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  • 1. Cui, K.
    et al.
    Wang, L.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Qin, Y.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zheng, L.
    An all-digital phase-locked-loop with a robustness enhanced dual-mode DCO2017In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 312-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An all-digital-phase-locked-loop (ADPLL) with a dual-mode Class-A/Class-C Digital-controlled-oscillator (DCO) is presented in this letter. During the start-up phase, the DCO operates in the Class-A mode with increasing tail current. A low-power amplitude-to-pulse-converter (APC) is proposed to detect the oscillating amplitude of the DCO. After the start-up, the DCO switches to the Class-C mode with reduced tail current, resulting in better phase noise and lower power consumption. The ADPLL with the proposed DCO is implemented in a 65-nm CMOS technology. The Class-C mode DCO exhibits a phase noise of −123.3 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset with a 2.7-GHz carrier frequency. Measured results show about a 2.9-dB phase noise improvement at 1-MHz offset among the tuning range of 2.5–2.9 GHz, compared to the Class-A DCO under the same power consumption. The figure-of-merit (FOM) and FOM including the tuning range (FOMT) of the DCO is 188.7 and 192.1, respectively.

  • 2. Jin, Y.
    et al.
    Shen, Jue
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Nejad, M. B.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Fudan University, China.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Zheng, L.
    A Power management scheme for wirelessly-powered RFID tags with inkjet-printed display2017In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on RFID Technology and Application, RFID-TA 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 180-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work proposes a new power management scheme for wirelessly-powered UHF RFID tags with flexible inkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) display for human-to-device interaction. EC display on polyimide substrate is integrated at tag side to provide an ambient and direct human-to-device display interface. An aggressive duty-cycling power management scheme with dual supplies is designed to drive the EC display under the tag power budget in microwatt level through RF energy harvesting. In this scheme, energy for display refreshing is accumulated over multiple power management cycles. A single-pixel addressing scheme with minimal pixel size is proposed to further reduce display power and improve tag sensitivity by exploiting EC display bi-stability. The experimental results show that the EC display can be refreshed with the tag sensitivity of -10.5 dBm at 11.7 sec/cm2 update rate.

  • 3.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    An UHF/UWB RFID Reader Tranceiver in 90 nm CMOSManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an integrated asymmetric UHF/UWB reader transceiver in 90 nm CMOS technology for RFID applications. The reader uses UHF transmitter to power up and inventory the tags. Instead of backscattering, tag replies the reader using Ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses, allowing high throughput transmission and precise positioning. Therefore, a UWB receiver is deployed in the proposed reader for data reception and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) estimation using energy detection schemes. The transmitter delivers 160 kb/s ASK modulated data by an integrated modulator and a Digital Controlled Oscillator (DCO). The DCO has 11% tuning range ability to cover different UHF signal channels. On the UWB receiver side, the 3-5 GHz energy detection receiver supports maximum 33 Mb/s data rate in both OOK and PPM modulations. The receiver front-end provides 59 dB voltage gain and 8.5 dB noise figure (NF). Measurement results shows that the receiver achieves an input sensitivity of -79 dBm at 10 Mb/s, and the power consumption of transceiver is 21.5 mW.

