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  • 1.
    Ekbäck, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Kalbro, Thomas
    KTH.
    Lind, Hans
    Lundgren, Berndt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Fastighetsutveckling: Fastighetsekonomiska och fastighetsjuridiska frågor i samhällsbyggnadsprocessen.2015In: Samhällsbyggnadsprocessen: Kurskompendium 2015 / [ed] Peter Ekbäck, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Kalbro, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Hedlund, Björn
    Lundgren, Berndt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Exploateringsprocessens tidiga skeden2008In: Fastighetsekonomisk analys och fastighetsrätt: fastighetsnomenklatur /[Institutet för värdering av fastigheter och Samfundet för fastighetsekonomi], Stockholm: Fastighetsnytt , 2008, 10, p. 121-128Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Lundgren, Berndt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Customer-perceived value in residential developments: the case of Hornsberg Strand, Sweden2013In: International Real Estate Review, ISSN 1029-6131, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new model using the structural equation technique. This model integrates productivity theory and customer-perceived value to identify those key features which residential customers are looking for when making their decision to buy or to rent a residential apartment. The theoretical structural equation model was confirmed using a dataset from 283 respondents, being potential tenants of an ongoing residential construction project in Sweden consisting of 402 rental apartments. Our results show that expectations of being able to relax in the immediate neighborhood as well to feel safe in the neighborhood had a high impact on customer perceived value. Moreover, analysis of a two bedroom apartment, used as a show apartment, shows that an apartment with plenty of natural daylight and a well proportional layout had the highest impact on customer perceived value. Professional developers and municipalities could use the proposed residential customer perceived value model (RCPV-model) to increase their understanding of customer-perceived values by verifying key drivers in successful residential projects and acting on those when planning new development projects.

  • 4.
    Lundgren, Berndt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Customers' perspectives on a residential development using the laddering method2010In: Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, ISSN 1566-4910, E-ISSN 1573-7772, ISSN 1566-4910, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 37-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential development is closely related to the question why some people buy in certain residential developments and others do not. The reason is obvious: if the product is not appreciated by consumers they will search for another alternative which will decrease the estimated market share for a specific residential project. The main idea in this study is to increase our understanding of how to design and build more attractive residential developments by evaluating buyers' needs and preferences. Research concerning the means-end chain theory and the laddering technique has been quite extensive in the food industry but examples in residential development are rare. Laddering interviews were made with respondents who visited open house sales of a tenant-owned apartment on sale. We hypothesize that there exists a difference between bidders and non-bidders regarding their beliefs of functional and psychological consequences and abstract personal values. In our study we did not find any major difference in terminal values, but instrumental values do differ. This is true also for abstract product attributes and functional and psychological consequences. Professional developers and planners were able to use the beliefs of bidders and non-bidders to decide on a re-design of specific locations in the residential development of Frosunda, north of Stockholm, Sweden.

  • 5.
    Lundgren, Berndt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Measuring the perceived performance of a residential development2010In: Journal of Place Management and Development, ISSN 1753-8335, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 38-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether residential buyers' beliefs about the built environment in a specific place influence their willingness to buy in a large-scale real-estate development (RED) by developing and testing a new attitude scale.

    Design/methodology/approach – The empirical study is carried out in two phases. The first phase is a qualitative laddering study to capture the beliefs of potential buyers visiting open sales of apartments on sale in the RED of Frösunda, Sweden. In the second phase, a multivariate analysis is carried out to identify and measure factors that have an influence on their willingness to buy.

    Findings – Five factors are found that describe buyers' beliefs about the built environment: urban environment, architecture, relaxation, safety and liveliness. Buyers' and non-buyers' attitudes towards these factors vary depending on the characteristics of the built environment. The means-end chain model and laddering technique proves useful in eliciting beliefs that describe how a particular place is perceived by potential buyers.

    Research limitations/implications – These findings stem from one case study and a retest should be made using an independent sample to assess the generalisation of the scale.

