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  • 1. Alessi, D.
    et al.
    Berrill, M.
    Wang, Y.
    Domingue, S. R.
    Martz, Dale
    National Science Foundation ERC for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, Colorado State University.
    Luther, B. M.
    Meng, L.
    Guilbaud, O.
    Klisnick, A.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Beam Characteristics of an Injection-Seeded Solid-Target Plasma Soft X-Ray Laser2010In: 2010 23RD ANNUAL MEETING OF THE IEEE PHOTONICS SOCIETY, 2010, 341-342 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured the near-field and far-field profiles (for lambda=13.9 nm) as well as temporal coherence (for lambda=18.9 nm) of injection-seeded and self-seeded solid-target amplifiers. The measurements were compared with model simulations.

  • 2. Alessi, D.
    et al.
    Martz, Dale
    National Science Foundation ERC for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology.
    Luther, B.
    Wang, Y.
    Berrill, M.
    Kemp, D.
    Patel, D.
    Menoni, C. S.
    Rocca, J. J.
    High Energy 13.9 nm Table-top Soft X-ray Laser Operating at 2.5 Hz Repetition Rate2010In: 2010 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (QELS), 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated table-top generation of λ = 13.9 nm laser pulses with 7 μJ energyat 2.5 Hz repetition rate from nickel-like ions in a laser-created plasma that will enable new applications of coherent soft x-ray light on a table-top. 

  • 3. Alessi, D
    et al.
    Martz, Dale
    Colorado State Univ, Engn Res Ctr Extreme Ultraviolet Sci & Technol.
    Wang, Y
    Berrill, M
    Luther, B M
    Rocca, J J
    Gain-saturated 10.9 nm tabletop laser operating at 1 Hz repetition rate2010In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 35, no 3, 414-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the demonstration of a gain-saturated 10.9 nm tabletop soft x-ray laser operating at 1 Hz repetition rate. Lasing occurs by collisional electron impact excitation in the 4dS01-->4pP11 transition of nickel-like Te in a line-focus plasma heated by a chirped-pulse-amplification Ti:sapphire laser. With an average power of 1muW and pulse energy up to approximately 2microJ, this laser extends the ability to conduct tabletop laser experiments to a shorter wavelength.

  • 4. Alessi, D.
    et al.
    Meng, L. M.
    Wang, Y.
    Guilbaud, O.
    Berrill, M.
    Domingue, S. R.
    Martz, Dale
    National Science Foundation ERC for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology.
    Luther, B. M.
    Joyeux, D.
    De Rossi, S.
    Klisnick, A.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Spectral Linewidth Measurement of an Injection-Seeded Transient 18.9 nm Soft X-Ray Laser2011In: 2011 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The linewidth of an injection-seeded 18.9nm molybdenum soft x-ray laser (SXRL) was measured to be significantly wider than seeded optical field ionization SXRLs that use gaseous targets, an advantage for the development of sub-picosecond SXRLs.

  • 5. Alessi, D.
    et al.
    Wang, Y.
    Luther, B. M.
    Yin, L.
    Martz, D. H.
    epartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
    Woolston, M. R.
    Liu, Y.
    Berrill, M.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Efficient Excitation of Gain-Saturated Sub-9-nm-Wavelength Tabletop Soft-X-Ray Lasers and Lasing Down to 7.36 nm2011In: PHYSICAL REVIEW X, ISSN 2160-3308, Vol. 1, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated the efficient generation of sub-9-nm-wavelength picosecond laser pulses of microjoule energy at 1-Hz repetition rate with a tabletop laser. Gain-saturated lasing was obtained at λ=8.85  nm in nickel-like lanthanum ions excited by collisional electron-impact excitation in a precreated plasma column heated by a picosecond optical laser pulse of 4-J energy. Furthermore, isoelectronic scaling along the lanthanide series resulted in lasing at wavelengths as short as λ=7.36  nm. Simulations show that the collisionally broadened atomic transitions in these dense plasmas can support the amplification of subpicosecond soft-x-ray laser pulses.

