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  • 1. Chen, Hong
    et al.
    Zhao, Huishuang
    Yu, Zheng-Bao
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Sun, Licheng
    Sun, Junliang
    Construct Polyoxometalate Frameworks through Covalent Bonds2015In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 54, no 17, p. 8699-8704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An emerging strategy for exploring the application of polyoxometalates (POMs) is to assemble POM clusters into open-framework materials, especially inorganic organic hybrid three-dimensional (3D) open-framework materials, via the introduction of different organic linkers between the POM clusters. This strategy has yielded a few 3D crystalline POMs of which a typical class is the group of polyoxometalate metal organic frameworks (POMMOFs). However, for reported POMMOFs, only coordination bonds are involved between the linkers and POM clusters, and it has not yet produced any covalently bonded polyoxometalate frameworks. Here, the concept of "covalently bonded POMs (CPOMs)" is developed. By using vanadoborates as an example, we showed that the 3D CPOMs can be obtained by a condensation reaction through the oxolation mechanism of polymer chemistry. In particular, suitable single crystals were harvested and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This work forges a link among polymer science, POM chemistry, and open-framework materials by demonstrating that it is possible to use covalent bonds according to polymer chemistry principles to construct crystalline 3D open-framework POM materials.

  • 2.
    Daniel, Quentin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Huang, Ping
    Fan, Ting
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Wang, Ying
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Rinkevicius, Zilvinas
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Ahlquist, Mårten S. G.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Mamedov, Fikret
    Styring, Stenbjörn
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Rearranging from 6-to 7-coordination initiates the catalytic activity: An EPR study on a Ru-bda water oxidation catalyst2017In: Coordination chemistry reviews, ISSN 0010-8545, E-ISSN 1873-3840, Vol. 346, p. 206-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coordination of a substrate water molecule on a metal centered catalyst for water oxidation is a crucial step involving the reorganization of the ligand sphere. This process can occur by substituting a coordinated ligand with a water molecule or via a direct coordination of water onto an open site. In 2009, we reported an efficient ruthenium-based molecular catalyst, Ru-bda, for water oxidation. Despite the impressive improvement in catalytic activity of this type of catalyst over the past years, a lack of understanding of the water coordination still remains. Herein, we report our EPR and DFT studies on Ru-bda (triethylammonium 3-pyridine sulfonate)(2) (1) at its Ru-III oxidation state, which is the initial state in the catalytic cycle for the O-O bond formation. Our investigation suggests that at this III-state, there is already a rearrangement in the ligand sphere where the coordination of a water molecule at the 7th position (open site) takes place under acidic conditions (pH = 1.0) to form a rare 7-coordinated Ru-III species.

  • 3.
    Daniel, Quentin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Dalian Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Tailored design of ruthenium molecular catalysts with 2,2 '-bypyridine-6,6 '-dicarboxylate and pyrazole based ligands for water oxidation2016In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 45, no 37, p. 14689-14696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the incorporation of pyrazole and DMSO as axial ligands, a series of tailor-designed Ru water oxidation catalysts [Ru(bda)(DMSO)(L)] (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bypyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid; DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide; L = pyrazole, A-1; 4-Br-3-methyl pyrazole, B-1) and [Ru(bda)(L)(2)] (L = pyrazole, A-2; 4-Br-3-methyl pyrazole, B-2) have been generated in situ from their corresponding precursors [Ru(kappa(O,N,N)(3)-bda) (DMSO)(x)(L)(3-x)] which are in a zwitterionic form with an extra pyrazole based ligand in the equatorial position. Formation of the active catalyst has been investigated under pH 1.0 conditions. Electrochemistry and water oxidation activity of these catalysts were investigated. By fine tuning of the catalyst structure, the turnover frequency was increased up to 500 s(-1) and the stability over 6000 turnovers.