  • 4.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Radio and Sensor Interfaces for Energy-autonomous Wireless Sensing2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Along with rapid development of sensing and communication technology, Internet of Things (IoTs) has enabled a tremendous number of applications in health care, agriculture, and industry. As the fundamental element, the wireless sensing node, such as radio tags need to be operating under micro power level for energy autonomy. The evolution of electronics towards highly energy-efficient systems requires joint efforts in developing innovative architectures and circuit techniques. In this dissertation, we explore ultra-low power circuits and systems for micropower wireless sensing in the context of IoTs, with a special focus on radio interfaces and sensor interfaces. The system architecture of UHF/UWB asymmetric radio is introduced firstly. The active UWB radio is employed for the tag-to-reader communication while the conventional UHF radio is used to power up and inventory the tag. On the tag side, an ultra-low power, high pulse swing, and power scalable UWB transmitter is studied. On the reader side, an asymmetric UHF/UWB reader is designed. Secondly, to eliminate power-hungry frequency synthesis circuitry, an energy-efficient UWB transmitter with wireless clock harvesting is presented. The transmitter is powered by an UHF signal wirelessly and respond UWB pulses by locking-gating-amplifying the sub-harmonic of the UHF signal. 21% locking range can be achieved to prevent PVT variations with -15 dBm injected power. Finally, radio-sensing interface co-design is explored. Taking the advantage of RC readout circuit and UWB pulse generator, the sensing information is directly extracted and transmitted in the time domain, exploiting high time-domain resolution UWB pulses. It eliminates the need of ADC of the sensor interface, meanwhile, reduces the number of bits to be transmitted for energy saving. The measurement results show that the proposed system exhibits 7.7 bits ENOB with an average relative error of 0.42%.

  • 5.
    Mao, Jia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mismatch aware power and area optimization of successive-approximation ADCs2010In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems, ICECS 2010, 2010, p. 882-885Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the trade-off between device mismatch, quantization noise and device noise in successive approximation register analog to digital converter (SAR ADC) is investigated. An optimization method for designing area-constrained SAR ADC with highest possible energy efficiency for a given dynamic range (DR) is proposed. By taking device noise and process mismatch information into account, it is able to minimize power dissipations by reducing the size of the unit capacitor area without dynamic range degradation due to capacitor mismatch. As a case study, a low power 12 bits SAR ADC has been designed in 0.18 #x03BC;m CMOS process, with 1-100 kHz sample rate.

  • 6.
    Mao, Jia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Sarmiento M., David
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Chen, Jian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Wang, Peng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    A 90nm CMOS UHF/UWB asymmetric transceiver for RFID readers2011In: European Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2011, p. 179-182Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an integrated asymmetric transceiver in 90nm CMOS technology for RFID reader. The proposed reader uses UHF transmitter to power up and inventory the tags. In the reverse link, a non-coherent Ultra-wide Band (UWB) receiver is deployed for data reception with high throughput and ranging capability. The transmitter delivers 160 kb/s ASK modulated data by an integrated modulator and a Digital Controlled Oscillator (DCO) in UHF band with 11% tuning range. The DCO consume 6 mW with 0.12 mm2 area. On the other side, adopting two integration channels, the 3-5 GHz energy detection receiver supports maximum 33 Mb/s data rate both in OOK and PPM modulations. The receiver front-end provides 59 dB voltage gain and 8.5 dB noise figure (NF). Measurement results shows that the receiver achieves an input sensitivity of -79 dBm at 10 Mb/s, with power consumption of 15.5 mW.

  • 7.
    Mao, Jia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Sarmiento, David
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Chen, Jun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Wang, P.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Xu, L. D.
    Zheng, Li-rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. State Key Laboratory of ASICs and Systems, Fudan University.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. State Key Laboratory of ASICs and Systems, Fudan University.
    A hybrid reader tranceiver design for industrial internet of things2016In: Journal of Industrial Information Integration, ISSN 2452-414X, Vol. 2, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an integrated asymmetric UHF/UWB reader transceiver in 90 nm CMOS technology for industrial enterprise IoT applications. The reader uses UHF transmitter to power up and inventory the tags. Instead of backscattering, tag replies the reader using Ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses, allowing high throughput transmission and precise positioning. Therefore, a UWB receiver is deployed in the proposed reader for data reception and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) estimation using energy detection schemes. The transmitter delivers 160 kb/s ASK modulated data by an integrated modulator and a Digital Controlled Oscillator (DCO). The DCO has 11% tuning range ability to cover different UHF signal channels. On the UWB receiver side, the 3–5 GHz energy detection receiver supports maximum 33 Mb/s data rate in both OOK and PPM modulations. The receiver front-end provides 59 dB voltage gain and 8.5 dB noise figure (NF). Measurement results shows that the receiver achieves an input sensitivity of -79 dBm at 10 Mb/s, and the power consumption of transceiver is 21.5 mW.