  • 6. Berrill, Mark
    et al.
    Alessi, David
    Wang, Yong
    Domingue, Scott R.
    Martz, Dale H.
    Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Colorado State University.
    Luther, Brad M.
    Liu, Yanwei
    Rocca, Jorge J.
    Improved beam characteristics of solid-target son x-ray laser amplifiers by injection seeding with high harmonic pulses2010In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 35, no 14, 2317-2319 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Injection seeding of solid-target soft x-ray laser amplifiers with high harmonic pulses is shown to dramatically improve the far-field laser beam profile and reduce the beam divergence. Measurements and two-dimensional simulations for a 13.9 nm nickel-like Ag amplifier show that the amplified beam divergence depends strongly on the seed and can therefore be controlled by selecting the divergence of the seed. The near-field beam size of both the seeded and unseeded lasers is shown to be determined by the size of the gain region and the divergence of the amplified beams.

  • 7. Brewer, Courtney A.
    et al.
    Brizuela, Fernando
    Martz, Dale
    NSF ERC for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University.
    Vaschenko, Georgiy
    Marconi, Mario C.
    Chao, Weilun
    Anderson, Erik H.
    Attwood, David T.
    Vinogradov, Alexander V.
    Artioukov, Igor A.
    Pershyn, Yuriy P.
    Kondratenko, Valeriy V.
    Rocca, Jorge J.
    Menoni, Carmen S.
    High spatial resolution full-field microscopy using a desktop-size soft x-ray laser2007In: Proceedings of SPIE: The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2007, Vol. 6702Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Images with nanoscale resolution were obtained in both transmission and reflection modes using a full-field microscope that is illuminated by an extremely compact λ = 46.9 nm (hv = 26.4 eV) soft x-ray laser. The microscope was used to image the surface of partially processed silicon semiconductor chips containing periodic patterns of polysilicon and metal lines. To characterize the microscope, modulation transfer functions were experimentally built for three different objective zone plates, and images with near-wavelength resolution were obtained.

  • 8. Brewer, Courtney A.
    et al.
    Brizuela, Fernando
    Wachulak, Przemyslaw
    Martz, Dale H.
    Natl. Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, Colorado State University.
    Chao, Weilun
    Anderson, Erik H.
    Attwood, David T.
    Vinogradov, Alexander V.
    Artyukov, Igor A.
    Ponomareko, Alexander G.
    Kondratenko, Valeriy V.
    Marconi, Mario C.
    Rocca, Jorge J.
    Menoni, Carmen S.
    Single-shot extreme ultraviolet laser imaging of nanostructures with wavelength resolution2008In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 33, no 5, 518-520 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated near-wavelength resolution microscopy in the extreme ultraviolet. Images of 50 nm diameter nanotubes were obtained with a single ~1 ns duration pulse from a desktop-size 46.9 nm laser. We measured the modulation transfer function of the microscope for three different numerical aperture zone plate objectives, demonstrating that 54 nm half-period structures can be resolved. The combination of near-wavelength spatial resolution and high temporal resolution opens myriad opportunities in imaging, such as the ability to directly investigate dynamics of nanoscale structures.

  • 9. Brizuela, F.
    et al.
    Brewer, C.
    Fernandez, S.
    Martz, Dale
    NSF Engineering Research Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University.
    Marconi, M.
    Chao, W.
    Anderson, E. H.
    Vinogradov, A. V.
    Artyukov, I. A.
    Ponomareko, A. G.
    Kondratenko, V. V.
    Attwood, D. T.
    Bertness, K. A.
    Sanford, N. A.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Menonil, C. S.
    High resolution full-field imaging of nanostructures using compact extreme ultraviolet lasers2009In: 9TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON X-RAY MICROSCOPY / [ed] David, C; Nolting, F; Quitmann, C; Stampanoni, M; Pfeiffer, F, 2009, Vol. 186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in the development of high peak brightness table-top extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray (SRX) lasers have opened new opportunities for the demonstration of compact full-field EUV/SXR microscopes capable of capturing images with short exposures down to a single laser shot. We demonstrate the practical application of table-top zone plate EUV microscopes that can image nanostructures with a spatial resolution of 54 nm and below and exposure times as short as 1.2 ns, the duration of a single laser shot.

  • 10. Brizuela, F.
    et al.
    Brewer, C.
    Martz, Dale
    NSF ERC for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University.
    Marconi, M. C.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Menoni, C. S.
    Chao, W.
    Anderson, E. H.
    Attwood, D. T.
    Vinogradov, A. V.
    Artioukov, A.
    Ponomareko, A. G.
    Kondratenko, V. V.
    Near-wavelength Resolution Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging With a Desktop-size Laser2008In: 2008 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS & QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-9, 2008, 400-401 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have realized the first demonstration of imaging in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) with near-wavelength spatial resolution, 54 nm, using a uniquely compact full-field microscope that can produce images with a single one nanosecond exposure.