  • 4.
    Duan, Lele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Inge, A. Ken
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Insights into Ru-Based Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysts: Electronic and Noncovalent-Interaction Effects on Their Catalytic Activities2013In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 52, no 14, p. 7844-7852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of Ru-bda water oxidation catalysts [Ru(bda)L-2] (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid; L = [HNEt3][3-SO3-pyridine], 1; 4-(EtOOC)-pyridine, 2; 4-bromopyridine, 3; pyridine, 4; 4-methoxypyridine, 5; 4-(Me2N)-pyridine, 6; 4-[Ph(CH2)(3)]-pyridine, 7) were synthesized with election-donating/-withdrawing groups and hydro-philic/hydrophobic groups in the axial ligands. These complexes were characterized by H-1 NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and electrochemistry. In addition, complexes 1 and 6 were further identified by single crystal X-ray crystallography, revealing a highly distorted octahedral configuration of the Ru coordination sphere. All of these complexes are highly active toward Ce-IV-driven (Ce-IV = Ce(NH4)(2)(NO3)(6)) water oxidation with oxygen evolution rates up to 119 mols of O-2 per mole of catalyst per second. Their structure-activity relationship was investigated. Electron-withdrawing and noncovalent interactions (attraction) exhibit positive effect on the catalytic activity of Ru-bda catalysts.

  • 5.
    Duan, Lele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Fei
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Institute of Artificial Photosynthesis, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian, China.
    Highly Efficient Bioinspired Molecular Ru Water Oxidation Catalysts with Negatively Charged Backbone Ligands2015In: Accounts of Chemical Research, ISSN 0001-4842, E-ISSN 1520-4898, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 2084-2096Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of the natural photosynthesis system II (PSII) oxidizes water to produce oxygen and reducing equivalents (protons and electrons). The oxygen released from PSII provides the oxygen source of our atmosphere; the reducing equivalents are used to reduce carbon dioxide to organic products, which support almost all organisms on the Earth planet. The first photosynthetic organisms able to split water were proposed to be cyanobacteria-like ones appearing ca. 2.5 billion years ago. Since then, nature has chosen a sustainable way by using solar energy to develop itself. Inspired by nature, human beings started to mimic the functions of the natural photosynthesis system and proposed the concept of artificial photosynthesis (AP) with the view to creating energy-sustainable societies and reducing the impact on the Earth environments. Water oxidation is a highly energy demanding reaction and essential to produce reducing equivalents for fuel production, and thereby effective water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) are required to catalyze water oxidation and reduce the energy loss. X-ray crystallographic studies on PSII have revealed that the OEC consists of a Mn4CaO5 cluster surrounded by oxygen rich ligands, such as oxyl, oxo, and carboxylate ligands. These negatively charged, oxygen rich ligands strongly stabilize the high valent states of the Mn cluster and play vital roles in effective water oxidation catalysis with low overpotential. This Account describes our endeavors to design effective Ru WOCs with low overpotential, large turnover number, and high turnover frequency by introducing negatively charged ligands, such as carboxylate. Negatively charged ligands stabilized the high valent states of Ru catalysts, as evidenced by the low oxidation potentials. Meanwhile, the oxygen production rates of our Ru catalysts were improved dramatically as well. Thanks to the strong electron donation ability of carboxylate containing ligands, a seven-coordinate Ru-IV species was isolated as a reaction intermediate, shedding light on the reaction mechanisms of Ru-catalyzed water oxidation chemistry. Auxiliary ligands have dramatic effects on the water oxidation catalysis in terms of the reactivity and the reaction mechanism. For instance, Ru-bda (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts catalyze Ce-IV-driven water oxidation extremely fast via the radical coupling of two Ru-V=O species, while Ru-pda (H(2)pda = 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts catalyze the same reaction slowly via water nucleophilic attack on a Ru-V-O species. With a number of active Ru catalysts in hands, light driven water oxidation was accomplished using catalysts with low catalytic onset potentials. The structures of molecular catalysts could be readily tailored to introduce additional functional groups, which favors the fabrication of state-of-the-art Ru-based water oxidation devices, such as electrochemical water oxidation anodes and photo-electrochemical anodes. The development of efficient water oxidation catalysts has led to a step forward in the sustainable energy system.

  • 6.
    Fan, Ke
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Quentin, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Chen, H.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, J.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Center on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian, China.
    Immobilization of a Molecular Ruthenium Catalyst on Hematite Nanorod Arrays for Water Oxidation with Stable Photocurrent2015In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 8, no 19, p. 3242-3247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells for light-driven water splitting are prepared using hematite nanorod arrays on conductive glass as the photoanode. These devices improve the photocurrent of the hematite-based photoanode for water splitting, owing to fewer surface traps and decreased electron recombination resulting from the one-dimensional structure. By employing a molecular ruthenium co-catalyst, which contains a strong 2,6-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid anchoring group at the hematite photoanode, the photocurrent of the PEC cell is enhanced with high stability for over 10000s in a 1M KOH solution. This approach can pave a route for combining one-dimensional nanomaterials and molecular catalysts to split water with high efficiency and stability.

