Endre søk
Begrens søket
1 - 9 of 9
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Auffarth, Benjamin
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Clustering by a genetic algorithm with biased mutation operator2010Inngår i: 2010 IEEE CONGRESS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION (CEC), IEEE , 2010, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a genetic al- gorithm that partitions data into a given number of clusters. The algorithm can use any cluster validity function as fitness function. Cluster validity is used as a criterion for cross-over operations. The cluster assignment for each point is accompanied by a tem- perature and points with low confidence are pref- erentially mutated. We present results applying this genetic algorithm to several UCI machine learning data sets and using several objective cluster validity functions for optimization. It is shown that given an appropriate criterion function, the algorithm is able to converge on good cluster partitions within few generations. Our main contributions are: 1. to present a genetic algorithm that is fast and able to converge on meaningful clusters for real-world data sets, 2. to define and compare several cluster validity criteria. 

  • 2.
    Auffarth, Benjamin
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Machine Learning Techniques with Specific Application to the Early Olfactory System2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with machine learning techniques for the extraction of structure and the analysis of the vertebrate olfactory pathway based on related methods. Some of its main contributions are summarized below.

    We have performed a systematic investigation for classification in biomedical images with the goal of recognizing a material in these images by its texture. This investigation included (i) different measures for evaluating the importance of image descriptors (features), (ii) methods to select a feature set based on these evaluations, and (iii) classification algorithms. Image features were evaluated according to their estimated relevance for the classification task and their redundancy with other features. For this purpose, we proposed a framework for relevance and redundancy measures and, within this framework, we proposed two new measures. These were the value difference metric and the fit criterion. Both measures performed well in comparison with other previously used ones for evaluating features. We also proposed a Hopfield network as a method for feature selection, which in experiments gave one of the best results relative to other previously used approaches.

    We proposed a genetic algorithm for clustering and tested it on several realworld datasets. This genetic algorithm was novel in several ways, including (i) the use of intra-cluster distance as additional optimization criterion, (ii) an annealing procedure, and (iii) adaptation of mutation rates. As opposed to many conventional clustering algorithms, our optimization framework allowed us to use different cluster validation measures including those which do not rely on cluster centroids. We demonstrated the use of the clustering algorithm experimentally with several cluster validity measures as optimization criteria. We compared the performance of our clustering algorithm to that of the often-used fuzzy c-means algorithm on several standard machine learning datasets from the University of California/Urvine (UCI) and obtained good results.

    The organization of representations in the brain has been observed at several stages of processing to spatially decompose input from the environment into features that are somehow relevant from a behavioral or perceptual standpoint. For the perception of smells, the analysis of such an organization, however, is not as straightforward because of the missing metric. Some studies report spatial clusters for several combinations of physico-chemical properties in the olfactory bulb at the level of the glomeruli. We performed a systematic study of representations based on a dataset of activity-related images comprising more than 350 odorants and covering the whole spatial array of the first synaptic level in the olfactory system. We found clustered representations for several physico-chemical properties. We compared the relevance of these properties to activations and estimated the size of the coding zones. The results confirmed and extended previous studies on olfactory coding for physico-chemical properties. Particularly of interest was the spatial progression by carbon chain that we found. We discussed our estimates of relevance and coding size in the context of processing strategies. We think that the results obtained in this study could guide the search into olfactory coding primitives and the understanding of the stimulus space.

    In a second study on representations in the olfactory bulb, we grouped odorants together by perceptual categories, such as floral and fruity. By the application of the same statistical methods as in the previous study, we found clustered zones for these categories. Furthermore, we found that distances between spatial representations were related to perceptual differences in humans as reported in the literature. This was possibly the first time that such an analysis had been done. Apart from pointing towards a spatial decomposition by perceptual dimensions, results indicate that distance relationships between representations could be perceptually meaningful.

    In a third study, we modeled axon convergence from olfactory receptor neurons to the olfactory bulb. Sensory neurons were stimulated by a set of biologically-relevant odors, which were described by a set of physico-chemical properties that covaried with the neural and glomerular population activity in the olfactory bulb. Convergence was mediated by the covariance between olfactory neurons. In our model, we could replicate the formation of glomeruli and concentration coding as reported in the literature, and further, we found that the spatial relationships between representational zones resulting from our model correlated with reported perceptual differences between odor categories. This shows that natural statistics, including similarity of physico-chemical structure of odorants, can give rise to an ordered arrangement of representations at the olfactory bulb level where the distances between representations are perceptually relevant.