  • 11. Brizuela, Fernando
    et al.
    Carbajo, Sergio
    Sakdinawat, Anne
    Alessi, David
    Martz, Dale H.
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University.
    Wang, Yong
    Luther, Bradley
    Goldberg, Kenneth A.
    Mochi, Iacopo
    Attwood, David T.
    La Fontaine, Bruno
    Rocca, Jorge J.
    Menoni, Carmen S.
    Extreme ultraviolet laser-based table-top aerial image metrology of lithographic masks2010In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 18, no 14, 14467-14473 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have realized the first demonstration of a table-top aerial imaging microscope capable of characterizing pattern and defect printability in extreme ultraviolet lithography masks. The microscope combines the output of a 13.2 nm wavelength, table-top, plasma-based, EUV laser with zone plate optics to mimic the imaging conditions of an EUV lithographic stepper. We have characterized the illumination of the system and performed line-edge roughness measurements on an EUVL mask. The results open a path for the development of a compact aerial imaging microscope for high-volume manufacturing.

  • 12. Brizuela, Fernando
    et al.
    Carbajo, Sergio
    Sakdinawat, Anne
    Wang, Yong
    Alessi, David
    Martz, Dale
    Natl. Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University.
    Luther, Bradley
    Goldberg, Kenneth
    Attwood, David
    La Fontaine, Bruno
    Rocca, Jorge
    Menoni, Carmen
    Table-top Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Aerial Imaging of Lithographic Masks2010In: 2010 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (QELS), 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first at-wavelength line edge roughness measurements of patterned EUV lithography masks realized using a table-top aerial imaging system based on a table-top lambda=13.2 laser.

  • 13. Carbajo, S.
    et al.
    Brizuela, F.
    Martz, Dale
    NSF ERC for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University.
    Alessi, D.
    Wang, Y.
    Marconi, M. C.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Menoni, C. S.
    Sakdinawat, A.
    Anderson, E.
    Goldberg, K. A.
    Attwood, D. T.
    La Fontaine, B.
    Laser based aerial microscope for at-wavelength characterization of extreme ultraviolet lithography masks2010In: 2010 23RD ANNUAL MEETING OF THE IEEE PHOTONICS SOCIETY, 2010, 584-585 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a compact aerial full-field microscope based on a table-top 13.2 nmwavelength extreme ultraviolet laser and diffractive optics to characterize the printing performance of EUV lithographic masks.

  • 14.
    Fogelqvist, Emelie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Selin, Mårten
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Martz, Dale H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Christakou, Athanasia E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    The Stockholm laboratory cryo x-ray microscope: towards cell-cell interaction studies2013In: 11th International Conference On X-Ray Microscopy (XRM2012), Institute of Physics (IOP), 2013, 012054- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe recent improvements in the Stockholm laboratory x-ray microscope and the first experiments aiming towards studies of cell-cell interaction. The shorter exposure time due to a higher brightness laser-plasma source will become of large importance for tomography while the reproducible cryo preparation of few-cell samples is essential for the interaction studies.

  • 15. Heinbuch, S
    et al.
    Grisham, M
    Martz, Dale
    Rocca, J J
    Demonstration of a desk-top size high repetition rate soft x-ray laser2005In: Optics express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 13, no 11, 4050-4055 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated a new type of high repetition rate 46.9 nm capillary discharge laser that fits on top of a small desk and that it does not require a Marx generator for its excitation. The relatively low voltage required for its operation allows a reduction of nearly one order of magnitude in the size of the pulsed power unit relative to previous capillary discharge lasers. Laser pulses with an energy of ~ 13 microJ are generated at repetition rates up to 12 Hz. About (2-3) x 10 4 laser shots can be generated with a single capillary. This new type of portable laser is an easily accessible source of intense short wavelength laser light for applications.