  • 7. Gao, Yan
    et al.
    Ding, Xin
    Liu, Jianhui
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Lu, Zhongkai
    Li, Lin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Visible Light Driven Water Splitting in a Molecular Device with Unprecedentedly High Photocurrent Density2013In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 135, no 11, p. 4219-4222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A molecular water oxidation catalyst (2) has been synthesized and immobilized together with a molecular photosensitizer (1) on nanostructured TiO2 particles on FTO conducting glass, forming a photoactive anode (TiO2(1+2)). By using the TiO2(1+2) as working electrode in a three-electrode photoelectrochemical cell (PEC), visible light driven water splitting has been successfully demonstrated in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8), with oxygen and hydrogen bubbles evolved respectively from the working electrode and counter electrode. By applying 0.2 V external bias vs NHE, a high photocurrent density of more than 1.7 rnA.cm(-2) has been achieved. This value is higher than any PEC devices with molecular components reported in literature.

  • 8.
    Li, Fusheng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Fan, Ke
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Control the O-O bond formation pathways by immobilizing molecular catalysts on glassy carbon via electrochemical polymerizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular water oxidation catalysts Ru-bda (1) and Ru-pda (2) are electrochemically polymerized on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Reaction orders and kinetic isotope effects (KIE) of the corresponding electrodes are studied. Results indicate that poly-1@GC goes through a radical coupling pathway. By adding poly-styrene (PSt) as a “blocking unit” in the poly-1, the radical coupling process of Ru-bda is blocked, and poly-1+PSt@GC catalyzes water oxidation through the water nucleophilic attack pathway. In comparison, catalyst 2, which oxidizes water via water nucleophilic attack path in homogeneous systems, goes through a radical coupling pathway as well when 2 is polymerized on glassy carbon (poly-2@GC).

  • 9.
    Staehle, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Tong, Lianpeng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Ahlquist, Mårten S. G.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Rau, Sven
    Water oxidation catalyzed by mononuclear ruthenium complexes with a 2,2′-bipyridine-6,6′-dicarboxylate (bda) ligand: How ligand environment influences the catalytic behavior2014In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 1307-1319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new water oxidation catalyst [RuIII(bda)(mmi)(OH 2)](CF3SO3) (2, H2bda = 2,2′-bipyridine-6,6′-dicarboxylic acid; mmi = 1,3- dimethylimidazolium-2-ylidene) containing an axial N-heterocyclic carbene ligand and one aqua ligand was synthesized and fully characterized. The kinetics of catalytic water oxidation by 2 were measured using stopped-flow technique, and key intermediates in the catalytic cycle were probed by density functional theory calculations. While analogous Ru-bda water oxidation catalysts [Ru(bda)L2] (L = pyridyl ligands) are supposed to catalyze water oxidation through a bimolecular coupling pathway, our study points out that 2, surprisingly, undergoes a single-site water nucleophilic attack (acid-base) pathway. The diversion of catalytic mechanisms is mainly ascribed to the different ligand environments, from nonaqua ligands to an aqua ligand. Findings in this work provide some critical proof for our previous hypothesis about how alternation of ancillary ligands of water oxidation catalysts influences their catalytic efficiency.

