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  • 1.
    Bahram, Saadatfar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Reza, Fakhrai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    EXERGOECONOMIC ANALYSIS of a NANO FLUID ORC COGENERATION of LOW-GRADEWASTE2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bahram, Saadatfar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Reza, Fakhrai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Waste heat recovery Organic Rankine cycles in sustainable energy conversion: A state-of-the-art review2013In: The Journal of MacroTrends in Energy and Sustainability, ISSN 2333-0511, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 161-188Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bahram, Saadatfar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Reza, Fakhrai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Thermodynamic Vapor Cycles for Converting Lowto Medium-grade Heat to Power: A State-of-theart Review and Future Research Pathways2014In: The Journal of MacroTrends in Energy and Sustainability, ISSN 2333-0511, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Feasibility study and quality assurance of the end-product of Alphakat KDV technology for conversion of biomass2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För närvarande finns det ett stort intresse att utveckla ett ekonomiskt och framkomligt system för omvandling av biomassa till flytande bränslen och kemikalier, då hanteringen av bränslen väsentligt underlättas.

    Under 2014, fick avdelningen för Energiteknik, KTH, uppdraget att undersöka och dokumentera KDVs process för konvertering av biomassa till flytande bränsle: Bland annat ingick att analysera processens produkt och restprodukter. Idag marknadsförs tekniken av Alphakat, Eppendorf, Tyskland. Alphakat gör gällande att KDV erbjuder en alternativ teknik för produktion av bränsle, inklusive syntetisk-diesel från fasta bränslen såsom biomassa. Det övergripande syftet med projektet var att samla information, tekniska data, processdata och genomföra test och analysera produkten. Detta för att få en uppfattning om huruvida KDV kan tekniskt användas föratt konvertera biomassa till diesel. Emellertid, KDVs tekniska potential, särskilt för omvandling av biomassa till flytande bränsle kunde inte bevisas baserat på resultaten av den nu aktuella undersökningen med den tillhandahållna informationen av företaget.

    Produkten av processen analyserades enligt ASTM D6715. De relevanta egenskaperna för KDVs produkt dokumenterades genom noggranna tester. Men huruvida produkten kommer från biomassa kunde inte garanteras då KDV är en oljebaserad process. Påverkan av så kallade “Carrier oil”, på produktens kvalitet och kvantitet kan vara betydande då en stor del av värmevärdet hos bränslet kan komma från denna olja. KDVs potential för produktion av flytande bränsle från biomassa kan inte bevisas.

    Vi bedömer att en fördjupad teknisk och vetenskaplig utvärdering av KDV är ett nödvändigt och viktigt steg för att framtiden underlätta kommande investeringar i KDVs teknologin. Denna utvärdering bör utföras i en laboratorieskala, med hjälp av avancerad mätutrustning, i en kontrollerad miljö som kunde garantera vetenskaplig dokumentation och övervakning av processen.

    Förvätskning av biomassa ser vi som lovande då faktorer som medger attförnybara bränslen och kemikalier då kan göras tillgängliga för en allmän användning då de har en stor miljömässig fördel.

  • 5.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Multi-disciplinary problem based learning in computational fluid dynamics2014In: STAR Global Conference 2014, Vienna Austria, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    KTH Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is one of European’s key centers of innovation and intellectual talent for almost two centuries. Recognized as Sweden’s most prestigious technical university, KTH is also the country’s oldest and largest. Computerized simulation technique was recognized as a fundamental component of the higher-education sector at KTH as early as the fifties. Although the utilization of these tools in research is now considered to be standard, the educational aspects are not. In this field, the method of instruction followed by practice is considered to be a superior pedagogic method compared to lecture to many. The current method emphasizes on demonstrative activities of the learners known as phenomeno-graphic learning. However, phenomeno-graphic learning is viable if there are breadth and depth in the physic, mathematic, computer science and graphic, operational strategy and methodology, etc. illuminating weakness of learning by doing method.  