  • 16.
    Hertz, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    von Hofsten, Olov
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Bertilson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Reinspach, Julia Antonia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Martz, Dale
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Selin, Mårten
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Christakou, Athanasia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Jerlström-Hultqvist, J
    Svärd, S
    Laboratory cryo soft X-ray microscopy2012In: Journal of Structural Biology, ISSN 1047-8477, E-ISSN 1095-8657, Vol. 177, no 2, 267-272 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lens-based water-window X-ray microscopy allows two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) imaging of intact unstained cells in their near-native state with unprecedented contrast and resolution. Cryofixation is essential to avoid radiation damage to the sample. Present cryo X-ray microscopes rely on synchrotron radiation sources, thereby limiting the accessibility for a wider community of biologists. In the present paper we demonstrate water-window cryo X-ray microscopy with a laboratory-source-based arrangement. The microscope relies on a lambda = 2.48-nm liquid-jet high-brightness laser-plasma source, normal-incidence multilayer condenser optics, 30-nm zone-plate optics, and a cryo sample chamber. We demonstrate 2D imaging of test patterns, and intact unstained yeast, protozoan parasites and mammalian cells. Overview 3D information is obtained by stereo imaging while complete 3D microscopy is provided by full tomographic reconstruction. The laboratory microscope image quality approaches that of the synchrotron microscopes, but with longer exposure times. The experimental image quality is analyzed from a numerical wave-propagation model of the imaging system and a path to reach synchrotron-like exposure times in laboratory microscopy is outlined.

  • 17. Legall, H.
    et al.
    Blobel, G.
    Stiel, H.
    Sandner, W.
    Seim, C.
    Takman, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Martz, Dale H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Selin, Mårten
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Esser, D.
    Sipma, H.
    Luttmann, J.
    Höfffer, M.
    Hoffmann, H. D.
    Yulin, S.
    Feigl, T.
    Rehbein, S.
    Guttmann, P.
    Schneider, G.
    Wiesemann, U.
    Wirtz, M.
    Diete, W.
    Compact X-ray microscope for the water window based on a high brightness laser plasma source2012In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 20, no 16, 18362-18369 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a laser plasma based x-ray microscope for the water window employing a high-average power laser system for plasma generation. At 90 W laser power a brightness of 7.4 x 10(11) photons/(s x sr x mu m(2)) was measured for the nitrogen Ly alpha line emission at 2.478 nm. Using a multilayer condenser mirror with 0.3 % reflectivity 10(6) photons/(mu m(2) x s) were obtained in the object plane. Microscopy performed at a laser power of 60 W resolves 40 nm lines with an exposure time of 60 s. The exposure time can be further reduced to 20 s by the use of new multilayer condenser optics and operating the laser at its full power of 130 W.

  • 18.
    Martz, Dale
    Colorado State University.
    DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH ENERGY TI:SAPPHIRE LASER FOR THE EXCITATION OF EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LASERS2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation describes the design, construction and characterization of a high energy chirped-pulse amplification Titanium-Sapphire laser system for the excitation of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lasers. Compact EUV lasers have made possible nano-scale imaging, dense plasma diagnostics and photo-chemistry and photo-physics studies. They also have the potential to make possible a variety of new studies of surfaces and materials and enable the development of unique metrology and processing tools for industry. The components developed to realize high energy operation of the Titanium-Sapphire laser include the development of a Nd:Glass zig-zag slab pump laser and novel 800 nm multi-layer dielectric diffraction gratings for picosecond compression.

    The Titanium-Sapphire laser was used to pump several table-top EUV lasers. Increased average power operation of a 13.9 nm nickel-like silver laser generating 20 ?W was demonstrated. This is the highest average power obtained from a compact EUV laser to date. Injection seeding of the 13.9 nm EUV amplifier produced laser beams with greatly improved beam characteristics which includes a large reduction in beam divergence and a near Gaussian far-field profile. The laser was also used to pump a gain-saturated table-top laser at 10.9 nm in nickel-like tellurium.

  • 19.
    Martz, Dale
    et al.
    Colorado State University.
    Alessi, D.
    Luther, B. M.
    Wang, Y.
    Kemp, D.
    Berrill, M.
    Rocca, J. J.
    High-energy 13.9 nm table-top soft-x-ray laser at 2.5 Hz repetition rate excited by a slab-pumped Ti:sapphire laser2010In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 35, no 10, 1632-1634 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated repetitive operation of a table-top lambda=13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft-x-ray laser that generates laser pulses with 10 microJ energy. The soft-x-ray laser is enabled by a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by high-repetition-rate frequency-doubled high-energy Nd:glass slab amplifiers. Soft-x-ray laser operation at 2.5 Hz repetition rate resulted in 20 microwatt average power.