  • 10.
    Tong, Lianpeng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Inge, A. Ken
    Stockholm University.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Catalytic Water Oxidation by Mononuclear Ru Complexes with an Anionic Ancillary Ligand2013In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 2505-2518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mononuclear Ru-based water oxidation catalysts containing anionic ancillary ligands have shown promising catalytic efficiency and intriguing properties. However, their insolubility in water restricts a detailed mechanism investigation. In order to overcome this disadvantage, complexes [Ru-II(bpc)(bpy)OH2](+) (1(+), bpc = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-carboxylate, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru-II(bpc)(pic)(3)](+) (2(+), pic = 4-picoline) were prepared and fully characterized, which features an anionic tridentate ligand and has enough solubility for spectroscopic study in water. Using Ce-IV as an electron acceptor, both complexes are able to catalyze O-2-evolving reaction with an impressive rate constant. On the basis of the electrochemical and kinetic studies, a water nucleophilic attack pathway was proposed as the dominant catalytic cycle of the catalytic water oxidation by 1(+), within which several intermediates were detected by MS. Meanwhile, an auxiliary pathway that is related to the concentration of Ce-IV was also revealed. The effect of anionic ligand regarding catalytic water oxidation was discussed explicitly in comparison with previously reported mononuclear Ru catalysts carrying neutral tridentate ligands, for example, 2,2':6',2 ''-terpyridine (tpy). When 2(+) was oxidized to the trivalent state, one of its picoline ligands dissociated from the Ru center. The rate constant of picoline dissociation was evaluated from time-resolved UV-vis spectra.

  • 11.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Artificial Photosynthesis: Molecular Catalysts for Water Oxidation2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial photosynthesis provides a promising solution to the future sustainable energy system. Water is the only suitably sufficient protons and electrons supplier by the reaction of water oxidation. However, this reaction is both kinetically and thermodynamically demanding, leading to a sluggish kinetics unless the introduction of a catalyst.The theme of this thesis is to design, synthesize and evaluate molecular catalysts for water oxidation. This thesis consists of seven parts:The first chapter presents a general introduction to the field of homogenous catalysis of water oxidation, including catalysts design, examination and mechanistic investigation.The second chapter investigates the electronic and noncovalent-interaction effects of the ligands on the activities of the catalysts.In the third chapter, halogen substitutes are introduced into the axial ligands of the ruthenium catalysts. It is proved that the hydrophobic effect of the halogen atom dramatically enhanced the reactivity of the catalysts.Chapter four explores a novel group of ruthenium catalysts with imidazole-DMSO pair of axial ligands, in which the DMSO is proved to be crucial for the high efficiency of the catalysts.Chapter five describes the light-driven water oxidation including the three-component system and the sensitizer-catalyst assembled system. It is found that the common Ru(bpy)32+ dye can act as an electron relay and further benefit the electron transfer as well as the photo-stability of the system.In chapter six, aiming to the future application, selected ruthenium catalysts have been successfully immobilized on electrodes surfaces, and the electrochemical water oxidation is achieved with high efficiency.Finally, in the last chapter, a novel molecular catalyst based on the earth abundant metal ―nickel has been designed and synthesized. The activities as well as the mechanism have been explored.

  • 12.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Yang, Yi
    Rensmo, Hakan
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Dalian Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Promoting the Water Oxidation Catalysis by Synergistic Interactions between Ni(OH)(2) and Carbon Nanotubes2016In: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 6, no 15, article id 1600516Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Ambre, Ram B.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Quentin, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Chen, Hong
    Sun, Junliang
    Das, Biswanath
    Thapper, Anders
    Uhlig, Jens
    Dinér, Peter
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Dalian University of Technology (DUT), China.
    A Nickel (II) PY5 Complex as an Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation2016In: Journal of Catalysis, ISSN 0021-9517, Vol. 335, p. 72-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Ni-PY5 [PY5 = 2,6-bis(1,1-bis(2-pyridyl)ethyl)pyridine)] complex has been found to act as an electrocatalyst for oxidizing water to dioxygen in aqueous phosphate buffer solutions. The rate of water oxidation catalyzed by the Ni-PY5 is remarkably enhanced by the proton acceptor base HPO42−, with rate constant of 1820 M−1 s−1. Controlled potential bulk electrolysis with Ni-PY5 at pH 10.8 under an applied potential of 1.5 V vs. normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) resulted in dioxygen formation with a high faradaic efficiency over 90%. A detailed mechanistic study identifies the water nucleophilic attack pathway for water oxidation catalysis.

