Change search
Refine search result
1 - 3 of 3
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Kwak, Young-Keun
    et al.
    Högbom, Martin
    Colque-Navarro, Patricia
    Möllby, Roland
    Vécsey-Semjén, Beatrix
    KTH.
    Biological Relevance of Natural alpha-Toxin Fragments from Staphylococcus aureus2010In: Journal of Membrane Biology, ISSN 0022-2631, E-ISSN 1432-1424, Vol. 233, no 1-3, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serine proteases represent an essential part of cellular homeostasis by generating biologically active peptides. In bacteria, proteolysis serves two different roles: a major housekeeping function and the destruction of foreign or target cell proteins, thereby promoting bacterial invasion. In the process, other virulence factors such as exotoxins become affected. In Staphylococcus aureus culture supernatant, the pore-forming alpha-toxin is cleaved by the coexpressed V8 protease and aureolysin. The oligomerizing and pore-forming abilities of five such spontaneously occurring N- and C-terminal alpha-toxin fragments were studied. H-3-marked alpha-toxin fragments bound to rabbit erythrocyte membranes but only fragments with intact C termini, missing 8, 12 and 71 amino acids from their N-terminal, formed stable oligomers. All isolated fragments induced intoxication of mouse adrenocortical Y1 cells in vitro, though the nature of membrane damage for a fragment, degraded at its C terminus, remained obscure. Only one fragment, missing the first eight N-terminal amino acids, induced irreversible intoxication of Y1 cells in the same manner as the intact toxin. Four of the isolated fragments caused swelling, indicating altered channel formation. Fragments missing 12 and 71 amino acids from the N terminus occupied the same binding sites on Y1 cell membranes, though they inhibited membrane damage caused by intact toxin. In conclusion, N-terminal deletions up to 71 amino acids are tolerated, though the kinetics of channel formation and the channel's properties are altered. In contrast, digestion at the C terminus results in nonfunctional species.

  • 2. Kwak, Young-Keun
    et al.
    Vikström, Elena
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Vécsey-Semjén, Beatrix
    KTH.
    Colque-Navarro, Patricia
    Möllby, Roland
    The Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin Perturbs the Barrier Function in Caco-2 Epithelial Cell Monolayers by Altering Junctional Integrity2012In: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 80, no 5, p. 1670-1680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased microvascular permeability is a hallmark of sepsis and septic shock. Intestinal mucosal dysfunction may allow translocation of bacteria and their products, thereby promoting sepsis and inflammation. Although Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin significantly contributes to sepsis and perturbs the endothelial barrier function, little is known about possible effects of S. aureus alpha-toxin on human epithelial barrier functions. We hypothesize that S. aureus alpha-toxin in the blood can impair the intestinal epithelial barrier and thereby facilitate the translocation of luminal bacteria into the blood, which may in turn aggravate a septic condition. Here, we showed that staphylococcal alpha-toxin disrupts the barrier integrity of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells as evidenced by decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and reduced cellular levels of junctional proteins, such as ZO-1, ZO-3, and E-cadherin. The Caco-2 cells also responded to alpha-toxin with an elevated cytosolic calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+](i)), elicited primarily by calcium influx from the extracellular environment, as well as with a significant reduction in TER, which was modulated by intracellular calcium chelation. Moreover, a significantly larger reduction in TER and amounts of the junctional proteins, viz., ZO-3 and occludin, was achieved by basolateral than by apical application of the alpha-toxin. These experimental findings thus support the hypothesis that free staphylococcal alpha-toxin in the bloodstream may cause intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction and further aggravate the septic condition by promoting the release of intestinal bacteria into the underlying tissues and the blood.

  • 3.
    Vécsey-Semjén, Beatrix
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kwak, Young-Keun
    Högbom, Martin
    Möllby, Roland
    Channel-Forming Abilities of Spontaneously Occurring alpha-Toxin Fragments from Staphylococcus aureus2010In: Journal of Membrane Biology, ISSN 0022-2631, E-ISSN 1432-1424, Vol. 234, no 3, p. 171-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pore formation by four spontaneously occurring alpha-toxin fragments from Staphylococcus aureus were investigated on liposome and erythrocyte membranes. All the isolated fragments bound to the different types of membranes and formed transmembrane channels in egg-phosphatidyl glycerol vesicles. Fragments of amino acids (aa) 9-293 (32 kD) and aa 13-293 (31 kD) formed heptamers, similar to the intact toxin, while the aa 72-293 (26 kD) fragment formed heptamers, octamers, and nonamers, as judged by gel electrophoresis of the liposomes. All isolated fragments induced release of chloride ions from large unilamellar vesicles. Channel formation was promoted by acidic pH and negatively charged lipid head groups. Also, the fragments' hemolytic activity was strongly decreased under neutral conditions but could be partially restored by acidification of the medium. We paid special attention to the 26-kD fragment, which, despite the loss of about one-fourth of the N-terminal part of alpha-toxin, did form transmembrane channels in liposomes. In light of the available data on channel formation by alpha-toxin, our results suggest that proteolytic degradation might be better tolerated than previously reported. Channel opening could be inhibited and open channels could be closed by zinc in the medium. Channel closure could be reversed by addition of EDTA. In contrast, digestion at the C terminus led to premature oligomerization and resulted in species with strongly diminished activity and dependent on protonation.

1 - 3 of 3
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf