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  • 1.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration Beyond Wasserman2011In: Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops / [ed] Camille Salinesi, Oscar Pastor, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2011, 270-281 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The typical development environment today consists of many specialized development tools, which are partially integrated, forming a complex tool landscape with partial integration. Traditional approaches for reasoning about tool integration are insufficient to measure the degree of integration and integration optimality in today’s complex tool landscape. This paper presents a reference model that introduces dependencies between, and metrics for, integration aspects to overcome this problem. This model is used to conceive a method for reasoning about tool integration and identify improvements in an industrial case study. Based on this we are able to conclude that our reference model does not detract value from the principles that it is based on, instead it highlights improvements that were not well visible earlier. We conclude the paper by discussing open issues for our reference model, namely if it is suitable to use during the creation of new systems, if the used integration aspects can be subdivided further to support the analysis of secondary issues related to integration, difficulties related to the state dependency between the data and process aspects within the context of developing embedded systems and the analysis of non-functional requirements to support tool integration.

  • 2.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Qualifying Software Tools, a Systems Approach2012In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 31st International Conference, SAFECOMP 2012, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012. Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, 340-351 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern safety standards designed to ensure safety in embedded system products often take a descriptive approach, focusing on describing appropriate requirements on management, processes, methods and environments during development. While the qualification of software tools has been included in several such standards, how to handle the safety implications of tools integrated into tool chains has been largely ignored. This problem is aggravated by an increase both in automation of tool integration and the size of development environments.

    In this paper we define nine safety goals for tool chains and suggest a qualification method that takes a systems approach on certifying software tools as parts of tool chains. With this method, software tools are developed and pre-qualified under the assumption that certain properties will be supported by the development environment they are to be deployed in. The proposed method is intended to (1) achieve a stronger focus on the relevant parts of tool chains in regard to safety and (2) separate the extra effort these parts imply from the effort already stipulated by safety standards.

  • 3.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Safety-Guided Design through System-Theoretic Process Analysis, Benefits and Difficulties2012In: 30th International System Safety Conference Proceedings, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development environments for embedded systems are moving towards increased automation between Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) engineering tools. While automation provides new opportunities for e.g. verification, it also to some extent decreases the possibility of identifying and acting on safety issues that arise during development. To investigate the relationship between tool integration and safety we performed a System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) of a tool chain from an industrial case study. This tool chain was then reanalyzed and redesigned twice, in part motivated by identified hazards.

    This paper presents our experiences from applying STPA to safety-guided design in the context of integrating COTS engineering tools into tool chains. We discuss the benefits of and difficulties with applying STPA. We also suggest improvements that complement STPA with support methods and tools.

    The primary benefit was the support in categorizing risks and causes. The three difficulties we encountered were identifying context-specific causal factors, defining control structures across several domains (management, user, technical, etc.) and limiting the domains taken into account. The use of STPA during safety-guided design would be facilitated by the use of expert systems and simulation, especially in regard to relating different domains.

  • 4.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    Biehl, Matthias
    El-khoury, Jad
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration, from Tool to Tool Chain with ISO 262622012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of innovative power sources in future cars has long-ranging implications on vehicle safety.  We studied these implications in the context of the guidance on software tool qualification in the then current ISO 26262 draft, when building an urban concept vehicle to participate in the 2011 Shell Eco-Marathon. While the guidance on tool qualification is detailed, the guidance in regard to tools integrated into tool chains is limited. It only points out that the environment that tools execute in needs to be taken into consideration.

    In this paper we clarify the implications of tool chains on tool qualification in the context of ISO 26262 by focusing on answering two questions; first, are there parts of the development environment related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside of tool qualification efforts as currently defined by ISO 26262; secondly, can we define if, and -if so- how, tool integration is affected by ensuring functional safety.

    We conclude by identifying two areas related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside the tool qualification efforts (data integrity and process logic) and describing how different constraints imposed by ISO 26262 in relation to tool qualification conflict when tool integration is improved (improvements aimed at supporting completeness, consistency and the safety lifecycle vs. tool qualification cost).