  • 14.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Stewart, Beverly
    Pu, Maoping
    Liu, Jianhui
    Privalov, Timofei
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Toward Controlling Water Oxidation Catalysis: Tunable Activity of Ruthenium Complexes with Axial Imidazole/DMSO Ligands2012In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 134, no 45, p. 18868-18880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the combinations of imidazole and dimethyl :sulfoxide (DMSO) as axial ligands and 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate (bda) as the equatorial ligand, we have synthesized six novel ruthenium complexes with noticeably different activity as water oxidation catalysts (WOCs). In four C-s symmetric Ru-II(kappa(3)-bda)(DMSO)L-2 complexes L = imidazole (1), N-methylimidazole (2), 5-methylimidazole (3), and 5-bromo-N-methylimidazole (4). Additionally, in two C-2v symmetric Ru-II(kappa(4)-bda)L-2 complexes L = 5-nitroimidazole (5) and 5-bromo-N-methylimidazole (6), that is, fully equivalent axial imidazoles. A detailed characterization of all complexes and the mechanistic investigation of the catalytic water oxidation have been carried out with a number of experimental techniques, that is, kinetics, electrochemistry and high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We have observed the in situ formation: of a Ru-II-complex with the accessible seventh coordination position. The measured catalytic activities and kinetics of complex 1-6 revealed details about an important structure activity relation: the connection between the nature of axial ligands in the combination and either the increase or decrease of the catalytic activity. In particular, an axial DMSO group substantially increases the turnover frequency of WOCs reported in article, with the ruthenium-complex having one axial 5-bromo-N-methylimidazole and one axial DMSO: (4), we have obtained a high initial turnover frequency of similar to 180 s(-1). DFT modeling Of the binuclear reaction pathway of the O-O bond formation in catalytic Water oxidation further corroborated the concept of the mechanistic significance of the axial ligands and rationalized the experimentally observed difference in the activity of complexes with imidazole/DMSO and imidazole/imidazole combinations of axial ligands.

  • 15.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Tong, Lianpeng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Visible light-driven water oxidation catalyzed by mononuclear ruthenium complexes2013In: Journal of Catalysis, ISSN 0021-9517, E-ISSN 1090-2694, Vol. 306, p. 129-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of mononuclear ruthenium water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) [Ru(bda)L-2] (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid; L = N-cyclic aromatic ligands) were investigated in three-component light-driven water oxidation systems composed of photosensitizers, a sacrificial electron acceptor, and WOCs. A high turnover number of 579 for water oxidation was achieved in the homogeneous system using complex 4 ([Ru(bda)(4-Br-pyridine)(2)]) as the WOC, and a high quantum efficiency of 17% was found which is a new record for visible light-driven water oxidation in homogeneous systems.

  • 16.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Ying
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Ahlquist, Mårten
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Center on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT)Dalian, China .
    Highly efficient and robust molecular water oxidation catalysts based on ruthenium complexes2014In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 50, no 85, p. 12947-12950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two monomeric ruthenium molecular catalysts for water oxidation have been prepared, and both of them show high activities in pH 1.0 aqueous solutions, with an initial rate of over 1000 turnover s(-1) by complex 1, and a turnover number of more than 100 000 by complex 2.

  • 17.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Fan, Ke
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Towards efficient and robust anodes for water splitting: Immobilization of Ru catalysts on carbon electrode and hematite by in situ polymerization2017In: Catalysis Today, ISSN 0920-5861, E-ISSN 1873-4308, Vol. 290, p. 73-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ru-bda based molecular water oxidation catalysts 1 and 2 (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) containing a thiophene group are attached to the surfaces of electrodes by the method of electropolymerization. The Ru-bda molecular catalyst functionalized graphite carbon electrode can catalyze water oxidation efficiently under a overpotential of ca 500 mV to obtain current density of 5 mA cm(-2); and the similarly functionalized photoelectrode based on alpha-Fe2O3 (hematite) film can work as an photoanode for light driven water splitting.

  • 18.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Fan, Ke
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Towards Water Splitting Device: Functionalizing Electrodes with Ru catalyst by in situPolymerizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Fan, Ke
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Philippe, B.
    Rensmo, H.
    Chen, H.
    Sun, J.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Electrochemical driven water oxidation by molecular catalysts in situ polymerized on the surface of graphite carbon electrode2015In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 51, no 37, p. 7883-7886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple strategy to immobilize highly efficient ruthenium based molecular water-oxidation catalysts on the basal-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (BPG) by polymerization has been demonstrated. The electrode 1@BPG has obtained a high initial turnover frequency (TOF) of 10.47 s-1 at ∼700 mV overpotential, and a high turnover number (TON) up to 31600 in 1 h electrolysis.

