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  • 1.
    Erdal, Suvar
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Haralson, Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wang, Yong-Bin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    High frequency performance of SiGeCHBTs with selectively & non-selectively grown collector2004In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T114, p. 138-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two high-frequency heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) architectures based on SiGeC have been fabricated and characterized. Different collector designs were applied either by using selective epitaxial growth doped with phosphorous or by non-selective epitaxial growth doped with arsenic. Both designs have a non-selectively deposited SiGeC base doped with boron and a poly-crystalline emitter doped with phosphorous. Both HBT designs exhibit similar electrical characteristics with a peak DC current gain of around 1600 and a BVCEO of 1.8V. The cut-off frequency (f(T)) and maximum frequency of oscillation (f(max)) vary from 40-80 GHz and 15-30 GHz, respectively, depending on lateral design relations. Good high frequency performance for a device with a selectively grown collector is demonstrated for the first time.

  • 2. Grahn, J. V.
    et al.
    Fosshaug, H.
    Jargelius, M.
    Jonsson, P.
    Linder, M.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mohadjeri, B.
    Pejnefors, J.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sanden, M.
    Wang, Yong-Bin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Landgren, Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    A low-complexity 62-GHz f(T) SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor process using differential epitaxy and in situ phosphorus-doped poly-Si emitter at very low thermal budget2000In: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 549-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low-complexity SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor process based on differential epitaxy and in situ phosphorus doped polysilicon emitter technology is described. Silane-based chemical vapor deposition at reduced pressure was used for low-temperature SiGe epitaxy. Following SiGe epitaxy, the process temperature budget was kept very low with 900 degrees C for 10 s as the highest temperature step. A very high current gain of almost 2000 and cut off frequency of 62 GHz were achieved for a uniform 12% Ge profile. The breakdown voltage BVCEO and forward Early voltage were equal to 2.9 and 6.5 V, respectively.

  • 3.
    Haralson, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Suvar, E.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Radamson, Henry
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wang, Yong-Bin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    NiSi integration in a non-selective base SiGeCHBT process2005In: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 8, no 03-jan, p. 245-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A self-aligned nickel silicide (salicide) process is integrated into a non-selective base SiGeC HBT process. The device features a unique, fully silicided base region that grows laterally under the emitter pedestal. This Ni(SiGe) formed in this base region was found to have a resistivity of 23-24 muOmega cm. A difference in the silicide thickness between the boron-doped SiGeC extrinsic base region and the in situ phosphorous-doped emitter region is observed and further analyzed and confirmed with a blanket wafer silicide study. The silicided device exhibited a current gain of 64 and HF device performance of 39 and 32 GHz for f(t) and f(MAX), respectively.

  • 4.
    Haralson, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Suvar, Erdal
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wang, Yong-Bin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    The effect of C on emitter-base design for a single-polysilicon SiGe: C HBT with an IDP emitter2004In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 224, no 1-4, p. 330-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A differential epitaxy SiGe:C heterojunction bipolar junction transistor (HBT) design is reported and used to study the effect of carbon on junction formation as well as the effect of lateral design parameters on ac and dc performance. The device exhibits a high current gain (beta) of 1700 and a BVCEO of 1.8 V. The peak cutoff frequency (f(T)) and maximum oscillation frequency (f(MAX)) are 73 and 17 GHz, respectively. The effect of emitter overlap on f(T) was minimal, but it had a strong impact on dc performance. LOCOS opening size strongly impacted both ac and dc performance. In addition, the effect of carbon, base cap thickness, and rapid thermal anneal (RTA) temperature on the emitter-base (E-B) junction formation was studied.

  • 5.
    Hållstedt, Julius
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Suvar, Erdal
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Persson, P. O. Å.
    Department of Physics, Thin Film Physics Division, Linköpings Universitet.
    Hultman, L.
    Department of Physics, Thin Film Physics Division, Linköpings Universitet.
    Wang, Yong-Bin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Growth of high quality epitaxial Si1-x-yGexCy layers by using chemical vapor deposition2004In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Applied Surface Science, Vol. 224, no 1-4, p. 46-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epitaxial quality of non-selective and selective deposition of Si1-x-yGexCy (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.30, 0 less than or equal to y less than or equal to 0.02) layers has been optimized by using high-resolution reciprocal lattice mapping (HRRLM). The main goal was to incorporate a high amount of substitutional carbon atoms in Si or Si1-xGex matrix without creating defects. The carbon incorporation behavior was explained by chemical and kinetic effects of the reactant gases during epitaxial process. Although high quality epitaxial Si1-yCy layers can be deposited, lower electron mobility compared to Si layers was observed.