  • 20. Martz, Dale
    et al.
    Alessi, D.
    Luther, B.
    Wang, Y.
    Berrill, M.
    Kemp, D.
    Patel, D.
    Menoni, C. S.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Table-top soft X-ray laser operating at 13.9 nm with increased average power2010In: 2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, PHOTINICS 2010, IEEE , 2010, 339-340 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated a lambda=13.9 nm table-top laser with pulse energies above 10 mu J in a laser created Ag plasma. Operation at 2.5 Hz resulted in an average power of 20 mu W.

  • 21.
    Martz, Dale H.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Selin, Mårten
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    von Hofsten, Olov
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Fogelqvist, Emelie
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Legall, H.
    Blobel, G.
    Seim, C.
    Stiel, H.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    High average brightness water window source for short-exposure cryomicroscopy2012In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 37, no 21, 4425-4427 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory water window cryomicroscopy has recently demonstrated similar image quality as synchrotron-based microscopy but still with much longer exposure times, prohibiting the spread to a wider scientific community. Here we demonstrate high-resolution laboratory water window imaging of cryofrozen cells with 10 s range exposure times. The major improvement is the operation of a lambda = 2.48 nm, 2 kHz liquid nitrogen jet laser plasma source with high spatial and temporal stability at high average brightness >1.5 x 10(12) ph/(s x sr x mu m(2) x line), i.e., close to that of early synchrotrons. Thus, this source enables not only biological x-ray microscopy in the home laboratory but potentially other applications previously only accessible at synchrotron facilities.

  • 22.
    Martz, Dale
    et al.
    Colorado State University.
    Nguyen, H. T.
    Patel, D.
    Britten, J. A.
    Alessi, D.
    Krous, E.
    Wang, Y.
    Larotonda, M. A.
    George, J.
    Knollenberg, B.
    Luther, B. M.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Menoni, C. S.
    Large Area High Efficiency Broad Bandwidth 800 nm Dielectric Gratings for High Energy Laser Pulse Compression2010In: Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference: 2010 Laser Science to Photonic Applications, CLEO/QELS 2010, IEEE , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated broad bandwidth large area (229 mm x 114 mm) multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings for the efficient compression of high energy 800 nm laser pulses at high average power.

  • 23.
    Martz, Dale
    et al.
    Colorado State University.
    Nguyen, H. T.
    Patel, D.
    Britten, J. A.
    Alessi, D.
    Krous, E.
    Wang, Y.
    Larotonda, M. A.
    George, J.
    Knollenberg, B.
    Luther, B. M.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Menoni, C. S.
    Large area high efficiency broad bandwidth 800 nm dielectric gratings for high energy laser pulse compression2009In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 17, no 26, 23809-23816 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated broad bandwidth large area (229 mm x 114 mm) multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings for the efficient compression of high energy 800 nm laser pulses at high average power. The gratings are etched in the top layers of an aperiodic (Nb0.5Ta0.5)2O5-SiO2 multilayer coating deposited by ion beam sputtering. The mean efficiency of the grating across the area is better than 97% at the center wavelength and remains above 96% at wavelengths between 820 nm and 780 nm. The gratings were used to compress 5.5 J pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser with an efficiency above 80 percent.

  • 24. Meng, L. M.
    et al.
    Alessi, D.
    Guilbaud, O.
    Wang, Y.
    Berrill, M.
    Luther, B. M.
    Domingue, S. R.
    Martz, Dale
    Colorado State University.
    Joyeux, D.
    De Rossi, S.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Klisnick, A.
    Temporal coherence and spectral linewidth of an injection-seeded transient collisional soft x-ray laser2011In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, no 13, 12087-12092 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal coherence of an injection-seeded transient 18.9 nm molybdenum soft x-ray laser was measured using a wavefront division interferometer and compared to model simulations. The seeded laser is found to have a coherence time similar to that of the unseeded amplifier, ~1 ps, but a significantly larger degree of temporal coherence. The measured coherence time for the unseeded amplifier is only a small fraction of the pulsewidth, while in the case of the seeded laser it approaches full temporal coherence. The measurements confirm that the bandwidth of the solid target amplifiers is significantly wider than that of soft x-ray lasers that use gaseous targets, an advantage for the development of sub-picosecond soft x-ray lasers.