  • 8.
    Mao, Jia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mendoza Sarmiento, David
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A power scalable and high pulse swing UWB transmitter for wirelessly-powered RFID applications2012In: NORCHIP, 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 6403099-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a 3-5 GHz, high output amplitude, carrier-less based Ultra Wideband (UWB) transmitter for wirelessly powered RFID application. The UWB transmitter consists of a baseband pulse generator, a driver amplifier and an output on-chip filter. The baseband pulse generator and the driver amplifier are designed as zero DC power consuming circuit, which enables scalable power with the pulse rate. IC pad and bonding wire parasitics are considered to be absorbed as part of output filtering network, realizing package co-design. The simulation result shows that the proposed transmitter radiates 2.34 pJ/pulse energy with 1.63 V pulse amplitude. The total energy consumption under 1.8 V power supply is 18 pJ/pulse, corresponding to 13% energy efficiency.

  • 9.
    Mao, Jia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    A 35 pJ/pulse injection-locking based UWB transmitter for wirelessly-powered RFID tags2013In: 2013 Proceedings of the ESSCIRC (ESSCIRC), 2013, p. 379-382Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an energy-efficient injection-locking based UWB transmitter for RFID tags in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The transmitter is powered by 900 MHz UHF signals radiated by a reader wirelessly, and responds UWB pulses by locking-gating-amplifying the sub-harmonic of the UHF signal. A simple harmonic injection-locking ring oscillator (ILRO) is utilized to generate a 450 MHz carrier for sub-GHz UWB, eliminating power-hungry and complex timing components such as PLL and crystal on tags. The measurement results show that the sensitivity of the ILRO is -15 dBm under 21% locking range without any extra amplifier. Thanks to fast setup time of the ILRO, the proposed transmitter is power-scalable with 35 pJ/pulse energy consumption by duty-cycling. The amplitude of the transmitted UWB pulse is 0.75 Vpp, allowing a pulse rate up to 5 MHz under the FCC regulations. The entire power consumption of the transmitter is 175 μW, which is favorable to wirelessly-powered RFID applications.

  • 10.
    Mao, Jia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A Subgigahertz UWB Transmitter With Wireless Clock Harvesting for RF-Powered Applications2014In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, ISSN 1549-7747, E-ISSN 1558-3791, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 314-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A subgigahertz ultrawideband (UWB) transmitter (TX) with wireless clock harvesting is presented for RF-powered applications such as RF identifications and implantable devices in the 180-nm CMOS process. The proposed low-power TX consists of a harmonic injection-locked ring oscillator (ILRO), a synchronized pulse generator, and a driver stage. Through wireless injection locking, a 450-MHz carrier is extracted using the sub-harmonic of an ultrahigh frequency signal radiated by a reader. Following the ILRO, the carrier is gated and amplified to generate the UWB pulses. This approach avoids power-hungry frequency synthesis circuitry and bulky crystal reference, and it relaxes the timing synchronization between the reader and the tag. Due to aggressive duty cycling and the fast setup time (< 50 ns at an input power of -15 dBm), the proposed TX is power scalable with an energy consumption of 35 pJ/pulse. To comply with the Federal Communications Commission regulations, the maximum pulse rate is up to 5 MHz with a peak-to-peak pulse amplitude of 0.75 V and a corresponding power consumption of 175 mu W, which is favorable to RF-powered applications.