    We are able to make additional conclusions in relation to the State of the Art discussion on software tool qualification according to ISO 26262. First, reference tool chains and guidelines on which characteristics tool qualification should ensure for tool chains are needed to complement ISO 26262. Secondly, guidance on tool integration can be found in the completeness characteristic, the consistency characteristic and the ISO 26262 safety lifecycle process. Finally, qualification efforts should ideally target tool chains rather than individual tools.

  • 5.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Domain Specific Language for Generating Tool Integration Solutions2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based development of complex systems requires toolsupport for the dierent phases of the system life cycle. To allow for anecient development process, the involved tools need to be integrated.Despite the availability of modern tool integration platforms and frameworks,it is complex, labor-intensive and costly to build tool integrationsolutions. For managing the growing complexity of tool integration solutions,a need for systematic engineering arises. A missing piece is thehigh-level architectural description of tool integration solutions. We proposethe domain specic language TIL for describing tool integrationsolutions at a high level of abstraction. We propose an approach thattakes advantage of modeling technologies to systematize and automatethe process of building tool integration solutions. By automatically generatingintegration solutions from a TIL model, we can reduce the manualimplementation eort.

  • 6.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    On the modeling and generation of service-oriented tool chains2014In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 13, no 2, 461-480 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool chains have grown from ad-hoc solutions to complex software systems, which often have a service-oriented architecture. With service-oriented tool integration, development tools are made available as services, which can be orchestrated to form tool chains. Due to the increasing sophistication and size of tool chains, there is a need for a systematic development approach for service-oriented tool chains. We propose a domain-specific modeling language (DSML) that allows us to describe the tool chain on an appropriate level of abstraction. We present how this language supports three activities when developing service-oriented tool chains: communication, design and realization. A generative approach supports the realization of the tool chain using the service component architecture. We present experiences from an industrial case study, which applies the DSML to support the creation of a service-oriented tool chain. We evaluate the approach both qualitatively and quantitatively by comparing it with a traditional development approach.

  • 7.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    High-Level Specification and Code Generation for Service-Oriented Tool Adapters2012In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Science (ICCSA2012), 2012, 35-42 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of complex systems requires tool support for the different phases of the system life cycle. To allow for an efficient development process, the involved tools need to be integrated, e.g. by exchanging tool data or providing trace ability between the data. Despite the availability of tool integration platforms and frameworks, it is labor-intensive and costly to build tool integration solutions. Industrial tool integration initiatives such as OSLC (Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration) demand complex configurations and the adherence to integration standards. This further complicates building an integration solution. We propose an approach that uses formalized specifications to systematize tool integration and specialized code generators to automate the process of building tool adapters. We evaluate our approach with the implementation of a code generator that creates service-oriented tool adapters conforming to the OSLC industry initiative.

  • 8.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    A Modeling Framework for Automotive Embedded Control Systems2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is part of a larger effort to define a modeling approach suitable for complex embedded control systems for which modeling techniques are in the progress of maturing. Modeling constitutes an indispensable part of engineering, forming an important basis for documentation, communication, and design automation. In order to describe and compare different modeling techniques, a framework has been developed. The current state of the framework is presented together with lessons learned. We will illustrate the framework with an automotive application. The framework combines a generic concept of systems and the modeling concepts that have been extracted from a study of 12 modeling approaches covering different levels of design and disciplines. Future work will refine the framework by studying additional modeling techniques and by considering more domain specific modeling needs in automotive systems.

  • 9.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    A Model Management and Integration Platform for Mechatronics Product Development2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechatronics development requires the close collaboration of various specialist teams and engineering disciplines. Developers from the different disciplines use domain-specific tools to specify and analyse the system of interest. This leads to different views of the system, each targeting a specific audience, using that audience’s familiar language, and concentrating on that audience’s concerns. Successful system development requires that the views of all developers produced by the different tools are well integrated into a whole, reducing any risks of inconsistencies and conflicts in the design information specified.

