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  • 1.
    Asplund, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Optimization of MOVPE-grown GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells for 1.3-μm laser applications2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of high group-V precursor flows during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial growthof GaInNAs QWs are investigated. It is shown that photoluminescence line width, waferuniformity, and sensitivity to growth temperature can be improved using V/III ratios in excess of2000. Broad area GaInNAdGaAs SQW lasers with dimensions 100 x 820 pm2 grown under theseconditions have threshold current densities as low as 660 kA/cm2 at 1.26 pm emission wavelength.

  • 2.
    Asplund, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mogg, Sebastian
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Christiansson, Ulf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Oscarsson, V.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Runnström, C.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Odling, E.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Malmquist, J.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    1260 nm InGaAs vertical-cavity lasers2002In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 38, no 13, p. 635-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The fabrication and performance of highly strained double-quantum well InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity lasers with record-long emission wavelength of 1260 nm at room temperature is reported. Depending on device diameter, the minimum threshold current is in the low mA-regime while the maximum output power exceeds 1 mW. The devices work continuous-wave over a wide temperature range of at least 10-120degrees C.

  • 3. Bernabé, S.
    et al.
    Stevens, R.
    Volpert, M.
    Hamelin, R.
    Rossat, C.
    Berger, F.
    Lombard, L.
    Kopp, C.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Highly integrated VCSEL-based 10Gb/s miniature optical sub-assembly2005In: Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference, Lake Buena Vista, FL: IEEE , 2005, Vol. 2, p. 1333-1338Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to fit with the present and future needs of the Datacom transceiver market, newly designed high rate transmitter optical subassemblies (TOSAs) have to be compact, low cost and compatible with mass production. We propose here an innovative design strategy that reaches all these targets by integrating a 10Gbps 850nmVCSEL laser diode and its laser driver with other functionalities (e.g. power monitoring and thermal monitoring) in a small form factor package. Taking advantages of the optical properties of the VCSEL and using flip-chip techniques, the transmitter exhibits excellent hyperfrequency performances and compatibility with mass production due to the use of collective manufacturing technologies and passive optical alignment. This versatile approach is also applicable to high rate receivers, parallel optics emitters, and singlemode low cost transmitter integrating long wavelength VCSELs.

  • 4.
    Chacinski, Marek
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101), Photonics (Closed 20120101).
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101), Photonics (Closed 20120101).
    Kjebon, Olle
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    Marcks von Würtemberg, Rikard
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    1.3 um InGaAs VCSELs: Influence of the Large Gain-Cavity Detuning on the Modulation and Static Performance2004In: Proc. of 30th European Conference on Optical Communication 2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Chacinski, Marek
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Kjebon, Olle
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Marcks von Würtemberg, Rickard
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Mogg, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with temperature-tolerant modulation characteristics2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 86, no 21, p. 211109-1-211109-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic performance of InGaAs/GaAs 1.27 μ m single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is presented. In order to reach such a long wavelength, the devices utilize highly strained double-quantum wells and a large detuning between the material gain peak and cavity resonance. It is found that the large detuning improves the temperature stability of both static and modulation characteristics. A resonance frequency of 7.8-9.5 GHz and optical power of 0.30 mW in fiber was maintained throughout the investigated temperature range of 20-90 ° C. The intrinsic response of the device suggests that long-wavelength InGaAs/GaAs VCSELs have the potential to be used as low cost uncooled optical transmitters at 10 Gbit/s. © 2005 American Institute of Physics. © 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  • 6. Gilet, Ph.
    et al.
    Pougeoise, E.
    Grenouillet, L.
    Grosse, Ph.
    Olivier, N.
    Poncet, S.
    Chelnokov, A.
    Gerard, J. M.
    Stevens, R.
    Hamelin, R.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    1.3 μm VCSELs: InGaAs/GaAs, GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells and InAs/GaAs quantum dots- Three candidates as active material2007In: Vertical - Cavity Surface - Emitting Lasers XI, San Jose, CA, 2007, Vol. 6484, p. F4840-F4840Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we report our results on 1.3ÎŒm VCSELs for optical interconnection applications. Room temperature continuous-wave lasing operation is demonstrated for top emitting oxide-confined devices with three different active materials, highly strained InGaAs/GaAs(A) and GalnNAs/GaAs (B) multiple quantum wells (MQW) or InAs/GaAs (C) quantum dots (QD). Conventional epitaxial structures grown respectively by Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE), Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and MBE, contain rully doped GaAs/AlGaAs DBRs. All three epilayers are processed in the same way. Current and optical confinement are realized by selective wet oxidation. Circular apertures from 2 ÎŒm to 16 ÎŒm diameters are defined. At room temperature and in continuous wave operation, all three systems exhibit lasing operation at wavelengths above 1 275nm and reached 1 300nm for material (A). Typical threshold currents are in the range [1-10]mA and are strongly dependent firstly on oxide diameter and secondly on temperature. Room temperature cw maximum output power corresponds respectively to 1.77mW, 0.5mW and 0.6mW. By increasing driving current, multimode operation occurs at different level depending on the oxide diameter. In case (A), non conventional modal behaviors will be presented and explained by the presence of specific oxide modes. Thermal behaviors of the different devices have been compared. In case (A) and (C) we obtain a negative T0. We will conclude on the different active materials in terms of performances with respect to 1300nm VCSEL applications.