  • 11.
    Mao, Jia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Fudan University, China.
    A UWB-Based Sensor-to-Time Transmitter for RF-Powered Sensing Applications2016In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, ISSN 1549-7747, E-ISSN 1558-3791, Vol. 63, no 5, article id 507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ultrawideband (UWB)-based sensor-to-time transmitter consisting of a remote control (RC) time-constant interface and an ultralow-power pulse generator is presented. The sensing information is directly extracted and transmitted in the time domain, exploiting UWB pulses with a high time-domain resolution. This approach eliminates the need for an analog-to-digital converter and baseband blocks of sensor tags; meanwhile, it reduces the number of bits to be transmitted for energy saving. The sensor interface measures the discharging time of the RC time constant proportional to the sensor variation. The UWB pulses are triggered with intervals of the RC discharging time, without any digitizing or modulations. The circuit prototype is implemented in the standard 0.18-mu m CMOS process. Resistance measurement results show that the proposed system exhibits an effective number of resolution bits (ENOB) of 7.7 bits with an average relative error of 0.42% in the range of 200-1500 Omega. The overall energy consumption of conversion and transmission per sample is measured to be 0.58 nJ with a 1.27-Vp-p pulse amplitude, which is favorable to radio-frequency-powered wireless sensing applications.

  • 12.
    Sarmiento M., David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Wang, Peng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Analog front-end RX design for UWB impulse radio in 90nm CMOS2011In: 2011 IEEE International Symposium of Circuits and Systems, ISCAS 2011, 2011, p. 1552-1555Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a reconfigurable differential Ultra Wideband-Impulse Radio (UWB-IR) energy receiver architecture has been simulated and implemented in UMC 90nm. The signal is amplified, rectified and integrated. By using an integration windowed scheme the SNR requirements are relaxed increasing the sensitivity. The design has been optimized for large bandwidths, low implementation area and configurability. The RX can be adapted to work at different data rates, processing gains, and channel environments. It works between the 3.1-4.8 GHz bands with OOK or PPM modulation with a tunable data rate up to 33Mb/s. In order to relax the ADC sampling time an interleave mode of operation has been implemented. It has a maximum power consumption of 22m W with a power supply of 1V. The complete RX occupies an area of 1.11mm2.

  • 13.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Majid, Baghaei-Nejad
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Pang, Zhibo
    KTH.
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xu, Lida
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Interactive UHF/UWB RFID tag for mass customization2017In: Information Systems Frontiers, ISSN 1387-3326, E-ISSN 1572-9419, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1177-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass customization (MC) under the context of the Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to reform the traditional mass manufacturing. To contribute to MC from information communication and user interaction aspects, this work proposes an Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) RFID tag with an Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wide Band (IR-UWB) transmitter and an inkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) display. First, compared to the conventional UHF RFID tags, the proposed tag shows the advantage of higher transmission data rate with still low power consumption. The response time in multi-tag accessing scenarios can be reduced to less than 500 ms per 1000 tags by the pipeline of the tag responses in IR-UWB link and the reader acknowledgments in UHF RFID link as well as by reducing the length of empty slots. Second, the tag is integrated with a flexible EC display manufactured by inkjet-printing on the polyimide substrate. It works as an automatically refreshed paper label that offers an intuitive human-to-device interface to improve the efficiency of the offline workers. To conquer the material variations and make use of the long retention time of the printed EC display, its threshold voltage is utilized and a feedback comparator enabling the display driver by the threshold voltage is designed. A System-on-Chip (SoC) is implemented in UMC 0.18 mu m CMOS process. According to the experimental results: 1) the IR-UWB transmitter achieves 1.02 V pulse amplitude and 900 ps pulse duration with 18 pJ/pulse energy consumption; 2) the EC display driver automatically refreshes the display when the image fades out, and consumes 1.98 mu W per 1 cm(2) display size to retain an image. The UHF/UWB RFID display tag integrated on polyimide substrate is conceptually demonstrated at the end of the paper.

