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  • 1. Annadotter, Helene
    et al.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Forssblad, Johan
    Brown lakes: causes, effects and remedial measures2012Inngår i: Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water: 4th International Conference on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water (METEAU), LONDON: IWA PUBLISHING , 2012, s. 171-171Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2. Brenner, A.
    et al.
    Persson, K. M.
    Russell, L.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kozisek, F.
    Technical and mineral level effects of water treatment2015Inngår i: Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions, Springer, 2015, s. 103-117Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Reverse Osmosis is used for desalination of especially sea water in areas suffering from water shortage, and there are thousands and thousands of desalination plants around the world and more to come. The produced high–purity water tends to be corrosive, and lacks minerals, causing decreased daily intake and loss of minerals from the body. Thus, such water needs re–mineralization. Water with toxic substances is harmful, and is also often treated with RO. There are indexes to be used as guides to choose re–mineralization method after RO. However, mineral balance is not reached by remineralization, as only concentrations of calcium and bicarbonate, and in some cases magnesium is increased. Treatment with dissolution of dolomitic–calcitic limestone or other limestone with low levels of toxic elements is preferable. Hard water, on the other hand, may cause scaling, and is often softened, making the concentrations of calcium and magnesium low or extremely low. General advices on choice of treatment method to preserve or improve the mineral content and mineral balance of a water is presented in the chapter.

  • 3. Kozisek, F.
    et al.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Selinus, O.
    Ferrante, M.
    Jovanovic, D.
    Background2015Inngår i: Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions, Springer, 2015, s. 1-23Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Water plays an important role in the body. Normal–weight adults need 2.0–2.5 L/day of water for proper hydration, and it is known for centuries that minerals from the water are important for humans and animals. Different minerals are important in different ranges for different organs and functions. Due to the mass–related need for the minerals, they are labeled macro and micro elements, respectively. Weathering of rocks is responsible for most of the minerals appearing in water. The importance of minerals from drinking water have been denied for some time. However, in districts of Norway, high frequencies of softening of bone tissue among domestic animals, later identified as phosphorous-deficient soils and water, was known hundreds of years ago, and parts of China had increased levels of heart failure, nowadays identified as low selenium. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, well–off people in Europe went to health resorts to drink their specific water, water chosen with mineral content expected to be good for a specific complaint.

  • 4.
    Nihlgard, Bengt
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sect Plant Ecol & Systemat, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. KTH, Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Element Composition of Mineral Waters and Different Beverages2012Inngår i: METALS AND RELATED SUBSTANCES IN DRINKING WATER / [ed] Bhattacharya, P Rosborg, I Sandhi, A Hayes, C Benoliel, MJ, IWA PUBLISHING , 2012, s. 282-282Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Drinking water minerals and mineral balance: Importance, health significance, safety precautions2015Inngår i: Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions, Springer, 2015, s. 1-140Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The various safety organizations working on drinking water all warn about unhealthy constituents, as well as elements that can cause corrosion or scaling on pipes and installations. However, drinking water may also provide a substantial portion of the daily mineral intake, especially for the elderly and children, or those at risk of deficiencies due to unhealthy eating habits or starvation. Thus, a holistic approach to drinking water is presented in this book and the scope is extended from standards for undesirable substances to the basic mineral composition of water, examining 22 nutrient elements and ions and 21 toxic substances. The function of the nutrients in the body, symptoms of deficiency and overload, and advantages of the minerals from drinking water are presented, as well as symptoms of toxic elements from drinking water. The authors also suggest healthy ranges of minerals and mineral ratios for drinking water. The book offers a valuable resource for the health evaluation of drinking waters, for private well owners, public water producers and safety organizations alike.

  • 6.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Interactions between different elements – the need for mineral balance?2015Inngår i: Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions, Springer, 2015, s. 125-128Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Minerals are important for the human body. Mineral ratios are also important since minerals can operate both antagonistically and synergistically with each other. Water with a high concentration of calcium, hard water, reduces the corrosion of copper and lead from pipes. Calcium and magnesium are synergists in the body and cooperate at moderate levels, but an elevated calcium: magnesium ratio in especially mineral–poor water is a threat against heart health. Zink, iron, copper, and molybdenum are examples of elements that are antagonists, and one element can depress the other, while at moderate concentrations e.g. copper is needed for iron utilisation. Mg in drinking water decreases the risk of rectal cancer from THMs. When the ratio between nutrient mineral elements and toxic was high, women were healthier.

  • 7.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Preface2015Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Parkes, Jimmie
    Mineral balance in bottled waters2012Inngår i: Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference, METEAU, LONDON: IWA PUBLISHING , 2012, s. 283-283Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Parkes, Jimmie
    Mineral balance in water: before and after treatment2012Inngår i: Metals and related substances in drinking water: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference, METEAU, LONDON: IWA PUBLISHING , 2012, s. 116-125Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of minerals from drinking water is a question of increasing interest. Different treatment methods performed to remove undesirable substances of the water may completely alter the mineral balance of the water. Thus, the measure taken may eliminate one health problem for consumers of the water, but cause new. Softening filters substantially decrease a number of elements and ions, especially the important metal Ca, which is included in the building of bones and teeth, and irreplaceable in the heart and nerve function. In addition, a number of other elements in limestone decrease in concentration, some very important to the human health. The change in element concentrations in three different Swedish municipal water plants, with hard and mineral rich raw water, are reflected in this paper; one without- and two with softening filter. RO (Reverse Osmosis) filters completely de-mineralize water. This may cause de-mineralization of the whole body. No scientific studies on health effects from drinking RO treated drinking water were to be found, even though the method is rapidly increasing in use among the public and on water plants around the world. Thus, the concentrations of metals and ions in one sample of well water with RO filter installed at the kitchen tap is compared to mean levels of mineral elements in acid and alkaline well waters in a study from 2002.

