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  • 1.
    Chiu, Justin NingWei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Viktoria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Setterwall, Fredrik
    A Review of Thermal Energy Storage Systems with Salt Hydrate Phase Change Materials for Comfort Cooling2009In: 11th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage, June 14-17 , 2009, Stockholm, Sweden., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a review of cold thermal energy storage technologies. Latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) with phase change materials (PCMs) deserves attention as they provide high energy density and small temperature change interval upon melting/solidifying. Salt hydrates are especially interesting since they demonstrate high latent heat of fusion, high thermal conductivity, low flammability, and facilitate the use in buildings as compared to organic PCMs. A review of system performance obtained from experimental work, theoretical analyses and real case studies has however shown some material shortcomings. To reach cost effectiveness, future work in the field of LHTES with salt hydrates lies in finding suitable methods for limiting incongruent melting and subcooling without compromising the storage density. Also, system integration of LHTES in cold applications can be further developed in terms of innovative design for high power and storage capacity, load optimized sizing, controls, and elimination of PCM encapsulation.

  • 2.
    Chiu, Justin NingWei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Viktoria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Setterwall, Fredrik
    Next Generation Cost Effective Phase Change Materials: TUD Action COST-STSM-TU0802-052552009Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Chiu, Justin NingWei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Viktoria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Setterwall, Fredrik
    System Integration of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems for Comfort Cooling Integrated in district cooling network2009In: 11th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage, EFFSTOCK 2009, Stockholm, Sweden, June 14-17, 2009., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latent heat thermal energy storage for comfort cooling with phase change materials (PCMs) has increasingly gained attention. For effective system integration, an optimized strategy for load shifting to cut down peak hour energy use is needed. With the focus on overall system performance, this paper addresses matching of a cold storage capacity and power to a demand while assessing the cost effectiveness of the PCM technology. A simulation model based on one office building cooling load in Stockholm Sweden was used. Storage capacity, power output and PCM cost were shown to be the predominant factors in a system design. It has been found that load leveling can cost effectively reduce the peak load by 5% to 9% in a fixed tariff system. However, with 50% reduction in today’s PCM price combined with removal of district cooling return temperature penalty, the peak power reduction rate may be increased to 30%.

  • 4.
    He, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Martin, Viktoria
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Setterwall, Fredrik
    Phase transition temperature ranges and storage density of paraffin wax phase change materials2004In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 1785-1804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paraffin waxes have been used in many latent thermal energy storage applications because of their advantageous thermal performances. In this paper, the liquid-solid phase diagram of the binary system of tetradecane and hexadecane has been used to obtain information of the phase transition processes for cool storage applications. The analysis of the phase diagram indicates that, except for the minimum-melting point mixture, all mixtures melt and freeze in a temperature range and not at a constant temperature. The latent heat of fusion evolves throughout this temperature range. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the thermophysical properties of the binary system. Depending on the DSC settings throughout the measurements, varying results were obtained. For example, when the DSC runs at a high heating/cooling rate, it will lead to erroneous information. Also, the correct phase transition temperature range cannot be obtained simply from DSC measurement. By combining phase equilibrium considerations with DSC measurements, a reliable design method to incorporate both the heat of phase change and the temperature range is presented.

  • 5. Iwata, S.
    et al.
    Iwata, O.
    Olson, L.
    Kapetanakis, A.
    Kato, T.
    Evans, S.
    Araki, Y.
    Kakuma, T.
    Matsuishi, T.
    Setterwall, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Lagercrantz, H.
    Robertson, N. J.
    Therapeutic hypothermia can be induced and maintained using either commercial water bottles or a "phase changing material'' mattress in a newborn piglet model2009In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 387-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Therapeutic hypothermia, a safe and effective treatment for neonatal encephalopathy in an intensive care setting, is not available in low-resource settings. Aims/Methods: To assess two low-tech, low-cost cooling devices for use in low-resource settings: (i) commercially available water bottles filled with tepid water (25 degrees C); (ii) a mattress made of phase changing material (PCM) with a melting point of 32 degrees C (PCM works as a heat buffer at this temperature). Eleven anaesthetised newborn piglets were studied following transient hypoxia-ischaemia. The cooling device was applied 2-26 h after hypoxia-ischaemia with a target rectal temperature (T-rectal) of 33-34 degrees C. T-rectal undershoot was adjusted using cotton blankets; the cooling device was renewed when T-rectal rose above 35 degrees C. T-rectal data during cooling were dichotomised (within or without target) to assess: (a) the total period within the target T-rectal range; (b) the stability and fluctuation of T-rectal during cooling. Results: Therapeutic hypothermia was achieved with both water bottles (n=5) and the PCM mattress (n=6). The mean (SD) time to reach target T-rectal was 1.8 (0.5) h with water bottles and 1.9 (0.3) h with PCM. PCM cooling led to a longer period within the target T-rectal range (p<0.01) and more stable cooling (p<0.05). Water bottle cooling required device renewal (in four out of five piglets). Conclusion: Simple, low-tech cooling devices can induce and maintain therapeutic hypothermia effectively in a porcine model of neonatal encephalopathy, although frequent fine tuning by adjusting the number of blankets insulating the piglet was required to maintain a stable temperature. PCM may induce more stable cooling compared with water bottles.