  • 14.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Yang, Geng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Nejad, Maji
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A 180 nm-CMOS Asymmetric UWB-RFID Tag with Real-time Remote-monitored ECG-sensing2015In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, 2015, p. 210-215Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an asymmetric ultra-wideband - radio frequency identification (UWB-RFID) tag with electrocardiogram (ECG)-sensing capability for patients remote-monitoring in hospital environment. A UWB-RFID communication protocol is suggested for real-time transmission of undistorted ECG by interleaving ADC sampling and burst-mode UWB transmission. The proposed system shows a maximum accessing capability of 400 tags/second at 1.5 KHz ECG sampling rate with 10 Mbps UWB pulse rate. The tag consists of UHF-RFID receiver, UWB transmitter, ECG analog front-end, multi-input ADC and baseband circuitry integrated on two silicon dies. It was implemented by 6 mm2 -sized 180 nm CMOS technology. Electrodes for ECG-sensing are manufactured by inkjet-printing on polyimide substrate. Experiment results show that the tag transmits UWB pulses at 1 Mbps rate with 18 µW power. The printed electrodes conduct ECG waveform comparable to commercial electrodes.

  • 15.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Nejad, Maji
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A Passive UHF/UWB RFID Tag with Inkjet-Printed Electrochromic Polyimide Display for IoT ApplicationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a passive Ultra-High Frequency(UHF) Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tag withinkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) polyimide display andUltra-Wideband (UWB) transmitter for information display inthe Internet-of-Things (IoT) - both remotely by transmitting information to backend side and locally by displaying at tag side. The UHF part remotely powers-up and controls the tag asconventional passive RFID tag does. To overcome the limitations of uplink capacity and massive-tag information feedback, UWB transmitter replaces UHF-RFID backscattering to achieve Mbps transmission data rate and 2000 tags/sec tag identification rate. To provide an ambient and direct human-to-device displayinterface, EC display on polyimide substrate is integrated at tagside. Aggressive duty-cycling power management scheme with dual supplies is designed to drive EC display and UWB transmitter under the microwatt level tag power budget through RF energy harvesting. In this scheme, energy for display refreshing is accumulated over multiple power management cycles; energy for UWB transmission is stored over a load capacitor. Single-pixel addressing scheme with minimized pixelsize is proposed to further reduce display power and improve tag sensitivity by exploiting EC display bi-stability. The circuit prototype has been fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS process. Experimental results demonstrate that the EC display can be refreshed with tag sensitivity (input RF power) of -10.5 dBm at11.7 sec/cm2 update rate, and the UWB transmitter can bepowered up for 2 Mbps pulse rate and 35% operation duty cycle with tag sensitivity of -18.5 dBm.

  • 16.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Nejad, Majid
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Pang, Zhibo
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xu, Lida
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Interactive UHF/UWB RFID Tag for Mass CustomizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass customization (MC) under the context ofthe Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to reform traditionalmass manufacturing. To contribute to MC from information communication and user interaction aspects, this work proposes an Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) RFID tag with Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wide Band (IR UWB) transmitter and inkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) display. First, compared to conventional UHF RFID tags, the proposed tag shows advantages of higher data rate while still keeping low power consumption. A modified communication protocol for such tag is proposed to decrease the response time in multi-tag accessing scenarios to less than 500 ms/1000 tags by the pipeline of IR UWB transmission of tag response and UHF RFID reception of reader acknowledgement and by reducingthe length of empty slots. Secondly, the tag is integrated with a flexible Electro-chromic (EC) display manufactured by inkjet-printing on the polyimide substrate. The tag with the display works as an automatically refreshed paper label which offers an intuitive human-to-device interface to improve the efficiency of the offline workers. To conquer material variation while make use of long retention time of the printed EC display, the threshold voltage of EC display is utilized and a feedback comparator is designed to start refreshing EC display based on the threshold voltage. For functional verification, a Silicon-on-Chip (SoC) is implementedin UMC 180 nm CMOS process. According to experimental results: 1) the IR UWB transmitter shows performances of 1.02 V pulse amplitude, 900 ps pulse duration and 18 pJ/pulse energy consumption; 2) the EC display driver with a feedback comparator automatically starts to refresh display when the image fades out, and reduces the power consumption for retaining image to 1.98 mW per 1 cm2 display size. The UHF/UWB RFID display tag integrated on polyimide substrate is conceptually demonstrated at the end of the paper.