  • 6.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Haralson, E.
    Suvar, E.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wang, Yong-Bin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Base resistance scaling for SiGeC HBTs with a fully nickel-silicided extrinsic base2005In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 246-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel SiGeC HBT process with a quasi-self-aligned emitter-base architecture and a fully nickel-silicided extrinsic base region has been developed. A very low total base resistance R-B was achieved along with simultaneous NiSi formation on the polycrystalline emitter and collector regions. Uniform silicide formation was obtained across the wafer, and the resistivity. of the Ni(SiGe:C) silicide layer was 24 mu Omega (.) cm. About 50-100 nm of lateral growth of silicide,. underneath the emitter pedestal was observed. DC and HF results with balanced f(T)/f(MAX) values of 41/42 GHz were demonstrated for 0.5 X 10 mu m(2) transistors.

  • 7. Persson, S.
    et al.
    Fjer, M.
    Escobedo-Cousin, E.
    Malm, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Wang, Yongbin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Parker, E. H. C.
    Nash, L. J.
    Majhi, P.
    Olsen, S. H.
    O'Neill, A. G.
    Fabrication and characterisation of strained Si heterojunction bipolar transistors on virtual substrates2008In: IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING 2008, TECHNICAL DIGEST, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2008, p. 735-738Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strained Si HBTs have been demonstrated for the first time with a maximum current gain (P) of 3700 using a relaxed Si(0.85)Ge(0.15) virtual substrate, Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) base and strained Si emitter. This represents 10x and 27x larger gain compared with pseudomorphic SiGe HBTs and Si control BJTs which were manufactured in parallel and had current gains of 334 and 135, respectively. The strained Si HBTs exhibited satisfactory breakdown voltage (2.5 V) compared with SiGe HBTs (2.7 V) and Si BJTs (4.5 V) and excellent control of collector off-state leakage (< 20 fA).

  • 8. Persson, Stefan
    et al.
    Fjer, Mouhine
    Escobedo-Cousin, Enrique
    Olsen, Sarah H.
    Malm, Bengt Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Wang, Yong-Bin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    O'Neill, Anthony G.
    Strained-Silicon Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor2010In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 1243-1252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental and modeling results are reported for high-performance strained-silicon heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs), comprising a tensile strained-Si emitter and a compressively strained Si0.7Ge0.3 base on top of a relaxed Si0.85Ge0.15 collector. By using a Si0.85Ge0.15 virtual substrate strain platform, it is possible to utilize a greater difference in energy band gaps between the base and the emitter without strain relaxation of the base layer. This leads to much higher gain, which can be traded off against lower base resistance. There is an improvement in the current gain beta of 27x over a conventional silicon bipolar transistor and 11x over a conventional SiGe HBT, which were processed as reference devices. The gain improvement is largely attributed to the difference in energy band gap between the emitter and the base, but the conduction band offset between the base and the collector is also important for the collector current level.

  • 9. Suvar, E.
    et al.
    Haralson, E.
    Forsberg, M.
    Radamson, H.
    Wang, Yong-Bin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Grahn, J. V.
    A base-collector architecture for SiGeHBTs using low-temperature CVD epitaxy combined with chemical-mechanical polishing2002In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T101, p. 64-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new collector technology intended for an integrated high-speed SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) is reported. The collector was fabricated by selective epitaxial growth (SEG) using chemical vapor deposition at 770degreesC under reduced pressure (20 torr) using SiH2Cl2 as silicon precursor and PH3 as n-type dopant source. Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) was applied to the overgrown SEG collector in order to achieve a smooth surface in level with the surrounding oxide. Finally, a SiGe base doped with boron was deposited using non-selective epitaxial growth (NSEG) at 650degreesC. The topography of the collector is inspected after each process step by atomic force microscopy and the topography of the completed collector/base stack indicates that this structure is promising for fabrication of the emitter window. A further advantage with the CMP procedure is the elimination of phosphorous segregation as evidenced by secondary ion mass spectroscopy of the base-collector stack.

  • 10.
    Suvar, Erdal
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Haralson, Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wang, Yong-Bin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Grahn, Jan V.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Characterization of leakage current related to a selectively grown collector in SiGeC heterojunction bipolar transistor structure2004In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 224, no 1-4, p. 336-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sources of base-collector and base-emitter leakage current in a SiGeC-based heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) with a selectively grown and chemical-mechanical polished (CMP) collector are discussed. Transmission electron microscopy and electrical measurement have been applied to investigate the leakage current. It has been demonstrated that the edge-located defects generated by selective epitaxy process are the origin of the junction leakage.

  • 11.
    Wang, Yong-Bin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Assefaw-Redda, Yohannes
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Bioprocess Technology.
    Enfors, Sven-Olof
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Bioprocess Technology.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    A novel dual mode capacitor biosensor for real-time, label-free DNA detection2006In: 2006 INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING, VOLS 1 AND 2, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2006, p. 447-450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel biosensor working in both MOS capacitor and electric double-layer capacitor mode for real-time, label-free DNA detection is presented. The former mode measures density and polarity of charged biomolecules to be monitored, while the latter mode appears to reveal more of surface-molecule interactions and offers high sensitivity and easiness for diagnosis. A combined mode-utilization yields optimal complementary information of significance.

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