  • 25. Menoni, C. S.
    et al.
    Brizuela, F.
    Brewer, C.
    Bravo, H.
    Langdon, B.
    Berrill, M.
    Martz, Dale
    Colorado State University.
    Vaschenko, G.
    Marconi, M. C.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Chao, W.
    Anderson, E. H.
    Attwood, D. T.
    Vinogradov, A. V.
    Artioukov, I. A.
    Pershyn, Y. P.
    Kondratenko, V. V.
    Hemberg, O.
    Frazer, B.
    Bloom, S.
    Nanometer-scale imaging and ablation with Extreme Ultraviolet lasers2007In: 2007 CONFERENCE ON LASERS & ELECTRO-OPTICS/QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (CLEO/QELS 2007), VOLS 1-5, 2007, 1401-1402 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The short wavelength and high brightness of compact extreme ultraviolet lasers is shown to enable the development of microscopes with spatial resolution of tens of nanometers and new types of nanoprobes.

  • 26. Menoni, C. S.
    et al.
    Brizuela, F.
    Brewer, C.
    Bravo, H.
    Langdon, B.
    Martz, Dale
    Colorado State Univ.
    Vaschenko, G.
    Luther, B.
    Marconi, M. C.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Chao, W.
    Anderson, E. H.
    Attwood, D. T.
    Vinogradov, A. V.
    Artioukov, I. A.
    Pershyn, Y. P.
    Kondratenko, V. V.
    Nanoscale resolution microscopy and ablation with extreme ultraviolet lasers2007In: 2007 IEEE LEOS ANNUAL MEETING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1 AND 2, 2007, 488-489 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We obtain a spatial resolution down to 38 run with full field imaging and laser-ablation systems that exploit the short wavelength and high brightness output from compact extreme ultraviolet lasers in combination with zone plate optics.

  • 27. Menoni, C. S.
    et al.
    Brizuela, F.
    Brewer, C.
    Martz, Dale
    Colorado State University.
    Wachulak, P.
    Jimenez, Fernandez
    Marconi, M. C.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Chao, W.
    Anderson, E. H.
    Attwood, D. T.
    Vinogradov, A. V.
    Artioukov, I. A.
    Pershyn, Y. P.
    Kondratenko, V. V.
    Advances in Nanoscale Resolution Soft X-Ray Laser Microscopy2009In: X-RAY LASERS 2008, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Lewis, CLS; Riley, D, Springer Netherlands, 2009, Vol. 130, 341-347 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review our most recent results on table-top, nanometer-scale resolution, microscopy using compact soft x-ray lasers developed at Colorado State University. We have realized the first demonstration of wavelength-resolution microscopy in the soft x-ray spectral range. Images of carbon nanotubes, 50 nm in diameter, were obtained with a single similar to 1 ns duration laser pulse from a desk-top size capinary discharge 46.9 nm laser. We fully characterized the new microscope by measuring the modulation transfer function of the instrument for zone plate objectives with three different numerical apertures, demonstrating that 54 nm half-period structures can be resolved. The combination of near-wavelength spatial resolution with high temporal resolution imaging opens myriad opportunities for imaging nanoscale structures.