  • 17.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Intelligent Packaging with Inkjet-Printed Electrochromic Paper Display –A Passive Display Infotag2012In: NIP28 : 28th international conference on digital printing technologies : technical program and proceedings : Digital fabrication 2012 : September 9-13, 2012, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada., The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2012, p. 164-167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the electronic performance of the inkjet-printed electrochromic (EC) display which uses Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly (styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as the active material, and extract its equivalent RC model. Results show that by charging PEDOT:PSS with 1.8V for averagely 10s, it can be switched from transparent (oxidation state) to blue (reduced state) and keeps the color for an average of 300s in the absence of energy supply, consuming much lower power than other flexible display technologies. However, it suffers from significant crosstalk effects in passive-matrix addressing and from performance variation as sample changes or time goes on. Based on the results, we design a programmable digital display driver with two different operation modes, and analyze the feasibility to integrate such display function in passive intelligent packaging systems. System simulation results prove it as a promising solution from evaluation of power budget and driving ability with printed interconnections and offchip conductors.

  • 18.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A Passive UHF-RFID Tag with Inkjet-Printed Electrochromic Paper Display2013In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on RFID (RFID), 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 118-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an inkjet-printed electrochromic(EC) paper display integrated with passive UHF-RFID tag is introduced as a solution for passive electronic shelf labels (ESL). To address the system challenges of the limited power budget of passive UHF-RFID tags and the material aging of EC display, a feedback comparator integrated digital displaydriver is proposed based on the study of electrochromic, bi-stable and aging features of the EC display. Modularized baseband with different enableconditions and clock domains is implemented in the system design level. Moreover, to maintain the system functions when the input power is lower than the display refresh power, a duty-cycled power management unit (PMU) is activated to reduce the load current during energy scavenging and drive the display in short intervals, enabling the fast charging of the voltage rectifier and the correct output of the regulated supply for the core circuit. The design is fabricated in a 0.18-um CMOS process with an area of 2.25 mm2. Fed with EPC C1G2 protocol write command, experiments demonstrate correct refresh of EC display with 4 cm2 effective area. System sensitivity at the antenna reference point is basically immune to the display load. Further improvements can be achieved after careful chip-to-antenna impedance matching and PMU efficiency optimization.

  • 19.
    Xie, Li
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Shen, Jue
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Co-design of flip chip interconnection with anisotropic conductive adhesives and inkjet-printed circuits for paper-based RFID tags2011In: 2011 61st Electronic Components and Technology Conference, ECTC 2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 1752-1757Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the radio frequency performance of interconnect using anisotropic conductive film (ACF). A series of experiments are conducted in order to measure and model the electrical characteristics of inkjet-printed circuits on paper substrate as well as the impedance parameters of ACF interconnect at high frequency. Four-point measurement structure, time domain reflectometry (TDR), vector network analyzer (VNA) and de-embedded technology are used to ensure the accuracy of experiments. Equivalent circuit models are built based on the experimental results. Finally, these models are considered as parts of the matching network and circuit design for the RFID receiver, which can be co-designed for developing paper-based electronic systems. It is found that since the difference between RFID tags with and without ACF interconnects is negligible, the influence of ACF interconnects can be ignored for paper-based UHF RFID tag. ACF is a feasible interconnect material for paper-based RFID tags.

