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  • 1.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    Biehl, Matthias
    El-khoury, Jad
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration, from Tool to Tool Chain with ISO 262622012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of innovative power sources in future cars has long-ranging implications on vehicle safety.  We studied these implications in the context of the guidance on software tool qualification in the then current ISO 26262 draft, when building an urban concept vehicle to participate in the 2011 Shell Eco-Marathon. While the guidance on tool qualification is detailed, the guidance in regard to tools integrated into tool chains is limited. It only points out that the environment that tools execute in needs to be taken into consideration.

    In this paper we clarify the implications of tool chains on tool qualification in the context of ISO 26262 by focusing on answering two questions; first, are there parts of the development environment related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside of tool qualification efforts as currently defined by ISO 26262; secondly, can we define if, and -if so- how, tool integration is affected by ensuring functional safety.

    We conclude by identifying two areas related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside the tool qualification efforts (data integrity and process logic) and describing how different constraints imposed by ISO 26262 in relation to tool qualification conflict when tool integration is improved (improvements aimed at supporting completeness, consistency and the safety lifecycle vs. tool qualification cost).

    We are able to make additional conclusions in relation to the State of the Art discussion on software tool qualification according to ISO 26262. First, reference tool chains and guidelines on which characteristics tool qualification should ensure for tool chains are needed to complement ISO 26262. Secondly, guidance on tool integration can be found in the completeness characteristic, the consistency characteristic and the ISO 26262 safety lifecycle process. Finally, qualification efforts should ideally target tool chains rather than individual tools.

  • 2.
    Frede, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Malmquist, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A state-of-the-art survey on vehicular mechatronics focusing on by-wire systems2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a survey of the current state of the art/ practice in vehicular mechatronics. It summarizes a large quantity of scientific papers and theses, as well as white papers and field trips to manufacturers.

    Mechatronics is a multi-domain discipline which is the result of the evolution of the single-domain engineering disciplines mechanics, electronics, information processing and control. Mechatronics is central for most new innovations in automotive products; “according to manufacturers statements, about 90% of all innovations for automobiles are due to electronics and mechatronics” [42]. The consequence of this is that vehicular mechatronics has become an important field of research.

    Since this is an incredibly broad field of research, the focus of this report has mainly been on brake and steering systems but the report also covers a wider more general scope of systems. The report covers a wide range of subjects within vehicular mechatronics, e.g. everything from legislative requirements to actual prototypes.

    One of the conclusion drawn in this report is that there is a lack of research with a more holistic approach to the systems. Most research only treat individual systems and omit the level of integration and interplay between subsystems and engineering domains which is typical for modern vehicles. There is also a lack of result validation in real conditions; most research are only evaluated through software simulations or in best case with hardware-in-the-loop simulations. Another problem is that most research focus on single aspects like e.g. fuel consumption when there is a lot more properties which need to be taken into account.

  • 3.
    Frede, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Malmquist, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A survey on safety-critical vehicular mechatronics2011In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics, ICM 2011 - Proceedings:  , 2011, p. 176-181Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a recapitalized version of a state of the art/practice report on vehicular mechatronics conducted by the authors. The report itself summarizes a large quantity of scientific papers, theses, white papers, and field trips to manufacturers. Since vehicular mechatronics is a wide field of research, this paper focuses mainly on braking and steering systems as specific product examples but also covers general system architecture, design methodologies as well as current legislation and standards. In the last section of the paper some conclusions regarding current research are drawn.

  • 4.
    Frede, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Malmquist, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Holistic design optimization in mechatronics2013In: Mechatronic Systems, Part 1, 2013, p. 655-662Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design of modern mechatronic systems can be an intimidating task. The underlying problem lies in that several different engineering domains merge into one product, creating integration issues. Commonly used design methodologies are based on optimizing the different domains separately; hence creating a suboptimal final system. This paper contributes to the field by describing and discussing a holistic approach to design and optimize mechatronic products, especially useful in an early design phase. Specifically, this paper extends previously published work by taking control aspects into account, as well as enabling the use of multiple optimization criteria. The design approach described is based on using simplified, static models, to dimension and describe physical properties of structure and transducer components, while transfer function models are used for control design and behavioral modeling. To enable time-efficient optimization, computationally inexpensive ways to evaluate structural and behavioral properties are sought. An evolutionary optimization algorithm is used to evaluate the component models and by doing that derive an optimal solution.

  • 5.
    Frede, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Malmquist, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Polynomial control integrated to mechatronic concept optimization2014In: Proceedings of the 14th Mechatronics Forum International Conference (Mechatronics 2014), 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechatronic systems design is a challenge. In order to best use the synergetic effects of such systems, they need to be designed in an integrated manner. Therefore, holistic mechatronic systems design requires considering both multiple domains and multiple optimization targets concurrently. Previous research by the authors presents a novel approach to mechatronic systems design by enabling swift optimization and subsequent evaluation of mechatronic design concepts. The optimization method builds upon algebraic models relating component performance to e.g. size and weight, and linear transfer function models which are used to capture dynamic properties. The swiftness of the method comes from the fact that the holistic optimization is performed without simulation. This paper extends the design methodology by integrating polynomial control design into the holistic optimization procedure as a front-loaded activity, as to reduce time and cost consuming design iterations in later design phases. In order to consider constraints regarding a quick optimization and evaluation, the control design is carried out in the frequency domain. The control performance, i.e. how well a particular mechatronic concept handles the exogenous signals (command, disturbance, noise) is considered as specification rather than optimization criterion. The novelty is found in the application of a polynomial control approach in context of holistic design optimization and evaluation.

