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  • 1. Chetty, Sylvie
    et al.
    Eriksson, Kent
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The effect of specificity of experience on a firm's perceived importance of institutional knowledge in an ongoing business2006In: Journal of International Business Studies, ISSN 0047-2506, E-ISSN 1478-6990, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 699-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how three types of firm experience, ranging from the specific to the general, influence the perceived importance of institutional knowledge in the ongoing business of internationalising firms based on a sample of 101 small-to-medium-sized firms. The three types of firm experiences are international, country and ongoing business. The results show that firm experience within the ongoing business, and the experience from multiple past business deals in various countries, develop institutional knowledge, whereas experience from multiple past business deals in a specific country does not. The theoretical contribution of this paper is that it establishes a link between different kinds of experience and managerial cognition in terms of institutional knowledge. In addition, it emphasises that firms develop institutional knowledge from multiple diverse country experiences, and experience in the specific ongoing business rather than experiences at the level of the country.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Hohenthal, Jukka
    Uppsala Universitet, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Factors Affecting SME Export Channel Choice in Foreign Markets2006In: Advances in International Marketing, ISSN 1474-7979, Vol. 16, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining market channels is usually considered a discrete decision made by the expanding firm (e.g., Anderson & Coughlan, 1987; Bello & Gilliland, 1997; Solberg & Nes, 2002). In reality, this decision is often limited by knowledge constraints and customer demands. We find an example of this in Gamma's attempt at entering the Italian market (Hohenthal, 2001). {A textbox is presented}. Gamma's attempted entry into Italy is not a unique situation facing internationalizing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The array of possible channels is usually rather limited. A firm's decision regarding what channel to use may be the result of the firm's knowledge or indeed lack of knowledge about a specific customer and the foreign market in general, such as competitors or cultural differences. The internationalization process (IP) model is a theoretical framework that recognizes how a firm's knowledge of a foreign market and the influence business relationships may have on the choice of market channel (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977, 1990, 2003). This framework postulates that firms with increased experience will increase their commitment in a market. Because firms wish to avoid uncertainty and initially lack foreign market knowledge, the IP model claims that firms expand their operations in small sequential steps, starting with no regular export activities and gradually increasing their commitment to the market and finally setting up a manufacturing subsidiary (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977; Johanson & Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975). This outcome of sequential steps, also known as the establishment chain (Johanson & Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975), has been heavily criticized because empirical research has shown that the establishment patterns of firms are less restricted than proposed by the model (Björkman, 1989; Hedlund & Kverneland, 1985; Turnbull, 1987; Welch & Loustarinen, 1988). Even though firms use a variety of establishment patterns when internationalizing, a growing body of research shows that firms gradually develop knowledge from their experiences (Barkema, Bell, & Pennings, 1996; Barkema, Shenkar, Vermeulen, & Bell, 1997; Barkema & Vermeulen, 1998; Delios & Beamish, 1999, 2001; Eriksson, Johanson, Majkgård, & Sharma, 1997; Hitt, Dacin, Tyler, & Park, 1997; Madhok, 1996; Zahra, Ireland, & Hitt, 2000). Thus, the model's fundamental argument that knowledge is developed through experience is generally supported in internationalization research. Based on the critique of the establishment chain proposition, reconsidering the explanatory power of the IP model may be warranted. For example, it may be more appropriate to use the IP model to explain the sequential buildup of knowledge rather than discrete choices of mode of establishment. The accumulation of experience occurs before, during, and after the exact time when a decision to establish in a certain mode is made. Despite the extensive acceptance of behavioral-oriented arguments in foreign-entry mode research (export, joint venture, and subsidiary modes), surprisingly few studies have been conducted on the determinants of integrated and non-integrated channels (see Aulakh & Kotabe, 1997, for notable exception). Thus, a behavioral-oriented approach to the study of firms' choices of market channels in foreign markets may prove enlightening. Adopting this approach is of particular interest because transaction-cost analysis has proved effective in explaining why firms choose either integrated or non-integrated channels (Hennart, 1991). Therefore, the question that needs to be answered is whether or not the IP model can be used to explain why firms choose integrated or non-integrated channels. If the IP model cannot be applied in this case, it should be clarified that this model can be used to explain sequential knowledge accumulation through experience but nothing else. The purpose of this study is to test which IP-related antecedents lead to the use of a specific channel in a foreign market. The two alternatives tested here are integrated and non-integrated channels. To accomplish this objective, we apply an IP approach to international business and then discuss channel choice from a knowledge perspective. Several hypotheses are developed concerning channel choice and tested on a sample of SMEs from Sweden, Denmark, and New Zealand. We use logistic regression to analyze our data. Based on this analysis, we present a discussion of our results and some managerial and research implications.

  • 3.
    Hohenthal, Jukka
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    International Experience and the Recognition of Business Opportunities in Foreign Markets: A study of SME’s International Experiences and Location Choice2005In: Managing opportunity development in business networks / [ed] Johanson, J and Hadjikani, A, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Jonsson, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The Development of Social Capital and Financing of Entrepreneurial Firms: From Financial Bootstrapping to Bank Funding2013In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 661-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a three-dimensional perspective on social capital to investigate how entrepreneurs develop their social capital when relying on bootstrapping strategies becomes insufficient and financing needs to be acquired from external debt and equity financiers. Findings from six case studies of entrepreneurs in the fashion industry show that to acquire funding, due to perceived deficiency in the existing network, entrepreneurs develop the structural dimension by adding relationships based on function. However, when seeking financial information that is perceived as sufficient in the existing network, they do so by developing cognitive and relational dimensions to preexisting network ties.