  • 28. Rocca, J. J.
    et al.
    Marconi, M. C.
    Menoni, C. S.
    Wachulak, P. W.
    Luther, B.
    Brizuela, F.
    Brewer, C.
    Wang, Y.
    Alessi, D.
    Berrill, M.
    Martz, Dale
    NSF ERC for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University.
    Heinbuch, S.
    Grisham, M.
    Chao, W.
    Anderson, E. H.
    Attwood, D. T.
    Compact Soft X-ray Lasers for Imaging, Material Processing, and Characterization at the Nanoscale2007In: 32nd IEEE/CPMT International Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium, 2007, 72-73 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As manufacturing of devices advances into the nanoscale, critical feature sizes have rapidly shrunk to below the wavelength of visible light. These advances in nanotechnology have created a need to develop better ways of accessing the nanoworld. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/ soft x-ray (SXR) region of the spectrum provides an opportunity to use coherent light at wavelengths that are 10- to 100-times shorter than visible light, at 1 to 100 nm. Given the diffraction limit in imaging resolution, these wavelengths allow us to "see" smaller features and "write" smaller patterns than would be possible with visible light. We have developed compact laser-pumped and discharge-pumped lasers operating at wavelengths of λ=13.2 nm [1] and λ=46.9 nm [2] respectively, and have used them in the demonstration of nanoscale full field imaging [3,4], nanopatterning [5], and nanoscale laser ablation [6]. The high brightness and short wavelength output from these lasers when combined with specialized EUV/SXR optics, offer unique opportunities for the implementation of table-top imaging, patterning and metrology tools with superior spatial resolution for applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Using these new compact short wavelength lasers we have built two microscopes, using λ=46.9 nm or λ=l 3.2 nm laser illumination. The compact λ=46.9 nm microscope (Fig. 1a and lb) condenses the light using a multilayer coated Schwarzschild mirror, and images the test object using a diffractive zone plate lens. The spatial resolution of this microscopes was assessed by imaging test samples consisting of dense line gratings of half-periods ranging from 200 down to 35 nm. Figure 2(a) and (b) show images of a 100 nm and 70 nm half-period gratings obtained with the λ =46.9 nm microscope. The lineout in the image of the 70 nm lines shows a modulation of ∼30% indicating that the features are fully resolved according to the Rayleigh criterion. By rearranging the optics, the λ=46.9 nm microscope can also image surfaces. An image of fully resolved dense metal lines, with half-period of 170 nm, patterned on the silicon wafer is shown in Figure 2 (c). The shorter wavelength λ= 3.2 nm microscope uses all zone plate optics to render images of transmissive test patterns with increased spatial resolution . An image of fully resolved 50 nm half-period dense lines acquired with a 20 seconds exposure is shown in Figure 2(d). From images like this one, the spatial resolution of the λ=13.2 nm table-top microscope was determined to be better than 38 nm [3]. The high coherence of these short wavelength lasers also allows for the printing of arrays of nanoscale features using interferometric lithography. We have demonstrated combined a λ=46.9 nm capillary discharge laser and a Lloyd's mirror to print arrays of cone-shaped nano-dots with ∼ 58 nm FWHM diameter (Fig 3a) [5]. The same arrangement was used to print arrays of nano-holes 120 nm FWHM and 100 nm in depth over areas in excess of 500 × 500 μm2 in different photoresists using exposure times as short as 80 s. Larger area patterns can be readily printed using precision translation stages and multiple exposures by overlay superposition. The ability to focus SXL laser light into near diffraction-limited spots also opens the possibility to develop new types of nanoprobes. We have demonstrated ablation of sub-100 nm diameter holes by directly focusing the output of a λ=46.9 nm laser onto a sample with a zone plate lens. Figure 3(b) shows an AFM image of a 82 nm diameter crater obtained ablating a 500 nm thick PMMA layer with a single laser shot. The holes were observed to have very clean walls and high reproducibility. We have recently added the capability to spectroscopically analyze the light emitted from the plasma created during the ablation, opening the possibility to develop analytic nanoprobles. All of these results illustrate the capabilities of compact short wavelength lasers for nanotechnology applications.

  • 29. Rocca, J. J.
    et al.
    Reagan, B. A.
    Furch, F. J.
    Wang, Y.
    Alessi, D.
    Martz, Dale
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University.
    Luther, B. M.
    Berrill, M.
    Curtis, A. H.
    Advances in compact high repetition rate soft x-ray lasers2010In: 2010 23RD ANNUAL MEETING OF THE IEEE PHOTONICS SOCIETY, 2010, 5-6 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review recent progress in the development of table-top soft x-ray lasers that includes the demonstration of a gain-saturated lambda = 10.9 nm laser, and the first demonstration of an all-diode-pumped soft x-ray laser