    Originality/value – This paper demonstrates novel research using the laddering technique, how real-estate buyers' attitudes and their evaluation of performance of the built environment vary depending on location. Practitioners will have a new tool for RED, if the RED scale proves to be broadly applicable to access real-estate buyers' evaluation of the performance of a residential development.

  • 6.
    Lundgren, Berndt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Modelling antecedents to customers’ satisfaction in a residential developmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Lundgren, Berndt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Real Estate Development: A Customer Perspective2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis ‘Real Estate Development: a Customer Perspective’, mainly concerns questions that are related to why consumers make a choice and what they are looking for. The first part of this thesis is the result of the research project ‘Models for the Construction Sector’ (MoPo) and the second part is the result of a collaborative project between KTH Royal Institute of Technology, the Construction Sector Innovation Centre (BIC), five private companies[1] and four municipalities in Stockholm County.

    Since the Latham report (Latham, 1994), there has been considerable debate about the need for an increased focus on the end customer in the construction process. The housing sector in Sweden has a strong tradition in focusing on construction and project management issues and less on customer satisfaction. Similar findings have been reported in ‘Skärpning gubbar’ (Swedish Government Official Report, 2002) and recently, ‘Sega gubbar’ (Byggkommisionen, 2009), which show that attitudes and processes in the housing sector in Sweden have not really changed since the initial report in 2002. From the perspective of consumer-oriented research in residential development, this issue concerns the ability to understand why customers buy (cognition), what they want (the product) and how the message, relating the product to the consumer, should be formulated (marketing). Investment decisions could be improved if developers ask what kind of values have proved to be important for residents and buyers for a specific type of residential development, what the functional and psychological consequences they are looking for are, and then ask what kind of product attributes can be provided, given economic constraints.

    Paper one shows the main activities in how to provide needed facilities and their relationship to the end users’ core business. Paper two shows how the laddering technique can be used to elicit buyers’ beliefs about the built environment, according to the means-end chain theory. The means-end chain theory postulates that buyers purchase a product because it satisfies personal values and desired consequences, which from their perspective are more important than product attributes. Paper three shows the development of a multi-item attitude scale. This scale identifies five key dimensions that are important for the customer when deciding to purchase an apartment in a residential development. The dimensions are: urban environment, architecture, safety, relaxation and liveliness. Paper four shows structural modelling evidence supporting the theoretical assumption that personal values have an impact upon expectations and perceived performance. The structural sub-models show that if perceived performance is increased, customers’ satisfaction will be positively affected. During our research, we have not found any current knowledge in the construction industry in Sweden on how to investigate and measure customers’ values and their beliefs, or how to model customers’ evaluation of product performance using structural equations.

    [1] Besqab, JM, NCC, Stockholm municipality, Solna municipality, Sollentuna municipality, Swedbank, Upplands-Väsby municipality, Veidekkke.

  • 8.
    Lundgren, Berndt
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Björk, Bo-Christer
    A model integrating the facilities management process with the building end user’s business process (ProFacil)2004In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 1, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ProFacil model is a generic process model defined as a framework model showing the links between the facilities management process and the building end user’s business process. The purpose of using the model is to support more detailed process modelling. The model has been developed using the IDEF0 modelling method.The ProFacil model describes business activities from the generalizedpoint of view as management-, support-, and core processes and theirrelations. The model defines basic activities in the provision of a facility.Examples of these activities are “operate facilities”, “provide new facilities”, “provide rebuild facilities”, “provide maintained facilities”and “perform dispose of facilities”. These are all generic activitiesproviding a basis for a further specialisation of company specific FM activities and their tasks. A facilitator can establish a specialized process model using the ProFacil model and interacting with company experts to describe their company’s specific processes. These modelling seminars or interviews will be done in an informal way, supported by the high-level process model as a common reference.

