asthma detection.

  • 38.
    Gatty, Hithesh K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niclas, Roxhed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Temporary wafer bonding and debonding by an electrochemically active polymer adhesive for 3D integration2013In: Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2013 IEEE 26th International Conference on, New York: IEEE , 2013, p. 381-384Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin wafer handling is an important issue in 3D integration technologies. This paper reports on an efficient method for bonding a thin wafer and debonding it at room temperature from a carrier wafer. This method addresses the major problem of fragility and flexibility in handling of thin wafers used in TSV fabrication. In the presented method the carrier wafer is spin coated with an electrochemically active polymer adhesive. It is then bonded to a device wafer. The wafer stack is thinned and finally released from the carrier wafer by applying a voltage.

  • 39.
    Gatty, Hithesh K
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niclas, Roxhed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Temporary wafer bonding of thin wafers by electrochemically active polymer2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Gatty, Hithesh K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Schröder, Stephan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Temporary Wafer Bonding and Debonding for 3D Integration Using an Electrochemically Active Polymer Adhesive2014In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, Vol. 3, no 5, p. P115-P121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of thin silicon wafers is an enabling technology for 3D integration in the semiconductor industry. However, thin silicon wafers are fragile to handle and reliable solutions are required for thin wafer handling. This paper reports a novel method of bonding and debonding a thin wafer (< 50 mu m) using an electrochemically active polymer adhesive. In the presented method the carrier wafer is first spin coated with the adhesive and then bonded to the device wafer by applying force and temperature. Debonding of the wafer is realized at room temperature by applying a voltage between the carrier and the device wafer, which substantially reduces the bond strength. The bonding and debonding properties of the adhesive show that temporary wafer bonding using electrochemically active adhesives has the potential to be an attractive approach for temporary wafer bonding for thin wafer handling in 3D integration processes.

  • 41.
    Gatty, Hithesh K
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niclas, Roxhed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A wafer level liquid cavity integrated amperometric gas sensor with ppb leve nitric oxide gas sensitivityArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A miniaturized amperometric nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor based on wafer-level fabrication of electrodes and a liquid electrolyte chamber is reported in this paper. The sensor is able to detect NO gas concentrations of the order of parts per billion (ppb) levels and has a measured sensitivity of 0.04 nA ppb−1 with a response time of approximately 12 s. A sufficiently high selectivity of the sensor to interfering gases such as carbon monoxide (CO) and to ammonia (NH3) makes it potentially relevant for monitoring of asthma. In addition, the sensor was characterized for electrolyte evaporation which indicated a sensor operation lifetime allowing approximately 200 measurements.

  • 42.
    Gatty, Hithesh K
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niclas, Roxhed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    An amperometric hydrogen sulphide sensor applicable for bad breath monitoringManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Gatty, Hithesh K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A Miniaturized Amperometric Hydrogen Sulfide Sensor Applicable for Bad Breath Monitoring2018In: Micromachines, ISSN 2072-666X, E-ISSN 2072-666X, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bad breath or halitosis affects a majority of the population from time to time, causing personal discomfort and social embarrassment. Here, we report on a miniaturized, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based, amperometric hydrogen sulfide (H2S) sensor that potentially allows bad breath quantification through a small handheld device. The sensor is designed to detect H2S gas in the order of parts-per-billion (ppb) and has a measured sensitivity of 0.65 nA/ppb with a response time of 21 s. The sensor was found to be selective to NO and NH3 gases, which are normally present in the oral breath of adults. The ppb-level detection capability of the integrated sensor, combined with its relatively fast response and high sensitivity to H2S, makes the sensor potentially applicable for oral breath monitoring.

  • 44.
    Gatty, Hithesh Kumar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Antelius, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A ppb level, miniaturized fast response amperometric nitric oxide sensor for asthma diagnostics2013In: Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2013 IEEE 26th International Conference on, New York: IEEE , 2013, p. 1001-1004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a novel miniaturized MEMS-based amperometric nitric oxide sensor that is suitable for a point of care testing device for asthma. The novelty lies in the combination of a high surface area microporous structured electrode, nano-structured Nafion that is coated on the side walls of the micropores, and liquid electrolyte. This combination allows detection of very low concentration (parts-per-billion) gas, has a high sensitivity of 4 mu A/ppm/cm(2) and has both a response and a recovery time of 6 s. The sensor is integrated with a PCB potentiostat to form a complete measuring module. The limit of detection of this sensor was estimated to be 0.3 ppb.