    This thesis discusses techniques of managing and integrating the views from various disciplines, taking better advantage of multidisciplinary, model-based, development. A Model Data Management (MDM) platform that generically manages models from the various domain-specific tools used in development is presented. The platform is viewed as a unification of the management functionalities typically provided by the discipline-specific PDM and SCM systems. The unification is achieved by unifying the kind of objects it manages – models. View integration is considered as an integral functionality of this platform.

    In demonstrating the platform’s feasibility, a generic version management functionality of models is implemented. In addition, model integration is investigated for the allocation of system functions onto the implementing hardware architecture. The proposed approach promotes the independent development of the views, allowing developers from each discipline to work concurrently, yet ensuring the completeness, correctness and analysis of any inter-view design decisions made.

    The prototype MDM platform builds on existing technologies from each of the mechanical and software disciplines. The proposed MDM system is built based on a configurable PDM system, given its maturity and ability to manage model contents appropriately. At the same time, the version control functionality borrows ideas from the fine-grained version control algorithms in the software discipline.

    The platform is argued to be feasible given the move towards model-based development in software engineering, bringing the discipline’s needs closer to those of the hardware discipline. This leads the way for an easier and more effective integrated management platform satisfying the needs of both disciplines using a common set of mechanisms.

  • 10.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lyo code generator: A model-based code generator for the development of OSLC-compliant tool interfaces2016In: SoftwareX, ISSN 2352-7110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To promote the newly emerging OSLC (Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration) tool interoperability standard, an open source code generator is developed that allows for the specification of OSLC-compliant tool interfaces, and from which almost complete Java code of the interface can be generated. The software takes a model-based development approach to tool interoperability, with the aim of providing modeling support for the complete development cycle of a tool interface. The software targets both OSLC developers, as well as the interoperability research community, with proven capabilities to be extended to support their corresponding needs.

  • 11.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Model Data Management – Towards a common solution for PDM/SCM systems2005In: Proceedings of the 12th international workshop on Software configuration management, 2005, 17-32 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Configuration Management and Product Data Managementsystems have been developed independently, but recently the need to integrate them to support multidisciplinary development environments has been recognised.Due to the difference in maturity levels of these disciplines, integrationefforts have had limited success in the past. This paper examines how the move towards model-based development in software engineering is bringing the discipline closer to hardware development, permitting a tighter integration of theirdata management systems. An architecture for a Model Data Management systemthat supports model-based development is presented. The system aims togenerically handle the models produced by the different tools during the development of software-intensive, yet multidisciplinary, products. The proposed architecturebuilds on existing technologies from the mature discipline of mechanical engineering, while borrowing new ideas from the software domain.

  • 12.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    The Version Control Algorithm Implementation in the Model Data Management (MDM) Platform2005Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    El-khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Roadmap Towards Integrated CPS Development Environments2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber Physical System (CPS) development is highly heterogeneous, involving many stakeholders, each of which interacts with its development artifacts through a variety of tools, and within several engineering processes. Successful CPS development requires these tools to be well-integrated into a Development Environment (DE) in order to support its many stakeholders and processes. In this paper we identify the main challenges facing DE development for CPSs, and presents a roadmap to meet these challenges. We here take the position that focus should be redirected from trying to achieve a single, one-size-fits-all solution to such a heterogeneous problem. Instead, focus should be placed on supporting the development of highly-customized DEs, which readily can be applied to industrial development. Such a highly-customized DE should fit the needs of a particular development organization, while at the same time taking advantage of relevant standardization efforts.