  • 9.
    Lundgren, Berndt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Schultzberg, Mårten
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Stat, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Application of the economic theory of self-control to model energy conservation behavioral change in households2019In: ENERGY, Vol. 183, p. 536-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart meters and in-house displays hold a promise of energy conservation for those who invest in such technology. Research has shown that households only have a limited interest in such technology and information is thus often neglected, with rather limited energy savings. Surprisingly few empirical investigations have a theoretical foundation that may explain what is going on from a behavioral perspective. In this study the economic theory of self-control is used to model energy-efficient behavior in middle-income households in Sweden. Our results show that different levels of energy-efficient behavior do not really have any impact on the actual consumption levels of electricity. Instead, different beliefs exist of being energy-efficient, but the households do not act accordingly. We recommend to policy makers that the payment time period should be changed to pre-paid electricity to stimulate the monitoring of bills and to introduce a gaming strategy to change incentives for energy conservation. rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Lundgren, Berndt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Schultzberg, Mårten
    Department of Statistics, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Application of the economic theory of self-control to model energy conservation behavioral change in householdsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart meters and in-house displays hold a promise of energy conservation for those who invest in such technology. Research has shown that households only have a limited interest in such technology and information is thus often neglected, with rather limited energy savings. Surprisingly few empirical investigations have a theoretical foundation that may explain what is going on from a behavioral perspective. In this study the economic theory of self-control is used to model energy-efficient behavior in middle-income households in Sweden. Our results show that different levels of energy-efficient behavior do not really have any impact on the actual consumption levels of electricity. Instead, different beliefs exist of being energy-efficient, but the households do not act accordingly. Our results suggest that the payment time period should be changed to stimulate the monitoring of bills and to introduce a gaming strategy to change incentives for energy conservation.

  • 11.
    Lundgren, Berndt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Schultzberg, Mårten
    Department of Statistics, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Does energy-effective behavior matter for energt conservation?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart meters and in-house displays hold a promise of energy conservation for those who invest in such technology. Research has shown that households only have a limited interest in such technology and information is thus often neglected, with rather limited energy savings. Surprisingly few empirical investigations have a theoretical foundation that may explain what is going on from a behavioral perspective. In this study the economic theory of self-control is used to model energy-efficient behavior in middle-income households in Sweden. Our results show that different levels of energy-efficient behavior do not really have any impact on the actual consumption levels of electricity. Instead, different beliefs exist of being energy-efficient, but the households do not act accordingly. Our results suggest that the payment time period should be changed to stimulate the monitoring of bills and to introduce a gaming strategy to change incentives for energy conservation.

  • 12.
    Lundgren, Berndt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Measuring unobservable factors in residential developments: a structural equation approach2016In: Journal of European Real Estate Research, ISSN 1753-9269, E-ISSN 1753-9277, Vol. 9, p. 250-272, article id JERER-06-2016-0025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how to measure the effect of unobservable factors on residential choice behaviour in an attempt to advance the understanding of how to perform advanced market analysis. This research is important to residential developers, as the diversity of preferences is increasingly driven by lifestyle-based households and affluent households.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Information about the pros and cons of renting an apartment in an ongoing residential development project in Stockholm came from interviews using the laddering technique. Qualitative data were subsequently analysed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to confirm which factors had the highest effect on an overall assessment of living in the development and a value-for-money conclusion.

    Findings

    Among the potentially important factors identified, respondents who became residents perceived the development to be more noise-free than those who did not when stating the overall value of living in the development and making a value-for-money conclusion. The perception of noise differed between the two groups, meaning that those who did not become residents believed the development to be more exposed to noise. The standard of the apartment was the second most influential factor when stating the overall value of living in the development and making a value-for-money conclusion. The belief of being able to relax in the home environment had no significant effect on overall value for either group.

    Originality/value

    The results show that confirmatory factor analysis can be used in measuring the effect of unobservable factors in residential choice behaviour. The methodology presented may advise developers, architects or planners in evaluating those attributes that create value-for-money to improve, for example, overall design solutions in urban development projects.

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