  • 45.
    Gatty, Hithesh Kumar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A wafer-level liquid cavity integrated amperometric gas sensor with ppb-level nitric oxide gas sensitivity2015In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 105013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A miniaturized amperometric nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor based on wafer-level fabrication of electrodes and a liquid electrolyte chamber is reported in this paper. The sensor is able to detect NO gas concentrations of the order of parts per billion (ppb) levels and has a measured sensitivity of 0.04 nA ppb(-1) with a response time of approximately 12 s. A sufficiently high selectivity of the sensor to interfering gases such as carbon monoxide (CO) and to ammonia (NH3) makes it potentially relevant for monitoring of asthma. In addition, the sensor was characterized for electrolyte evaporation which indicated a sensor operation lifetime allowing approximately 200 measurements.

  • 46.
    Hauser, Janosch
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Lenk, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Beck, Olof
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    High yield passive plasma filtration from human finger prick bloodManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Hauser, Janosch
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Lenk, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Hansson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Beck, Olof
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    High-Yield Passive Plasma Filtration from Human Finger Prick Blood2018In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 90, no 22, p. 13393-13399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole-blood microsampling provides many benefits such as remote, patient-centric, and minimally invasive sampling. However, blood plasma, and not whole blood, is the prevailing matrix in clinical laboratory investigations. The challenge with plasma microsampling is to extract plasma volumes large enough to reliably detect low-concentration analytes from a small finger prick sample. Here we introduce a passive plasma filtration device that provides a high extraction yield of 65%, filtering 18 mu L of plasma from 50 mu L of undiluted human whole blood (hematocrit 45%) within less than 10 min. The enabling design element is a wedge-shaped connection between the blood filter and the hydrophilic bottom surface of a capillary channel. Using finger prick and venous blood samples from more than 10 healthy volunteers, we examined the filtration kinetics of the device over a hematocrit range of 35-55% and showed that 73 +/- 8% of the total protein content was successfully recovered after filtration. The presented plasma filtration device tackles a major challenge toward patient-centric blood microsampling by providing high-yield plasma filtration, potentially allowing reliable detection of low-concentration analytes from a blood microsample.

  • 48.
    Hauser, Janosch
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Lenk, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ullah, Shahid
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Clin Pharmacol, S-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Beck, Olof
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Clin Pharmacol, S-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    An Autonomous Microfluidic Device for Generating Volume-Defined Dried Plasma Spots2019In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 91, no 11, p. 7125-7130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obtaining plasma from a blood sample and preparing it for subsequent analysis is currently a laborious process involving experienced health-care professionals and centrifugation. We circumvent this by utilizing capillary forces and microfluidic engineering to develop an autonomous plasma sampling device that filters and stores an exact amount of plasma as a dried plasma spot (DPS) from a whole blood sample in less than 6 min. We tested 24 prototype devices with whole blood from 10 volunteers, various input volumes (40-80 mu L), and different hematocrit levels (39-45%). The resulting mean plasma volume, assessed gravimetrically, was 11.6 mu L with a relative standard deviation similar to manual pipetting (3.0% vs 1.4%). LC-MS/MS analysis of caffeine concentrations in the generated DPS (12 duplicates) showed a strong correlation (R-2 = 0.99) to, but no equivalence with, concentrations prepared from corresponding plasma obtained by centrifugation. The presented autonomous DPS device may enable patient-centric plasma sampling through minimally invasive finger-pricking and allow generatation of volume-defined DPS for quantitative blood analysis.

  • 49.
    Hauser, Janosch
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Lenk, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ullah, Shahid
    Beck, Olof
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    An Autonomous microfluidic device for generating volume-defined dried plasma spots (DPS)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Hauser, Janosch
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A BLOOD HEMATOCRIT TEST STRIP2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a self-propelled microfluidichematocrit (HCT) test that uses the correlation betweenblood hematocrit and wicking distance of blood in a specialpaper matrix. The enabling feature is a novel blood volumemetering method that allows sampling from the fingertipand reliably generates a highly precise blood volume of47.7 ± 1.9 μl (CV 4%) that is transferred into a porouspaper matrix. A dissolvable valve ensures a relaxed timewindow for blood sampling, making it highly user-friendlyand resilient to overfilling. The presented hematocrit teststrip poses a simple, cheap, equipment-free solution forpatient-centric hematocrit measurements.

123 1 - 50 of 121
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