  • 14.
    El-khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    A Survey of Modeling Approaches forEmbedded Computer Control Systems2003Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    El-khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Ekholm, Christian
    Supporting the Linked Data Approach to Maintain Coherence Across Rich EMF Models2016In: 12th European Conference on Modelling Foundations and Applications, ECMFA, Wien, July 4-8, 2016., 2016, 36-47 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many development environments, Model-Driven Engineering(MDE) may well be limited to parts of the complete product developmentprocess due to the lack of interoperability mechanisms that connect the productdata across the model-based engineering tools being used. This is especially thecase if the tools are not designed to work tightly together, and/or if they do notshare a common technological basis. In this paper, we investigate the use of theOASIS OSLC interoperability standard to facilitate the integration of modelsfrom different languages into a single coherent view. We evaluate afully-automated code generator that provides OSLC interfaces for EMF-basedmodelling tools, allowing the exposure of modelling elements from any richmodelling language. We argue that such a generator is a critical component forreducing the cost of providing rich and specialized tool interfaces, generallyneeded when integrating modelling tools. The study is based on a case study thataddresses the development process – and the corresponding integrated softwareengineering environment - at Volvo Trucks used when developing a newelectronic architecture including heavy vehicle functions.

  • 16.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Zhang, Da
    Scania CV AB.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. Scania CV AB.
    Modelling Support for a Linked Data Approach to Tool Interoperability2016In: The Second International Conference on Big Data, Small Data, Linked Data and Open Data, ALLDATA, Lisbon, February 21 - 25, 2016., 2016, 42-47 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linked Data is increasingly being adopted for the integration of software tools, especially with the emergence of the Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) standard on tool interoperability. In this paper, we present a modelling approach – with accompanying tool support – for the specification of Linked Data resources, focusing on the particular needs of tool-chain development. The approach provides graphical models for the specification of constraints on resources being shared in the tool-chain. Moreover, it aims to maintain a centralized understanding and management of the overall information model being handled in the federated tool-chain architecture. This is achieved through an integrated set of modelling views that cover the early phases of tool-chain development.

  • 17.
    El-khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    A Model-Driven Engineering Approach to Software Tool Interoperability based on Linked Data2016In: International Journal On Advances in Software, ISSN 1942-2628, E-ISSN 1942-2628, Vol. 9, no 3 & 4, 248-259 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development environments need to shift from the current document-based, towards an informationbased focus, in which the information from the various engineering software tools is well integrated and made digitally accessible throughout the development lifecycle. To meet this need, a Linked Data approach to software tool interoperability is being adopted, specifically through the Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) interoperability standard. In this paper, we present a model-driven engineering approach to toolchain development that targets the specific challenges faced when adopting the technologies, standards and paradigm expected of Linked Data and the OSLC standard. We propose an integrated set of modelling views that supports the early specification phases of toolchain development, as well as its detailed design and implementation phases. An open-source modelling tool was developed to realize the proposed modelling views. The tool includes a code generator that synthesizes a toolchain model into almost-complete OSLC-compliant code. The study is based on a case study of developing a federated OSLC-based toolchain for the development environment at the truck manufacturer Scania AB.

  • 18.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Towards a Multi-View Modelling Environment for Mechatronics Systems2005Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    El-khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Model and Tool Integration Platform for Multidisciplinary Development2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    A Tool Integration Platform for Multi-Disciplinary Development2005In: EUROMICRO-SEAA 2005: 31st EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, Proceedings, Los Alamitos: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2005, 442-449 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In multi-disciplinary development, where various domain specific tools are used by developers to specify and analyse a system, efficient system development requires that the models produced by these tools are well integrated into a whole, reducing any risks of inconsistencies and conflicts in the design information specified In this paper we present an architecture for a model and tool integration platform that borrows its major components from well known and accepted standards from both computer and mechanical engineering. The architecture supports model integration, where models defined in different tools for different aspects of the same system are related such that they may share and exchange data. The integration platform also enables model management functionalities on a fine-grained level, suggesting a combination of the functionalities found in traditional data management systems such as product data management (PDM) and software configuration management (SCM).