  • 20.
    Yang, Geng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chen, Jian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A Hybrid Low Power Biopatch for Body Surface Potential Measurement2013In: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, ISSN 2168-2194, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 591-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a wearable biopatch prototype for body surface potential measurement. It combines three key technologies, including mixed-signal system on chip (SoC) technology, inkjet printing technology, and anisotropic conductive adhesive (ACA) bonding technology. An integral part of the biopatch is a low-power low-noise SoC. The SoC contains a tunable analog front end, a successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter, and a reconfigurable digital controller. The electrodes, interconnections, and interposer are implemented by inkjet-printing the silver ink precisely on a flexible substrate. The reliability of printed traces is evaluated by static bending tests. ACA is used to attach the SoC to the printed structures and form the flexible hybrid system. The biopatch prototype is light and thin with a physical size of 16 cm x 16 cm. Measurement results show that low-noise concurrent electrocardiogram signals from eight chest points have been successfully recorded using the implemented biopatch.

  • 21.
    Yang, Geng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Design of a self-organized Intelligent Electrode for synchronous measurement of multiple bio-signals in a wearable healthcare monitoring system2010In: 2010 3rd International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies, ISABEL 2010, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an Intelligent Electrodes and Active Cable based wearable medical system. Within each Intelligent Electrode, an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is integrated which includes a gain-bandwidth selectable analog front-end circuit, an 8-bit SAR ADC and a digital controller. The key of the ASIC is the analog front-end circuit with tunable gain and bandwidth which can be configured for Electrocardiogram (ECG), Electroencephalogram (EEG) or Electromyogram (EMG) measurement. Common mode interference is effectively rejected due to the circuit’s high Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR), which is higher than 135 dB up to 100 Hz and better than 110dB up to 1 kHz. Since a dedicated data transmission protocol is implemented on chip, the Intelligent Electrodes can establish a self-organized network and perform synchronous measurements for multiple bio-signals.

  • 22. Zamolo, Giovanni
    et al.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Elektronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Power-Aware Optimization for CS-based IR-UWB System2016In: 2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON UBIQUITOUS WIRELESS BROADBAND (ICUWB2016), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging technology that can be applied to impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) receivers. CS represents an attractive solution for its capability of recovering a signal from a small number of measurements using sub-Nyquist sampling rate analog to digital converters (ADC). In this paper we investigate practical design parameters for low power CS based UWB system, including pulse bandwidth, number of measurements and frame length. Considering the FCC mask, three different pulses are compared in noisy environment in order to provide an optimal solution for high bit rate and low bit rate applications. Performance impact on number of measurements and frame length are also evaluated so that minimum numbers and length can be used for power saving.

  • 23.
    Zhai, Chuanying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xu, L.
    A 2.4-GHz ISM RF and UWB hybrid RFID real-time locating system for industrial enterprise Internet of Things2017In: Enterprise Information Systems, ISSN 1751-7575, E-ISSN 1751-7583, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 909-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a 2.4-GHz radio frequency (RF) and ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) hybrid real-time locating system (RTLS) for industrial enterprise Internet of Things (IoT). It employs asymmetric wireless link, that is, UWB radio is utilised for accurate positioning up to 10 cm in critical sites, whereas 2.4-GHz RF is used for tag control and coarse positioning in non-critical sites. The specified communication protocol and the adaptive tag synchronisation rate ensure reliable and deterministic access with a scalable system capacity and avoid unpredictable latency and additional energy consumption of retransmissions due to collisions. The tag, consisting of a commercial 2.4-GHz transceiver and a customised application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) UWB transmitter (Tx), is able to achieve up to 3 years’ battery life at 1600 tags per position update second with 1000 mAh battery in one cluster. The time difference of arrival (TDoA)–based positioning experiment at UWB radio is performed on the designed software-defined radio (SDR) platform.