    This work aims to report the success and progress of the course, numerical methods in energy technology, which utilizes Computational Fluid Dynamics cods such as STAR-CCM+ as the tool. Learning methodology is based on instructional design and andragogically approach that offers an elaboration on the mechanism of learning process and its premeditated in context of a prescribed framework. The results indicated the prominence of student sensitive and constructive learning process and the advantages of using a preferred framework in guiding the students in a pertinent context (area). The method particularly incorporates the constructivist principles that lead to enhance the learning process. In addition, the conclusions of this study similarly illuminate the vast potentials of computational fluid dynamic for research, evaluation and educational purposes.

  • 6.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    The Role of Continuance Project Based Learning in Energy Educational Program2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmat
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Utilization Of Numerical Methods In Context Of Learning Process Enhancement For Mutli-Disciplinary Field Of Science2012In: INTED2012 Proceedings: 6th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 5-7 March, 2012, Iated , 2012, p. 6138-6143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computerized simulation technique is a fundamental component of the higher education and is a vital mechanism, utilized in phenomena-graphic studies in science. The system offers recreation of an alternative reality in front of scientist's eyes, giving an insight into the biggest and smallest scales (astronomy to nanotechnology) yet cannot be comprehended otherwise. Currently the tool is utilized in research and taught one on one. The progress in computational technology and the advent of commercial codes equipped with user-friendly interface have facilities the introduction of computational fluid dynamic in undergraduate education promoting critique of various learning opportunities through visualization technique. Nevertheless the outcomes of each study is highly influenced by the ideas, approaches, knowledge in phenomena, mathematical rules and measures, computer science, cads, post processing and interpretation of the results. The user of such system acts as the facilitator and liaison between the real and virtual phenomena. The user should own the proper education, experience, emphasizing the relevance of the teaching strategy; understanding the key mechanisms in learning process. Unlocking the full power of computational fluid dynamic, some critical topics in educational area need to be addressed. One is to identify the learning process, approaches and methodology. One task with three different definitions was given to groups and the data regarding the learning process, strategies for solving the problem adapted by students for, engagements of the participants in work was monitored. The data were gathered through a net based learning tool. The progress of the groups were scrutinized weekly, aiming at directing the group in pre-define learning scope. This work is based on instructional design and andragogically approach. It offers an elaboration on the mechanism of learning process and is premeditated in context of prescribed framework. The results indicated the prominence of student sensitive and constructive learning process and the advantages of using a preferred framework in guiding the students in pertinent context (area) particularly incorporation of constructivist principles that may lead to enhance learner's learning experience. In addition, the conclusions of this study similarly illuminate the vast potentials of computational fluid dynamic for research, evaluation and educational purposes.

  • 8.
    Reza, Fakhrai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Bahram, Saadatfar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Computational Fluid Dynamics as an Alternative Representation of Physical Phenomena for an Iterative Learning Environment2012In: EDULEARN12 Proceedings: 4th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies,Barcelona, Spain. 2-4 July, 2012, IATED , 2012, p. 1325-1332Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) is an alternative representation of the physical phenomenon in engineering education. The method will replace the hardware-based laboratory in education as the computation power increases and became more available. However, CFD is a cross disciplinary field with its roots in computer science, programing, fluid mechanic, and visualization. Nevertheless it is utilized in almost all disciplines, in each viewed as the exceedingly self-directed and constructivist form of learning. Currently the desired proficiency in the fundamentals and conversant is conquered through instruction followed by practice “learning by doing”. This method has been considered to be a superior pedagogic method in this field and closely woven into the fabric of demonstrative activities of the learners with honors from centuries ago. During the last decade, a variety of frameworks have been employed to enhance the ease of use of the tools in numerical prediction and data applications. However, the educational aspect of CFD, though evolving with notable precincts, has been left unaddressed. There are not effective teaching and learning methods guaranteeing the utilization of high level cognitive process by students. In addition, there is a fundamental lack of definition of terminology in this field as well as in other educational technologies as a whole. The neglect has widened the gap concerning tools and their execution environments, stifling advances in research and education. This work is dedicated to identify the project works that best exemplify the CFD regardless the discipline in which the students are trained. Numbers of problems covering all aspects of CFD were design, offered and executed by students. Students undertook the problem in groups and reported the results. The progress of the work monitored and the best exercise which cutch the student’s interests and covered cross-disciplinary nature of the CFD were identified. The important properties of these project works were mapped and will be tested once more in upcoming teaching events.