  • 21.
    El-khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Integrating views in a multi-view modelling environment2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of modern technical systems requires the close collaboration of various specialist teams and engineering disciplines in order to reach the expected complex functionality. Even though working with the same system towards the same goal, developers from the different domains use their own specific tools, providing their own specific views of the system to be developed. For the successful integration of the efforts from each of these disciplines, the different views produced need to be appropriately integrated, preventing any inconsistencies and divergences from creeping into the system design. We present an approach to multi-view modelling which systematically integrates the twogenerally accepted complexity reduction techniques of hierarchical decomposition and multiviewing. While these techniques are common practice in many modern design tools, the approach presented in this paper defines how the inter-view relationships can be used to tightly interweave the views' hierarchies. This provides a good basis for an information sharing environment enabling model based, multi-disciplinary development. A small case study is used to exemplify how the proposed method simplifies the process of allocating system functions to a hardware architecture in a truck.© 2005 by Jad El-khoury, Ola Redell and Martin Törngren. Published and used by INCOSE with permission.

  • 22.
    El-khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Towards a Toolset for Architectural Design of Distributed Real-Time Control systems2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Measuring Tool Chain Interoperability in Cyber-physical Systems2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-Physical Systems are developed through complex engineering projects that include many stakeholders and a variety of tools and processes from different engineering backgrounds. Interoperability in these development tool chains is an important aspect for well-integrated systems. Furthermore, since full tool chain interoperability is neither possible nor necessarily desired, measuring interoperability in development environments is essential for setting the right priorities. This systematic literature review gives an overview of the literature about interoperability assessment methods. A survey was conducted through digital libraries and a total of 42 papers were read. Out of these papers, 24 different interoperability assessment models were identified and analyzed. A striking find of this study is that no proof of industrial adaptation of these models was found. In this paper, we analyze the reasons for this lack of validation in the context of CPS development. 

  • 24.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Visual Analytics Towards Tool Interoperabilty: A Position Paper2016In: Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications, SCITEPRESS , 2016, 141-147 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex-engineering projects include artefacts from several engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical, software components, processes and plans. While software tools can be powerful in each individual discipline, it is difficult to build integrated tool chains. Moreover, it is challenging to evaluate and update existing tool chains. At the same time, the field of visualization is getting mature and visual analytics promises an opportunity to develop knowledge, methods, technologies and practice for exploiting and combining the strengths of human and data. We consider this as a potential to evaluate current tool chains. This position paper discusses the visualization and visual analytics practices to assess existing tool chains performance.

  • 25.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Making Interoperability Visible: Data Visualization of Cyber-Physical Systems Development Tool Chains2016In: Journal of Industrial Information Integration, ISSN 2452-414X, Vol. 4, 26-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical system (CPS) development cycles include various engineering disciplines, artefacts, and areas of expertise. There are powerful software tools used in these cycles, which can be put to good use by one individual discipline but are challenging to integrate with other tools. This paper discusses a node-link diagram (NLD) visualization technique that can be used to visualize interoperability in CPS development tool chains. The purpose is to help tool chain developers assess the current interoperability status and make decisions on integration scenarios accordingly. To this end, a case study is introduced and explained as an example. Data about the tool chain, which contains different structures relating to the software tools usage and the interactions between them, are provided by ABB Corporate Research Centre. These structures are used in creation of visualizations for making interoperability visible in CPS development tool chains and applicability of each visualization technique is discussed with the interoperability perspective. In this study, we also exercised a clustering algorithm for an extended case study and discussed the use of visualizations to improve interoperability in CPS development environments.

  • 26.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Assessing tool chain interoperability in cyber-physical systems: A systematic reviewIn: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are developed using artefacts from several engineering disciplines. Powerful software tools are utilized by each individual discipline, but it remains challenging to connect these into tool chains for increased efficiency. To support this endeavour, a survey of the literature on interoperability assessment was performed to identify concepts that could be valuable to transfer to the tool integration field.