  • 7.
    Hammar, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    von Würtemberg, Rickard Marcks
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Larsson, A.
    Söderberg, E.
    Modh, P.
    Gustavsson, J.
    Ghisoni, M.
    Chitica, N.
    1.3-mu m InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers2005In: 2005 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (LEOS), 2005, p. 396-397Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the fabrication and performance of N-free InGaAs/GaAs 1.3-mu m range vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). Using optimized quantum-well (QW) growth conditions in combination with negative gain-cavity tuning, high-performance VCSELs with emission wavelength up to 1300 nm are realized. The performance figures include mA-range threshold currents, mW-range singlemode output power, continuous-wave operation up to 140 degrees C and 10 Gbit/s data transmission.

  • 8.
    Marcks von Würtemberg, Rickard
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Ghisoni, Marco
    Zarlink Semiconductor AB.
    Oscarsson, Vilhelm
    Zarlink Semiconductor AB.
    Ödling, Elsy
    Zarlink Semiconductor AB.
    Malmquist, Jessica
    Zarlink Semiconductor AB.
    Fabrication and performance of 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with InGaAs quantum well active regions grown on GaAs substrates2004In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 5443, p. 229-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the development of long-wavelength InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). Using highly strained double-quantum wells (DQWs) in combination with negative gain-cavity detuning we have been able to realise such VCSELs with emission wavelength up to 1300 nm. High-performance device characteristics include mW-range output power, mA-range threshold currents, 10 Gbit/s data transmission and very good temperature stability with continuous-wave operation up to at least 140degreesC. Singlemode emission is realised using an integrated mode filter consisting of a patterned silicon layer on the out-coupling mirror surface, yielding output power and threshold currents for 1270-nm devices of 1.2 - 0.5 mW and 2.3 - 0.6 mA, respectively, over a temperature interval of 10 - 140degreesC. Multimode devices have been found to deliver more than 2 mW at 1290 nm. Preliminary lifetime measurements do not reveal any intrinsic reliability problems related to the highly strained quantum wells.

  • 9.
    Marcks von Würtemberg, Rickard
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Ghisoni, Marco
    Ödling, Elsy
    Oscarsson, Vilhelm
    Malmquist, Jessica
    1.3 μm InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with mode filter for single mode operation2004In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 85, no 21, p. 4851-4853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the performance and analysis of 1.3 mum range InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with an integrated mode filter consisting of a patterned silicon layer on the top distributer Bragg reflector. In this way, 1 mW of single mode power is obtained from a device with a wavelength of 1265 nm and a threshold current of 2.6 mA at room temperature. An effective index model is used to extract the internal and external losses of the VCSEL structure and to predict the modal losses with and without mode filter, thereby providing a useful design tool for single mode VCSELs.