  • 9.
    Reza, Fakhrai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Bahram, Saadatfar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Conceptual Model for Educational Deployment of Podcast in Context of Learning Process Enhancement2013In: INTED2013 Proceedings: 7th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 4-5 March, 2013., IATED , 2013, p. 1716-1719Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that learners are progressively more emphasizing on the importance of communication platform in learning and teaching along with convenience and flexibility, to accommodate the needs of their active lifestyles. In other words, learners are looking for an educational system to deliver in a relevant manner that is technology-enhanced. New technologies, Information and Communications Technology have made sizable evolution and generated impact and improvement over the conditions for learning in education, training and Lifelong Learning (LLL).

    To deal with the issues that are created by this changing landscape, a research project created across a course to review the use, effectiveness and impact of the podcast across teaching and learning scenarios and services. It was structured around some specific items: creation, deployment and impact. The output of this study illuminates the significant potentials of using podcast in learning process, intended learning outcomes as well as describes a conceptual framework used by integrating podcast into learning process.

  • 10.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Conceptual modeling of nano fluid ORC for solar thermal polygeneration2014In: 2013 ISES SOLAR WORLD CONGRESS, 2014, Vol. 57, p. 2696-2705Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model has been developed for thermodynamic cycle of the solar thermal production of power, heating and cooling utilizing nano fluid as a working fluid in Organic Rankine Cycle. The proposed working fluid provides enhancement in power, heating, and cooling as useful outputs. Initial studies were performed with silver-nano pentane as a working fluid in the cycle. This work extends the application of the cycle to working fluids consisting of organic fluid mixtures. Nano Organic fluid could be used successfully in solar thermal power plants, as working fluids in Rankine cycles. An advantage of using nano fluid as a working fluid is that there are mature experiences with building components for these fluids. A commercially available modeling program has been used to model and investigate the performance of the system. The potential and advantages of using nano fluid are discussed. It is found that the thermodynamic efficiencies achievable with nano organic fluid, under optimum conditions, are higher than those obtained from the base fluid. Further, the size of heat exchangers, evaporator, and condenser are lower than those using the base fluid.

  • 11.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Exergo-environmental analysis of nano fluid ORC low-grade waste heat recovery for hybrid trigeneration system2014In: Energy Procedia: International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE2014, Elsevier, 2014, p. 1879-1882Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a thermodynamic model based on theoretical and experimental data is developed for utilizing nano fluid organic Rankine cycle (nORC) in a trigeneration hybrid system. The trigeneration hybrid system composed of a solid biomass boiler, gas turbine cycle, a nORC, cooling, and a heating system. The exergy of the system analyzed; moreover, environmental impact assessments and interrelated parametric studies are examined. The results show higher exergy efficiency for the hybrid trigeneration employed nORC, and indicate that carbon dioxide emissions for utilizing nano fluid in nORC trigeneration system are less than conventional working fluid system.

  • 12.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Nano Organic Rankine Cycle for Enhanced Heat Recovery2013In: ASME ORC 2013, 2nd International seminar on ORC power systems, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There will be an incredible energy challenge in the future. With growing population, more and more energy needs to meet society’s demands. Fossil fuels are limited resources; hence there will be need more renewable energy as well as more efficient use of energy by recovering low-grade heat source. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system would be attractive and promising technology for energy conversion systems in low temperature thermal energy sources. Many actual ORC’s applications have been installed; nevertheless, one of the major challenges in the ORC technology is working fluid. The difficulties involved in the accurate thermophysical properties in addition to safety of organic fluids that are commonly found in ORC, may result in relatively low efficiency as well as heat exchanger and component size. In the organic Rankine cycle, heat exchangers, including evaporators and condensers, are the dominant components with most working fluid accumulation. Moreover, the working fluid is linked to the expansion part; therefore, selecting an organic fluid and expander should be performed at the same time. Conventional Organic Rankine Cycle uses organic fluid as a working fluid, whereas nano fluid organic Rankine cycle (nORC) uses nano material and organic compound as a working fluid and it is particularly suitable for utilizing small scale heat exchangers, due to creating better thermal match both in boiling and condensing, in low temperature applications. In this work, utilizing nano organic fluid as a working fluid for ORC for Some types of nanoparticles are studied; thermophysical properties of nano ORC candidate in the specific temperature range are measured and analyzed. Also, this study presents acceptable operating conditions and expansion machine by investigating the interaction among the expansion part and nano organic working fluid.