    Interoperability assessment models were identified as potentially valuable to transfer, but lacking in industrial uptake. To avoid importing inefficient concepts, this lack of impact was analysed. Three main problems were identified as; the models either use complex metrics, separate levels or combinations of these; they concentrate on selective aspects of interoperability; and they focus on structure and content, providing little guidance on how to deal with problems. Visualization and visual analytics is discussed as a promising direction to be used during assessment of tool integration. Based on this approach it is suggested that the following concepts are transferred: the elaborated parts of system contexts; types of interoperability; and the theory connected to interoperability as a balance between interests rather than an optimization of a single, uniform metric. It is also suggested that interoperability researchers consider visualization and visual analytics techniques in their own contexts.

  • 27.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Johansson, Morgan
    Hansen, Stefan
    Data Visualization of A Cyber-Physical Systems Development Toolchain: An Integration Case Study2017In: ALLDATA 2017: The Third International Conference on Big Data, Small Data, Linked Data and Open Data, Venice, Italy: IARIA XPS Press , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) requires various engineering disciplines, artifacts, and areas of expertise to collaborate. There are powerful software tools, which are used during CPS development, but it is often challenging to integrate these tools with each other. This paper proposes a data visualization approach to understanding current interoperability status and the integration needs in CPS development toolchains, and make decisions on potential integration scenarios accordingly. To this end, a case study is introduced based on a toolchain for the development of an embedded application at ABB Corporate Research. The node-link diagram (NLD) data visualization technique was used to understand integration needs and priorities. The study showed that the NLD visualization has the potential to inform toolchain architects about the interoperability situation and help them to make decisions accordingly, especially for small toolchains. Moreover, the integration solution is implemented and the result has been compared with the non-integration study.

  • 28. Henriksson, Dan
    et al.
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Cervin, Anton
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Årzén, Karl-Erik
    Tools for Real-Time Control Systems Co-Design2006In: ARTES: A network for Real-Time research and graduate Education in Sweden 1997–2006 / [ed] Hans Hansson, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29. Henriksson, Dan
    et al.
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Årzén, Karl-Erik
    Tools for Real-time Control Systems CoDesign: A Survey2005Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Larses, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Function Modelling to Improve Software Documentation2005Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Larses, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Multidisciplinary Modeling and Tool Support for EE Architecture Design2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Larses, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Views on General System Theory2005Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Redell, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    The AIDA toolset for design and implementation analysis of distributed real-time control systems2004In: Microprocessors and microsystems, ISSN 0141-9331, E-ISSN 1872-9436, Vol. 28, no 4, 163-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces a toolset that integrates the design and performance analysis of control systems with embedded real-time system design. The toolset enables specification and analysis of real-time implementations of control applications. Control system designs are imported to a real-time system-modelling domain in which the functionality is distributed on a target computer system. The control functionality is partitioned into operating system processes, inter-process communications are defined and the triggering of processes is specified. Once the real-time design is complete, the response times and release jitter of the processes and their contained functions can be analysed and the system information exported back to the control domain. This enables analysis of the resulting control performance with account taken to implementation effects such as delays and release jitter due to resource sharing and scheduling. The usage of the toolset is demonstrated on a dual leg controller for a walking robot. The case study shows how the toolset is used to describe a system, from the control system specification to the design of its implementation on a distributed network of processors. Different implementation solutions are suggested and evaluated based on simulated control system performance.

  • 34.
    Shariatzadeh, Navid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lindberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Sivard, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Using Linked Data with Information Standards for Interoperability in Production Engineering2015In: RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN MANUFACTURING: KEY ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE FACTORIES OF THE FUTURE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 48TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS, 2015, 502-507 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design and verification of factory layout and material flow is a multidisciplinary, knowledge-intensive task which requires a collaborative framework where all specialists involved can communicate, interact, manage and visualize different models. However, the communication of digital models comes with challenges. First of all the information resides in various systems and applications, in different formats and with various levels of detail and viewpoints. Moreover, models share common properties and it is common that these properties influence each other. Hence modification of one model should be propagated to other models, which need to be coordinated.To deal with the data exchange and integration problem, information standards such as ISO 10303 have been developed. ISO 10303 (STEP) has shown a strong capability to represent rich information models in a wide variety of industrial domains for the purpose of exchanging data. However, STEP is intrinsically complex and sometimes adds unnecessary level of detail to information to be shared. On the other hand, the Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) initiative provides a minimalistic set of standardized information models, focusing on the most common concepts within a particular domain. Assuming a loosely-coupled distributed architecture of tools and services, OSLC adopts the Linked Data approach to ensure data consistency across the data resources.How can we combine STEP’s rich information model for data exchange, with OSLC’s minimalistic approach for data integration?The aim of this work is to show the applicability of using these two complementary paradigms – and their corresponding standards - to support interoperability and data integration in a heterogeneous IT environment for material flow analysis and layout design. To this end, an industrial case study was implemented through the information standard STEP and the OSLC specifications to verify the suggested approach.