  • 10.
    Mogg, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Chitica, Nicolae
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Christiansson, Ulf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Asplund, Carl
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Temperature sensitivity of the threshold current of long-wavelength InGaAs/GaAs VCSELs with large gain-cavity detuning2004In: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, ISSN 0018-9197, E-ISSN 1558-1713, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 453-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Record-long emission wavelengths up to 1.3 mhaverecently been demonstrated from highly strained InGaAs–GaAsdouble-quantum-well (DQW) vertical-cavity surface-emittinglasers (VCSELs). The operation of InGaAs VCSELs at suchlong wavelengths has relied on a large detuning between thespectral positions of QW gain maximum and cavity resonance.This detuning also affects the high-temperature performance andtemperature sensitivity of such devices. In this paper, we presentand evaluate the threshold current–temperature characteristicof such lasers in relation to the gain-cavity detuning at roomtemperature (RT). For a near-zero gain peak offset from theemission wavelength at RT, the minimum threshold current isfound at the temperature where the gain peak wavelength and thecavity resonance are approximately aligned. This is well in linewith a common design rule for GaAs-based VCSELs. However,we show that this design rule fails in the case of larger gain-cavitymisalignment at RT. Instead, a minimum threshold current is obtainedconsiderably below the temperature of zero gain offset. Wepropose a conceptual model that relates the gain-cavity detuning atRT to the temperature sensitivity of the active region performance,which qualitatively describes the threshold current–temperaturecharacteristic typical of VCSELs. The results demonstrate theimportance of improving the temperature characteristic of theactive region in order to reduce the high temperature sensitivityof devices with large detuning.

  • 11.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mion, Gaël
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sun, YanTing
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Baskar, Krishnan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Armani, N.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Selective area growth of GaInNAs/GaAs by MOVPE2004In: Physica. E, Low-Dimensional systems and nanostructures, ISSN 1386-9477, E-ISSN 1873-1759, Vol. 23, no 04-mar, p. 347-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective area growth (SAG) of GaInNAs/GaAs systems has been studied by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) for the first time. This also includes a comparative study of SAG of the GaInAs/GaAs. The patterns consisted of various filling factors (F). The band gap changes and the growth morphology have been investigated. A red-shift observed for SAG GaInAs is similar to100 nm with respect to the planar GaInAs which can be attributed to both In enrichment and quantum well (QW) thickness enhancement. Selectively grown GaInNAs structures exhibit a maximum wavelength of 1.3 mum, corresponding to a red-shift of similar to80 nm with respect to the planar GaInNAs. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) scans reveal a three-dimensional growth behaviour for SAG GaInNAs unlike SAG GaInAs. This can be related to a certain amount of phase separation or strain that are often the signatures of N incorporation. The cathodoluminescence (CL) intensities (spectral line width) for SAG GaInNAs are larger (smaller) than those for SAG GaInAs at low F's but smaller (larger) at high F's. This indicates that at low F's, GaInAs has degraded due to very high strain but certain amount of strain compensation occurs in GaInNAs.

  • 12. Pougeoise, E.
    et al.
    Gilet, P.
    Grosse, P.
    Grenouillet, L.
    Chelnokov, A.
    Gerard, J. -M
    Bouillard, J. -S
    Lerondel, G.
    Blaize, S.
    Vilain, S.
    Bachelot, R.
    Royer, P.
    Hamelin, R.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Experimental study of the lasing modes of 1.3-ÎŒm highly strained InGaAs-GaAs quantum-well oxide-confined VCSELs2009In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 377-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an experimental study of the main modes involved in the emission properties of InGaAs-GaAs quantum-well oxide-confined long wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. Lasing properties are dominated by the so-called "oxide modes" and by aperture modes, respectively, for small and large driving currents. We present complementary investigations of the laser emission including far-field angular distribution and spectroscopic near-field optical microscopy to a better understanding of the nature of the "oxide modes."

  • 13. Pougeoise, E.
    et al.
    Gilet, Ph.
    Grosse, Ph.
    Poncet, S.
    Chelnokov, A.
    Gérard, J. -M
    Bourgcois, G.
    Stevens, R.
    Hamelin, R.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    1.3 ÎŒm strained InGaAs quantum well VCSELs: Operation characteristics and transverse modes analysis2006In: Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers X / [ed] Lei, C; Choquette, KD, San Jose, CA, 2006, Vol. 6132, p. 13207-13207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report results on strained InGaAs quantum well Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) for optical interconnection applications. The structure was grown by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and processed as top p-type DBR oxide-confined device. Our VCSELs exhibit low threshold currents and deliver up to 1.77 mW in continuous wave operation at room temperature. Fundamental mode continuous-wave lasing at wavelengths beyond 1300 nm is demonstrated at room temperature. The thermal behaviour of our devices is explained through the threshold current-temperature characteristics. Furthermore, the effective index model is used to understand the modal behaviour.