  • 5.
    Jonsson, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The impact of institutional impediments and information and knowledge exchange on SMEs’ investments in international business relationships2010In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 548-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of institutional impediments and of knowledge and information exchange in international business relationships on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) specific investments in international business relationships and the outcome of such investments on the performance of SMEs. Using a sample of 255 internationalising SMEs, we develop and test three hypotheses with the linear structural relations (LISREL) model. The analysis shows that institutional impediments and the exchange of knowledge and information in business relationships lead to increased relationship specific investments (RSIs). Furthermore, such investment results in increased performance for the internationalising SME. Research commonly uses micro or macro properties of institutions to explain how institutional differences affect international business; however, limited research has been devoted to investigate how institutional differences, experienced through interaction in business relationships, affect the business relationship. This paper helps to close this gap by showing the effects of institutional differences on a relational level.

  • 6.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    Uppsala University.
    Overcoming Cultural Ignorance: Institutional Knowledge Development in the Internationalizing Firm2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies how experiences influence the development of institutional knowledge within business relationships. It contributes to international business research by clarifying how experience develops the institutional knowledge of firms and what outcome such knowledge development has on firms’ internationalizations. The thesis identifies a need to distinguish between different types of experiences when investigating institutional knowledge development. In addition, the thesis compares different types of knowledge with institutional knowledge as to understand how firms learn to overcome cultural ignorance. The empirical setting consists of quantitative research of small- and medium sized firms. The findings show that market-specific experiences increases a firm’s institutional knowledge whereas experiences of multiple markets contribute to the firm’s perception of a greater need of institutional knowledge when conducting business with their specific partner. However, these experience effects are influenced by firms’ mode of operation (export vs. subsidiaries) in the international markets and mediated by cultural distance. Furthermore, the results show that despite the increased complexity that experiences of multiple markets lead to, such experiences increase a firm’s competence in foreign institutional environments. In addition, the findings show that firms lacking in ability to adapt their business also perceives a lack of knowledge about a country’s institutions and the customer.

  • 7.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lindstrand, Angelika
    Stockholm School of Economics, Department of Marketing and Strategy.
    Hur kan banken utveckla små och medelstora företagskunders internationella affärer2009In: Finanssektorns roll i samhällsbyggandet / [ed] Eriksson, Kent,Söderberg, Inga-Lill, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2009, p. 40-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Nahum, Ruth-Aida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Sandgren, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Population ageing: Opportunities and challenges for retail banking2008In: International Journal of Bank Marketing, ISSN 0265-2323, E-ISSN 1758-5937, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 6-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper seeks to shed light on the challenges and opportunities demographic transitions bring about to the banking sector. Increasing life expectancy, coupled with an increasing old age dependency ratio has implications for the demand for financial services. This opens a window of opportunity for the banking sector to adjust its services so as to meet these changes and reap the benefit of demographic changes. Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses demographic forecasts made by the United Nations Population Division, to which are applied established economic models on life cycle behaviour. Based on the findings, light is shed on potential scenarios that banks may encounter. Findings - The life cycle models predict a higher overall asset accumulation level and a higher savings level, at least initially, in an ageing population. Other life cycle behaviour models point out that individuals' risk aversion increases with age, while evidence shows that population ageing exposes individuals to greater risks. This increases the need for households to appropriately diversify and manage the risks they face, and encourages the development of products that are better tailored to these growing needs. Originality/value - The paper proposes that banks can contribute to creating financial stability. Banks can participate in financial education and consequently increase households' motivation to save more and in better ways. Consumer demand encountered by banks is shifting from credit products to savings products. The investment packages currently offered by banks need to adapt to changing needs: combined annuity and life insurance packages are one option.

  • 9.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Nahum, Ruth-Aida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Sandgren-Massih, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Generationsöverföring av kapital och dess effekt på tillgångsmarknaden2009In: Finanssektorns roll i samhällsbyggandet / [ed] Eriksson, Kent, Söderberg, Inga-Lill, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2009, p. 168-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Lindstrand, Angelika
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Department of Marketing and Strategy.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    SMEs' dependency on banks during international expansion2011In: International Journal of Bank Marketing, ISSN 0265-2323, E-ISSN 1758-5937, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 64-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether banks are needed as partners for internationalising small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and, if so, in what ways they affect SMEs. The purpose can, in a wider sense, shed light on institutions' intermediating functions for transactions in the economy, both locally and internationally. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was distributed to Swedish SMEs involved in international activities. A sample of 318 SMEs was used. The results are presented as descriptive statistics and by using t-tests. Findings: The findings show that banks are the least used source of information for internationalising SMEs. The results also show that banks do not participate in SME business networks when SMEs are internationalising. SMEs that have been dependent on banks when developing their international business relationships, however, tend to have previously depended on the bank when conducting business. Practical implications: It is believed there is much to be gained, both for SMEs and banks, in developing their business exchange and reciprocal understanding. The bank can make SME international operations and financial situations flow more efficiently. This in turn may improve SME growth, thus creating more business opportunities between banks and SMEs. Originality/value: The study fills a gap in the literature and knowledge concerning banks' effects on SMEs' internationalisation.

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