  • 30. Rocca, J. J.
    et al.
    Wang, Y.
    Alessi, D.
    Reagan, B. A.
    Luther, B. M.
    Curtis, A. H.
    Wernsing, K.
    Furch, F.
    Woolston, M. R.
    Martz, Dale
    Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Colorado State University.
    Shlyaptsev, V. N.
    Berrill, M.
    Advances in high repetition rate table-top soft X-ray lasers2011In: X-RAY LASERS AND COHERENT X-RAY SOURCES: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS IX / [ed] Dunn, J; Klisnick, A, 2011, Vol. 8140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss recent advances in the development of high repetition rate table-soft soft x-ray lasers resulting from research conducted at Colorado State University. Advancing saturated table-top lasers to shorter wavelengths we report the operation of gain-saturated sub-10 nm table-top lasers at 1 Hz repetition rate. We also present experimental results that show that injection-seeding of solid-target soft x-ray plasma amplifiers reduces the far field divergence by an order of magnitude and to allow for control of the far-field beam characteristics by tailoring the divergence of the seed. We finally discuss progress towards the development of high repetition rate compact all-diode-pumped soft x-ray lasers. We have operated the front end of the diode-pumped soft-ray laser driver at 100Hz repetition rate, obtaining sub-5 ps optical laser pulses of 100 mJ energy.

  • 31. Rocca, J. J.
    et al.
    Wang, Y.
    Luther, B. M.
    Berrill, M.
    Larotonda, M. A.
    Granados, E.
    Alessi, D.
    Martz, Dale
    NSF ERC for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, Colorado State University.
    Pedacci, F.
    Patel, D.
    Shlyaptsev, V. N.
    Menoni, C. S.
    High brightness table-top soft x-ray lasers at high repetition rate: injection-seeding of solid target plasma amplifiers and other developments - art. no. 6702022007In: SOFT X-RAY LASERS AND APPLICATIONS VII / [ed] Tallents, GJ; Dunn, J, 2007, Vol. 6702, 70202-70202 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have recently demonstrated high repetition rate tabletop lasers operating at wavelengths as short as 10.9 rim based on collisional transient excitation of ions in plasmas created by laser heating of solid targets. As a further step in the development of these lasers into very high brightness and fully coherent soft x-ray sources, we have demonstrated injection seeding of the amplifiers with high harmonic seed pulses. We report results of an experiment in which a 32.6 rim Ne-like Ti amplifier was used to amplify a seed pulse from the 25(th) harmonic of Ti:Sapphire into the gain saturation regime. Simultaneous amplification of the 27(th) harmonic at 30.1 nm was also observed. The seeded soft x-ray laser beam was measured to approach full spatial coherence. We have demonstrated that this scheme is scalable to shorter wavelengths and that is capable of producing extremely bright soft x-ray laser pulse with essentially full coherence.

  • 32. Wachulak, P.
    et al.
    Grisham, M.
    Heinbuch, S.
    Martz, Dale
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colarado State University.
    Rockward, W.
    Hill, D.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Menoni, C. S.
    Anderson, E.
    Marconi, M.
    Interferometric lithography with an amplitude division interferometer and a desktop extreme ultraviolet laser2008In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 25, no 7, B104-B107 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a compact interferometric lithography nanopatterning tool based on an amplitude division interferometer (ADI) and a 46.9 nm wavelength desktop size capillary discharge laser. The system is designed to print arrays of lines, holes, and dots with sizes below 100 nm on high resolution photoresists for the fabrication of arrays of nanostructures with physical and biological applications. The future combination of this ADI with high repetition rate tabletop lasers operating at shorter wavelengths should allow the printing of arrays of sub-10 nm size features with a tabletop setup.

  • 33. Wang, Y.
    et al.
    Alessi, D.
    Martz, Dale
    Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Colorado State University.
    Berrill, M.
    Luther, B. M.
    Rocca, J. J.
    1 Hz Operation of a Gain-Saturated 10.9 nm Table-Top laser2010In: 2010 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (QELS), 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a gain-saturated 10.9nm table-top soft x-ray laser operating at 1 Hz repetition rate. With an average power of 1 mu W and pulse energy up to similar to 2 mu J this laser extends a shorter wavelength the ability to conduct table-top laser experiments.

  • 34. Wang, Y.
    et al.
    Alessi, D.
    Martz, Dale
    Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Colorado State University.
    Berrill, M.
    Luther, B. M.
    Rocca, J. J.
    Demonstration of 10.9 nm table-top soft x-ray laser at 1 Hz repetition rate2010In: 2010 23RD ANNUAL MEETING OF THE IEEE PHOTONICS SOCIETY, 2010, 272-273 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a 10.9nm gain-saturated table-top soft x-ray laser operating at 1 Hz repetition rate. With average power of 1 microwatt and pulse energy up to similar to 2 microjoules this laser extends the ability to conduct table-top laser experiments to a shorter wavelength.

1 - 34 of 34
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