  • 6.
    Malmquist, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Holistic design methodology for mechatronic systems2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part I, journal of systems and control engineering, ISSN 0959-6518, E-ISSN 2041-3041, Vol. 228, no 10, p. 741-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wide range of engineering domains aggregated in mechatronic systems can cause problems for design engineers. It is important to treat the different domains in an integrated, concurrent manner during design to be able to achieve the frequently sought-for synergetic effects of mechatronic systems. Traditional design methods are usually based on the different engineering disciplines being treated separately and only integrated at a late stage of the development process. Consequently, those methods do not work sufficiently well for mechatronic systems, leading to a suboptimal product. Previous research by the authors presents a novel approach to mechatronic system design by allowing quick optimisation and evaluation of design concepts. This is done by front loading certain design activities, hence decreasing the need for time- and cost-consuming iterations in later design stages. The method is backed up by a supporting software tool prototype. This article extends the method by including the dynamic aspects of the designed systems while also implementing basic control aspects, hence creating a concurrent and holistic method for mechatronic system design. This allows the designer to take synergetic effects into account at an earlier stage of the design process, hence increasing product quality and decreasing development costs. A conceptual design case is used in this article for an initial evaluation of the method and the results show great potential for the methodology.

  • 7.
    Malmquist, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Optimization of Mechatronic Systems for supporting Early Design Decisions2012In: The 13th Mechatronics Forum International Conference Proceedings / [ed] Rudolf Scheidl and Bernhard Jakoby, Linz: TRAUNER Verlag, 2012, p. 490-497Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a daunting task to design a modern mechatronic system. The many engineering fields coming together as one create integration issues and raise difficulties in finding the optimum solution to a design problem. This paper contributes to solving parts of this problem by presenting a novel approach for supporting design decisions in an early phase of the product development process of mechatronic products. In order to support decision making for a broad range of mechatronic products, a framework is presented which is capable of handling arbitrary system configurations consisting of standard mechatronic components, e.g. DC motors and gearboxes. Given according component models, the framework can optimize suggested concept ideas with regard to for instance system volume or inertia. In order to quickly optimize and evaluate different concepts, it is advisable to keep the underlying component models simple, yet powerful enough to be used for typical mechatronic systems. The presented approach therefore makes analytic usage of component models without requiring time-consuming numerical simulations. The results of the paper indicate that the presented method has good potential, especially for evaluating concepts in an early design phase, and further research effort should be put into developing it.

  • 8.
    Malmquist, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Holistic Optimization based Mechatronic Design Methodology with a Supporting SoftwareToolboxManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Malmquist, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Optimal design of harmonic drive servo2013In: 2013 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics: Mechatronics for Human Wellbeing, AIM 2013, IEEE , 2013, p. 1579-1584Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design of modern mechatronic systems can be an overwhelming task. The underlying difficulty lies in that several different engineering domains are combined in one product, creating integration issues. Commonly used design methodologies are based on optimizing the different domains separately; hence creating a sub optimized final system. A cornerstone in many modern products is the mechatronic servo system which needs to be able to accurately control motion while still conforming to ever increasing demands on important factors such as cost, size and weight. This paper further builds upon a design methodology developed by the authors by adding design models for harmonic drives. The design methodology is capable of supporting the designer in developing mechatronic products by giving him/her a time efficient method to early on in the design process evaluate concepts. The new harmonic drive models are applied to a design case featuring a haptic steering interface for a steer-by-wire vehicle. It is concluded that the harmonic drive models are simple; yet accurate enough for the type of early design decisions they are to be used for.

  • 10.
    Rahimi, Fariba
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Early phase design-optimization of mechatronic systems2017In: ICCMA 2017 Proceedings of the 2017 The 5th International Conference on Control, Mechatronics and Automation, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 42-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methodologies on design optimization of mechatronic systems are usually based on consecutive methods, i.e., the procedure of physical design, control and optimization of a system is performed step by step to achieve the final goal. This paper is built upon previous works on developing a toolbox to integrate several engineering backgrounds in early design phase to avoid time and cost consuming iterations in later deign steps. The previous methodology was mainly applicable for linear one-degree of freedom systems without time-variant dynamics. In this paper, the method is upgraded towards covering concepts on nonlinear systems where extra degrees of freedom are added to the system. Additionally, the library of the mentioned toolbox is extended to include ball-screw drive and rotational rigid beam components in terms of physical design, dynamic and static models to examine the feasibility of the design. A conceptual nonlinear multi-degree design case is presented and linearized at specified operational points in the supported software framework and the implemented models are verified in both SimMechanics and Simulink.

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