  • 14. Pougeoise, E.
    et al.
    Gilet, Ph.
    Grosse, Ph.
    Poncet, S.
    Chelnokov, A.
    Gérard, J. -M
    Bourgeois, G.
    Stevens, R.
    Hamelin, R.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Vilain, S.
    Bouillard, J. -S
    Lerondel, G.
    Bachelot, R.
    Royer, P.
    Experimental characteristics and analysis of transverse modes in 1.3 μm strained InGaAs quantum well VCSELs2006In: Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of optical interconnection applications, we report on results obtained on strained InGaAs quantum well Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). Our devices are top p-type DBR oxide-confined VCSEL, grown by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). These lasers exhibit low threshold currents and deliver up to 1.77 mW in continuous wave operation at room temperature. Fundamental mode continuous-wave lasing at wavelengths beyond 1300 nm at room temperature is reached for a 4 μm oxide diameter VCSEL. The particular design of the active layer based on a large detuning between the gain maximum and the cavity resonance gives our devices a very specific thermal and modal behaviour. Therefore, we study the spectral and spatial distributions of the transverse modes by near field scanning optical microscopy using a micropolymer tip at the end of an optical fibre.

  • 15.
    Salomonsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Asplund, Carl
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Plaine, Glenn Yves
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mogg, Sebastian
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    Low-threshold, high-temperature operation of 1.2 mu m InGaAs vertical cavity lasers2001In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 37, no 15, p. 957-958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth and characterisation of high performance InGaAs/GaAs quantum-well vertical cavity lasers with an emission wavelength of 1215 nm is reported. Continuous wave operation is demonstrated up to 105°C with a threshold current below 1 mA for T < 80°C. For a 2.5 μm device the room temperature threshold current, output power and slope efficiency is 0.6 mA, 0.6 mW and 0.2 W/A, respectively.

  • 16.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Development of 1.3-μm GaAs-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are desirable as low-cost sources for optical metropolitan-area and access networks. In the development of 1.3-µm VCSELs, most attention today is given to monolithic GaAs-based solutions, although no established active material exists in this wavelength region. This thesis investigates the possibility of reaching the 1.3-µm telecom wavelength window using GaInNAs quantum wells (QWs) or 1.2-µm InGaAs QWs in conjunction with negative gain-cavity detuning in VCSELs. The work includes metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy and characterization of InGaAs and GaInNAs QWs, realization of 1.3-µm InGaAs VCSELs as well as elements of optimization and analysis of such lasers. The evaluation of GaInNAs and InGaAs QWs has been performed using a number of characterization methods such as photoluminescence (PL), high-resolution x-ray diffraction, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy as well as fabrication and evaluation of broad-area lasers (BALs).

    Both performance and growth reproducibility of GaInNAs QWs are considered and could be improved by using high V/III ratios. Nontrivial relations between PL and laser performance are pointed out and the technologically important but problematic combination of AlGaAs and GaInNAs in the same epitaxial structure is studied. Parallel to the work on GaInNAs, the possibility of extending the wavelength of InGaAs QWs towards 1.3 µm has been investigated. Generally better luminescence efficiency and laser performance are obtained for InGaAs than for GaInNAs QWs, but the gain-peak wavelength for InGaAs QWs is presently limited to about 1.24 µm due to strain-induced degradation. In this work the InGaAs QW growth is optimized for long wavelength and high luminescence. It is demonstrated that multiple QW structures can be grown with strain similar to that of single QWs, which is interesting for VCSEL applications. Record BALs with two to five InGaAs/GaAs QWs have low threshold current densities,  70 A/cm2 per QW at 1.24 µm. The main advantage of InGaAs QWs compared to GaInNAs QWs is that they represent a better-known material system with less complex and more stable growth. However, InGaAs QWs > 1.2 µm are on the verge of strain relaxation, and the possible consequences for laser production and reliability have to be considered.