  • 13.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Conceptual Model of e-learning Educational Platform for Lifelong Learning2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Wei, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Catalytic CO2 conversion via solar-driven fluidized bed reactors2014In: International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, ISSN 1748-1317, E-ISSN 1748-1325, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Converting CO2 and steam (H2O) into synthesis gas is a new route to recycle them to fuels. Conversions are performed via a two-step conversion method in which catalysts are heated up and cooled down repeatedly with CO and H2 as the products. To make the method economic, solar energy is employed to drive conversion systems. A solar-driven system with fluidized bed reactors is proposed for CO2 conversion in this paper, and numerical models are built to study its performance and find out the optimum working condition. The investigation proves that system is a competent candidate to power the two-step conversion of CO2 for the carbon recycle and the syngas production.

  • 15.
    Wei, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    The numerical and experimental study of a fluidized bed reactor for the two-step conversion of CO2Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Wei, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    The thermodynamic analysis of two-step conversions of CO2/H2O for syngas production by ceria2014In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 39, no 23, p. 12353-12360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the challenges of demands on alternative fuels and CO2 emission, the conversion of CO2 has become a hot spot. Among various methods, two-step conversion of CO2 with catalyst ceria (cerium oxide, CeO2) appears to be a promising way. Solar energy is commonly employed to drive the conversion systems. This article proposes a solar-driven system with fluidized bed reactors (PER) for CO2/H2O conversions. N-2 is used as the gas of the heat carrier. The products of CO/H-2 could be further used for syngas. To evaluate the capability of the system for exporting work, the system was analysed on the basis of the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the reaction mechanism of ceria. Heat transfer barriers in practical situations were considered. The lowest solar to chemical efficiency is 4.86% for CO2 conversion, and can be enhanced to 43.2% by recuperating waste heat, raising the N-2 temperature, and increasing the concentration ratio. The analysis shows that the method is a promising approach for CO2/H2O conversion to produce syngas as an alternative fuel.

  • 17.
    Wei, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mohan, Gowtham
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    The design of a solar-driven catalytic reactor for CO2 conversions2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 57, p. 2752-2761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solar energy has been employed to provide the heat for CO2 conversions for several years except for its use on power generation, since it is one of the most common renewable energy resources and the total amount is enormous; However, the dominant method is to concentrate solar rays directly on reactants, relying on the design and quality of the receivers a lot. The operation and maintenance of the receivers require extra attention due to the delicate structure of the receivers and the potential contamination on the lenses from the chemical reactions. To steer clear of the shortcoming, a solar-driven catalytic reactor has been designed and analyzed in this article. The reactor drives the endothermic reactions with the heat source of hot gases, which are produced in solar receivers upriver, thus the flexible and necessary operations on the catalytic reactor could be peeled off from the solar receiver, and the potential contamination on the optical components in the solar receiver could be avoided. The design processes and details are described, the heat performance is simulated and analyzed, and efficiencies are theoretically calculated in this article. The solar-driven catalytic reactor exhibits the possibility of the practical use of solar energy in CO2 conversion and recycle.

  • 18.
    Wei, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Review on the two-step-conversion of CO2 driven by solar energy2013In: The Journal of Macro Trends in Energy and Sustainability, ISSN 2333-0511, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The catalytic conversions of CO2 and H2O emerge as an attractive way to recycle CO2 and H2O to provide synthesis gas as an alternative fuel. Two-step-conversion method with catalysts shows a better performance among different techniques for converting CO2. Solar energy is highly interesting for researchers since it is renewable, feasible and abundant. This article reviews the different aspects of two-step-conversion of CO2 driven by solar energy, including the catalysts used for conversions, and the conversion systems with solar energy. The article focuses on ceria (CeO2) as the promising catalyst, and the looping circulating fluidized bed as the reactors for conversion systems with the prospect. The factors affecting the gas-solid interaction in fluidization are also reviewed. As the conclusion, the two-step conversion of CO2 driven by solar energy appears competitive and ceria gets advantages among the involved catalysts.

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