  • 24.
    Zhou, Qin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    A mixed-signal timing circuit in 90nm CMOS for energy detection IR-UWB receivers2010In: 23rd IEEE International SOC Conference, SOCC 2010, 2010, p. 413-416Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a flexible timing circuit with 1.1ns delay resolution for energy detection IR-UWB receivers. Referenced at 900MHz input clock, the circuit generates multi-phased integration windows and reset signals that enable/disable the operation of analog blocks. The design is highly programmable, adapting the receiver to pulse level synchronization, symbol level synchronization, different data rates and various channel environments. Mixed-signal design flow is adopted to avoid the complexity of full custom design and the large power consumption of full synthesized digital design. The timing circuit is implemented in UMC 90nm CMOS process, with 219 #x03BC;W power consumption and 190*295 #x03BC;m2 die area.

  • 25.
    Zhou, Qin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    A flexible energy detection IR-UWB receiver for RFID and WSN2010Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an energy detection impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) receiver for radio frequency identification (RFID) and wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. As opposed to coherent receivers, it uses simple square-integrate samplers, that allows low complexity and low power implementations. This prototype is composed by an analog front-end and timing-critical digital blocks in UMC 90nm CMOS process, and an Altera Cyclone III FPGA development kit for back-end processing, connected by a high speed mezzanine card (HSMC). Thanks to the flexible back-end on FPGA, the receiver is featured by high programmability and multi-mode operation which adopts a wide range of pulse rates and data rates, different modulation and synchronization schemes, and various channel environments.

  • 26.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mendoza, David Sarmiento
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Wang, Peng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Fudan University, China.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Fudan University, China.
    A Low-Power and Flexible Energy Detection IR-UWB Receiver for RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks2011In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, ISSN 1549-8328, Vol. 58, no 7, p. 1470-1482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an energy detection Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) receiver for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) applications. An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) consisting of a 3-5 GHz analog front-end, a timing circuit and a high speed baseband controller is implemented in a 90 nm standard CMOS technology. A Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is employed as a reconfigurable back-end, enabling adaptive baseband algorithms and ranging estimations. The proposed architecture is featured by high flexibility that adopts a wide range of pulse rate (512 kHz-33 MHz), processing gain (0-18 dB), correlation schemes, synchronization algorithms, and modulation schemes (PPM/OOK). The receiver prototype was fabricated and measured. The power consumption of the ASIC is 16.3 mW at 1 V power supply, which promises a minimal energy consumption of 0.5 nJ/bit. The whole link is evaluated together with a UWB RFID tag. Bit error rate (BER) measurement displays a sensitivity of -79 dBm at 10 Mb/s with 10(-3) BER achieved by the proposed receiver, corresponding to an operation distance over 10 meters under the FCC regulation.

  • 27.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Shao, Botao
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhai, Chuanying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Design and demonstration of passive UWB RFIDs: Chipless versus chip solutions2012In: RFID-Technologies and Applications (RFID-TA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, p. 6-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews recent research on Ultra-Wideband (UWB) techniques for the next generation Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) towards the Internet-of-Things (IoT), conducted by Vinn iPack Center at KTH, Sweden. First, we introduce an inkjet printed chipless UWB RFID for ultra-low cost applications such as item-level tracking. The identification number is coded by variations of the impedance over the transmission line, resulting in the OOK modulated data by means of pulse reflections in time domain. Prototypes were fabricated and measured for 4-bit tag and 8-bit tag, respectively. Thanks to the employment of fully printing process and paper substrates, the tag is potentially ultra-low cost in volume production. Second, a wirelessly powered RFID tag with an active UWB transmitter is studied for advanced applications such as wireless positioning and sensing. The tag is powered by UHF continuous waves, whereas it uses an UWB pulse generator to transmit data to the reader. It ensures the improved coverage and accurate positioning over traditional backscattering UHF tags. UWB readers, positioning, and sensing are also discussed in a system perspective. The two solutions reveal that UWB is a viable alternative to existing passive RFIDs adapting both low-cost applications and high-performance sensing and positioning applications.

1 - 27 of 27
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