  • 20. Wang, Lei
    et al.
    Yang, Xichuan
    Zhao, Jianghua
    Zhang, Fuguo
    Wang, Xiuna
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Efficient Organic Sensitizers with Pyridine-N-oxide as an Anchor Group for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2014In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 2640-2646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five organic dyes with pyridine-N-oxide as the anchor group and electron acceptor have been synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Benzothiadiazole was introduced in the conjugation system to increase the electron withdrawing properties, FTIR spectra showed that the coordination was between the pyridine-N-oxide and the Bronsted acid site on the TiO2 surface. The relationship between different dye structures and the performance of the DSSCs was investigated systematically. The location of the thiophene unit was studied, and the direct linkage of benzothiadiazole with pyridine-Noxide was beneficial to broaden the absorption. The donor-acceptor-acceptor-configured dye WL307, which has 2-ethylhexyloxy chains in the donor part, showed the best efficiency of 6.08% under 100 mWcm(-2) light illumination. The dye series showed a fairly good stability during the one month test period.

  • 21.
    Wang, Ying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Chen, Hong
    Sun, Junliang
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Ahlquist, Mårten S. G.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Alkene Epoxidation Catalysts [Ru(pdc)(tpy)] and [Ru(pdc)(pybox)] Revisited: Revealing a Unique Ru-IV=O Structure from a Dimethyl Sulfoxide Coordinating Complex2015In: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, E-ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 5, no 7, p. 3966-3972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The X-ray crystal structure of a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) coordinating complex [Ru-II(kappa(2)-pdc)(tpy)(DMSO)] (H(2)pdc = 2,6-pyridyl dicarboxylic acid and tpy = 2,2':6',2 ''-terpyridine) led to the discovery of a unique Ru-IV=O configuration for the Ru-pybox (pybox = pyridine-bis(oxazoline) ligands) epoxidation catalyst by theoretical calculations. On the basis of this structure, a detailed theoretical study was conducted on the alkene epoxidation reaction using ruthenium-based epoxidation catalysts. It was found that the process of H2O2 coordination proceeded via an associative path in which one carboxylate detached. The following H2O-elimination step was found to be facilitated by the detached carboxylate group. The resulting Ru-IV=O rearranges to the species trans-2a-oxo, in which one carboxylate group is situated over the tpy ring; the trans-2a-oxo was found to have the lowest activation free energies toward alkene epoxidation. These results demonstrated the importance of the hemilabile properties of the pdc(2-) ligand for the Ru-pdc alkene epoxidation catalysts.

  • 22. Yamamoto, Masanori
    et al.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Fukushima, Takashi
    Tanaka, Koji
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Imahori, Hiroshi
    Visible light-driven water oxidation using a covalently-linked molecular catalyst-sensitizer dyad assembled on a TiO2 electrode2016In: Chemical Science, ISSN 2041-6520, E-ISSN 2041-6539, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1430-1439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of porphyrin as a sensitizer and a ruthenium complex as a water oxidation catalyst (WOC) is promising to exploit highly efficient molecular artificial photosynthetic systems. A covalently-linked ruthenium-based WOC-zinc porphyrin (ZnP) sensitizer dyad was assembled on a TiO2 electrode for visible-light driven water oxidation. The water oxidation activity was found to be improved in comparison to the reference systems with the simple combination of the individual WOC and ZnP as well as with ZnP solely, demonstrating the advantage of the covalent linking approach over the non-covalent one. More importantly, via vectorial multi-step electron transfer triggered by visible light, the dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell (DSPEC) achieved a broader PEC response in the visible region than DSPECs with conventional ruthenium-based sensitizers. Initial incident photon-to-current efficiencies of 18% at 424 nm and 6.4% at 564 nm were attained under monochromatic illumination and an external bias of -0.2 V vs. NHE. Fast electron transfer from the WOC to the photogenerated radical cation of the sensitizer through the covalent linkage may suppress undesirable charge recombination, realizing the moderate performance of water oxidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of the photoanodes before and after the DSPEC operation suggested that most of the ruthenium species exist at higher oxidation states, implying that the insufficient oxidation potential of the ZnP moiety for further oxidizing the intermediate ruthenium species at the photoanode is at least the bottleneck of the system.

1 - 22 of 22
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