    Using 1.2-µm InGaAs QWs, high-performance 1.3-µm VCSELs were achieved by negative gain-cavity detuning. Dynamic performance and surface reliefs to improve the single-mode operation have been investigated. The VCSELs have excellent high-temperature performance due to a smaller spectral distance between the gain-peak and the laser mode at elevated temperature. More specifically, a 1.27-µm single-mode device showed maximum output powers of 1.1 and 0.5 mW at 20 and 140ºC, which is state-of-the-art for GaAs-based long-wavelength VCSELs.

    In all, two methods for 1.3-µm GaAs-based VCSELs, GaInNAs and InGaAs QWs, have been investigated. GaInNAs is a difficult material but is still promising and several companies have predicted a near-future market introduction. However, the growth of GaInNAs is both complex and sensitive to growth fluctuations. On the other hand, gain-cavity detuned InGaAs-QW VCSELs show state-of-the-art performance at 1260-1290 nm with straightforward growth and processing. The devices exhibit good static and dynamic performance, and preliminary reliability tests indicate that there is no intrinsic problem. Both approaches are promising for application in real-world optical networks and deserve further attention.

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  • 17.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Asplund, Carl
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Baskar, Krishnan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Morphological instability of GaInNAs quantum wells on Al-containing layers grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 82, no 15, p. 2431-2433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical and structural integrity of metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy-grown GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum wells on AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) was reported. Photoluminescence and surface morphology were investigated for different numbers of DBR periods and different DBR-growth temperatures. It was found that decreasing the DBR-growth temperature lowers the surface concentration of Al and improves the GaInNAs quantum-well morphology.

  • 18.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Asplund, Carl
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mogg, Sebastian
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Plaine, Glenn-Yves
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Low-temperature growth of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells for 1.3-μm lasers using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy2001In: Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2001. IPRM. IEEE International Conference On, 2001, p. 563-566Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GaInNAs/GaAs quantum-well (QW) lasers emitting at 1.3 μm were grown using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in the limit of very low growth rate and temperature. The material was characterized by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as well as by implementation in broad-area (BA) edge-emitting lasers. While the PL intensity was found to decrease by more than two orders of magnitude between 1175 and 1350 nm, the corresponding BA laser threshold current showed a much more modest increase. For a 1.28-μm laser the transparency current was 0.8 kA/cm2, the slope efficiency 0.24 W/A per facet and T0=100 K. Comparison between PL emission properties and BA laser performance revealed a complex relationship. A high PL intensity does not necessarily lead to low threshold-current lasers. In these cases, the FWHM seems to be the more relevant parameter for QW optimization

  • 19.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Goldman, Peter M.O.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Highly strained InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum-wells for laser applications in the 1200-1300-nm wavelength regime2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 071104-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy growth optimization and properties of highly strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum-well (QW) structures with emission wavelength beyond 1200 nm. It is observed that a sufficiently high V/III ratio in combination with low growth temperature is critical for preserved layer integrity when increasing the strain. Multiple QWs with up to five wells are realized without any degradation in photoluminescence intensity or broad-area laser performance at an emission wavelength of 1240 nm with threshold current density below 70 A/cm(2) per well.

  • 20.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Optimization of highly strained InGaAs quantum wells for 1.3-μm vertical-cavity lasers2003In: Proc. 10th European Workshop on Metalorganic Vapour Phase Epitaxy, Lecce, Italy, 8-11 June 2003, 2003, p. 247-250Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Marcks von Würtemberg, Rickard
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Ghisoni, Marco
    Zarlink Semiconductor AB.
    Oscarsson, Vilhelm
    Zarlink Semiconductor AB.
    Ödling, Elsy
    Zarlink Semiconductor AB.
    Malmquist, Jessica
    Zarlink Semiconductor AB.
    High-performance 1.3-μm InGaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers2003In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 39, no 15, p. 1128-1129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A report is presented on high-performance InGaAs/GaAs double quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with record long emission wavelengths up to 1300 nm. Due to a large gain-cavity detuning these VCSELs show excellent temperature performance with very stable threshold current and output power characteristics. For 1.27 mum singlemode devices the threshold current is found to decrease from 2 to 1 mA between 10 and 90degreesC, while the peak output power only drops from 1 to 0.6 mW Large-area 1300 nm VCSELs show multimode output power close to 3 mW.

1 - 21 of 21
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