  • 6.
    Kapetanakis, A. B.
    et al.
    UCL, Ctr Perinatal Brain Res, Inst Womens Hlth, London, England..
    Iwata, S.
    UCL, Ctr Perinatal Brain Res, Inst Womens Hlth, London, England..
    Olson, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Woman & Child Hlth, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Iwata, O.
    UCL, Ctr Perinatal Brain Res, Inst Womens Hlth, London, England..
    Kato, T.
    UCL, Ctr Perinatal Brain Res, Inst Womens Hlth, London, England..
    Evans, S.
    UCL, Ctr Perinatal Brain Res, Inst Womens Hlth, London, England..
    Setterwall, F.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Lagercrantz, H.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Woman & Child Hlth, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Robertson, N.
    UCL, Ctr Perinatal Brain Res, Inst Womens Hlth, London, England..
    Low tech versus high tech methods of cooling: both are effective but need similar monitoring and device adjustment for safe therapeutic hypothermia2007In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 96, p. 162-163Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Kato, T.
    et al.
    UCL, Inst Womens Hlth, Ctr Perinatal Brain Res, London, England..
    Iwata, O.
    UCL, Inst Womens Hlth, Ctr Perinatal Brain Res, London, England..
    Olson, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Woman & Child Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Iwata, S.
    UCL, Inst Womens Hlth, Ctr Perinatal Brain Res, London, England..
    Kapetanakis, A. B.
    UCL, Inst Womens Hlth, Ctr Perinatal Brain Res, London, England..
    Evans, S.
    UCL, Inst Womens Hlth, Ctr Perinatal Brain Res, London, England..
    Setterwall, F.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Lagercrantz, H.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Woman & Child Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Robertson, N.
    UCL, Inst Womens Hlth, Ctr Perinatal Brain Res, London, England..
    Therapeutic hypothermia can be effectively maintained using simple, low tech cooling devices: Implications for the global application of newborn neuroprotection2007In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 96, p. 164-164Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Martin, Viktoria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Setterwall, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Compact Heat Storage for Solar Heating Systems2009In: Journal of solar energy engineering, ISSN 0199-6231, E-ISSN 1528-8986, Vol. 131, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and cost efficient solar hot water systems require some sort of integrated storage, with high energy density and high power capacity for charging and discharging being desirable properties of the storage. This paper presents the results and conclusions from the design, and experimental performance evaluation of high capacity thermal energy storage using so-called phase change materials (PCMs) as the storage media. A 140 l 15 kW h storage prototype was designed, built, and experimentally evaluated. The storage tank was directly filled with the PCM having its phase change temperature at 58 degrees C. A tube heat exchanger for charging and discharging with water was submerged in the PCM. Results from the experimental evaluation showed that hot water can be provided with a temperature of 40 degrees C for more than 2 h at an average power of 3 kW. The experimental results also show that it is possible to charge the 140 l storage with close to the theoretically calculated value of 15 kW h. Hence, this is a PCM storage solution with a storage capacity of over 100 kW h/m(3), and an average power capacity during discharging of over 20 kW/m(3). However, it is desirable to increase the heat transfer rate within the prototype. A predesign of using a finned-tube coil instead of an unfinned coil show that by using finned tube, the power capacity for discharging can be at least doubled, if not tripled.

1 - 8 of 8
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