  • 10.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Ferrante, M.
    Soni, V.
    Microminerals at optimum concentrations: Protection against diseases2015Inngår i: Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions, Springer, 2015, s. 53-77Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Microminerals are as necessary as macrominerals but in lower doses. Drinking water may be a substantial source. Low selenium and Mo is connected to heart diseases and cancer. Lithium decreases the incidence of violent crimes and suicide. Boron and chromium (Cr–III) from drinking water may be beneficial. Goiter is uncommon where iodine in drinking water is high. Fluoride is protective against dental caries, but too much causes bone deformations. On the other hand, even though copper and iron are nutrients, concentrations >0.2 mg/L may cause diarrhoea, and elevated manganese may negatively affect the nervous system. Safe health–bringing ranges of nutrient elements are suggested in the chapter.

  • 11.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kozisek, F.
    Drinking water regulations today and a view for the future2015Inngår i: Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions, Springer, 2015, s. 129-136Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Drinking water regulations focus on water free of acutely toxic organic pollutants, bacteria, and toxic elements, and in municipal water, iron, manganese, and calcium are usually regulated as they may cause precipitation and discoloring. However, water with substantial levels of macroelements as well as microelements appearing in alkaline water are beneficial in preventing different diseases, for instance cardiovascular diseases, which are the biggest killers of people around the world. In addition, mineral ratios are important for good health. Thus, future regulations should also include lowest acceptable concentrations of a number of elements and element ratios. Safe health ranges of elements and element ratios are suggested for future drinking water regulations in the chapter.

  • 12.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kozisek, F.
    Macrominerals at optimum concentrations - protective against diseases2015Inngår i: Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions, Springer, 2015, s. 33-52Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Areas with hard water and high concentrations of calcium and magnesium have shown lower incidence rates of diseases, for example, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, cancer, and diabetes, magnesium often identified as most important. However, the effect evens itself out at too high levels. On the other hand, acidic and soft water may be harmful for the body. Other minerals than calcium and magnesium are also important. Thus, elevated bicarbonate counteracts metabolic acidosis, and sulfate is active against constipation but causes diarrhea at too high levels. Water softeners can provide sodium levels of over 300 mg/L and cause elevated blood pressure. Since too little and too much is as bad, suggested ranges of the macrominerals and element ratios are presented in the chapter.

  • 13.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kozisek, F.
    Ferrrante, M.
    Health effects of demineralization drinking water2015Inngår i: Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions, Springer, 2015, s. 119-123Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced mineral intake due to drinking demineralized water is not automatically corrected by one's diet. Early symptoms of low electrolyte levels include tiredness, weakness, headache, brain edema, and convulsions. Metabolic acidosis has been reported in infants whose drinks were prepared on distilled or low-mineral bottled water. õWater intoxicationö, or delirium, may occur following intense physical efforts and ingestion of several liters of low–mineral water. Minerals are also needed to prevent from corrosion and dissolution of pipe material, which can make the water unhealthy. Calcium and magnesium are also needed for protection against uptake or transportation in the body of toxic elements like e.g. lead and uranium.

  • 14.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Nihlgård, B.
    Ferrante, M.
    Mineral composition of drinking water and daily uptake2015Inngår i: Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions, Springer, 2015, s. 25-31Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductivity in mS/m or S/cm gives a rough idea of the amount of dissolved ions in water. Distilled water and reverse osmosis–treated water have extremely low conductivity, while the conductivity of water from sandstone is higher and that of water from limestone (hard water) even higher. Thus, the variation of the contribution of minerals from drinking water is large. A Swedish study on well waters, bottled waters, and municipal waters showed that the contribution to the daily intake of minerals from water varied from zero to well over 100 %.

  • 15.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. National Institute of Public Health, Czech Republic.
    Soni, V.
    Potentially toxic elements in drinking water in alphabetic order2015Inngår i: Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions, Springer, 2015, s. 79-101Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Most toxic elements in drinking water are regulated by WHO and EU. Elevated levels of aluminum in drinking water are suspected to be related to dementia and Alzheimer's disease; arsenic is linked to skin disorders and lung cancers. Cadmium may cause renal effects. Pb can cause decreased IQ in children, hypertension, and damaged red blood cell production. Nitrite and nitrate change the ability of hemoglobin to bind oxygen, which is unsuitable for transportation of oxygen in the blood. Radon may cause lung cancer, uranium kidney diseases and decreased fertility, antimony increased cholesterol levels, and barium intestinal and cardiovascular diseases. However, elements like calcium in drinking water may decrease the negative health effects of a toxic element and should not be eliminated.

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