  • 35.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    Qamar, Ahsan
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    Multiview Modeling and Integration for Mechatronics Engineering2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Dahle, Hans Petter
    Brodtkorb, Dagfin
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chaplin, Ray
    Towards an industrial Framework for Embedded Systems Tools2010In: Modelling Foundations and Applications / [ed] Kühne, Thomas, Selic, Bran V., Gervais, Marie-Pierre, Terrier, Francois, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Brodtkorb, Dagfin
    Dahle, Hans Petter
    Systematic and Cost-efficient Tool Integration for Embedded Systems: The iFEST approach2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Modelling and Simulation of Embedded Computer Control Systems: Problem Formulation2001Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Henriksson, Dan
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Kirsch, Christoph
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Simon, Daniel
    Sorel, Yves
    Zdenek, Hanzalek
    Årzén, Karl-Erik
    Co-design of Control Systems and their real-time implementation - A Tool Survey2006Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Qamar, Ahsan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Integrating viewpoints in the development of mechatronic products2014In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, Vol. 24, no 7, 745-762 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of mechatronic products involves multiple stakeholders which have different viewpoints and therefore use different concepts, models and tools to deal with their concerns of interest. This paper argues that an increased emphasis needs to be placed on the relations between viewpoints to be able to deal with the evolving scope and requirements on mechatronic products. We study relations between viewpoints at the levels of people, models and tools, and present solutions that are used to formally and explicitly capture such relations. Viewpoint contracts are used to define the vocabulary, assumptions and constraints required for ensuring smooth communication between stakeholders (people level). Dependency models capture relations between product properties belonging to different viewpoints, and how such dependencies relate to predictions and decisions (model level). Tool integration models describe the relations between tools in terms of traceability, data exchange, invocation and notifications (tool level). A major contribution of this paper is a unification approach, elaborating how these solutions can be used synergetically to integrate viewpoints. An industrial robot case study is utilized to illustrate the challenges and solutions with respect to relations between viewpoints, including the unification approach.

  • 41.
    Zadeh, Navid Shariat
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Lindberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sivard, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Service Oriented Integration of Distributed Heterogeneous IT Systems in Production Engineering Using Information Standards and Linked Data2017In: Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, ISSN 1687-5591, E-ISSN 1687-5605, 9814179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While design of production systems based on digital models brings benefits, the communication of models comes with challenges since models typically reside in a heterogeneous IT environment using different syntax and semantics. Coping with heterogeneity requires a smart integration strategy. One main paradigm to integrate data and IT systems is to deploy information standards. In particular, ISO 10303 STEP has been endorsed as a suitable standard to exchange a wide variety of product manufacturing data. One the other hand, service-oriented tool integration solutions are progressively adopted for the integration of data and IT-tools, especially with the emergence of Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration whose focus is on the linking of data from heterogeneous software tools. In practice, there should be a combination of these approaches to facilitate the integration process. Hence, the aim of this paper is to investigate the applications of the approaches and the principles behind them and try to find criteria for where to use which approach. In addition, we explore the synergy between them and consequently suggest an approach based on combination of them. In addition, a systematic approach is suggested to identify required level of integrations and their corresponding approaches exemplified in a typical IT system architecture in Production Engineering.

1 - 41 of 41
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