  • 3.
    Auffarth, Benjamin
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Understanding smell: the olfactory stimulus problem2013Inngår i: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 37, nr 8, s. 1667-1679Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main problem with sensory processing is the difficulty in relating sensory input to physiological responses and perception. This is especially problematic at higher levels of processing, where complex cues elicit highly specific responses. In olfaction, this relationship is particularly obfuscated by the difficulty of characterizing stimulus statistics and perception. The core questions in olfaction are hence the so-called stimulus problem, which refers to the understanding of the stimulus, and the structure–activity and structure–odor relationships, which refer to the molecular basis of smell. It is widely accepted that the recognition of odorants by receptors is governed by the detection of physico-chemical properties and that the physical space is highly complex. Not surprisingly, ideas differ about how odor stimuli should be classified and about the very nature of information that the brain extracts from odors. Even though there are many measures for smell, there is none that accurately describes all aspects of it. Here, we summarize recent developments in the understanding of olfaction. We argue that an approach to olfactory function where information processing is emphasized could contribute to a high degree to our understanding of smell as a perceptual phenomenon emerging from neural computations. Further, we argue that combined analysis of the stimulus, biology, physiology, and behavior and perception can provide new insights into olfactory function. We hope that the reader can use this review as a competent guide and overview of research activities in olfactory physiology, psychophysics, computation, and psychology. We propose avenues for research, particularly in the systematic characterization of receptive fields and of perception.

  • 4.
    Auffarth, Benjamin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC).
    Gutierrez-Galvez, Agustín
    Marco, Santiago
    Continuous Spatial Representations in the Olfactory Bulb may Reflect Perceptual Categories2011Inngår i: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 5, nr 82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In sensory processing of odors, the olfactory bulb is an important relay station, where odor representations are noise-filtered, sharpened, and possibly re-organized. An organization by perceptual qualities has been found previously in the piriform cortex, however several recent studies indicate that the olfactory bulb code reflects behaviorally relevant dimensions spatially as well as at the population level. We apply a statistical analysis on 2-deoxyglucose images, taken over the entire bulb of glomerular layer of the rat, in order to see how the recognition of odors in the nose is translated into a map of odor quality in the brain. We first confirm previous studies that the first principal component could be related to pleasantness, however the next higher principal components are not directly clear. We then find mostly continuous spatial representations for perceptual categories. We compare the space spanned by spatial and population codes to human reports of perceptual similarity between odors and our results suggest that perceptual categories could be already embedded in glomerular activations and that spatial representations give a better match than population codes. This suggests that human and rat perceptual dimensions of odorant coding are related and indicates that perceptual qualities could be represented as continuous spatial codes of the olfactory bulb glomerulus population.

  • 5.
    Auffarth, Benjamin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC).
    Gutierrez-Galvez, Agustín
    Marco, Santiago
    Statistical analysis of coding for molecular properties in the olfactory bulb2011Inngår i: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 5, nr 62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between molecular properties of odorants and neural activities is arguably one of the most important issues in olfaction and the rules governing this relationship are still not clear. In the olfactory bulb (OB), glomeruli relay olfactory information to second-order neurons which in turn project to cortical areas. We investigate relevance of odorant properties, spatial localization of glomerular coding sites, and size of coding zones in a dataset of [14C] 2-deoxyglucose images of glomeruli over the entire OB of the rat. We relate molecular properties to activation of glomeruli in the OB using a non-parametric statistical test and a support-vector machine classification study. Our method permits to systematically map the topographic representation of various classes of odorants in the OB. Our results suggest many localized coding sites for particular molecular properties and some molecular properties that could form the basis for a spatial map of olfactory information. We found that alkynes, alkanes, alkenes, and amines affect activation maps very strongly as compared to other properties and that amines, sulfur-containing compounds, and alkynes have small zones and high relevance to activation changes, while aromatics, alkanes, and carboxylics acid recruit very big zones in the dataset. Results suggest a local spatial encoding for molecular properties.

  • 6.
    Auffarth, Benjamin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Kaplan, Bernhard
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Anders, Lansner
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Map formation in the olfactory bulb by axon guidance of olfactory neurons2011Inngår i: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5137, E-ISSN 1662-5137, Vol. 5, nr 0Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of representations in the brain has been observed to locally reflect subspaces of inputs that are relevant to behavioral or perceptual feature combinations, such as in areas receptive to lower and higher-order features in the visual system. The early olfactory system developed highly plastic mechanisms and convergent evidence indicates that projections from primary neurons converge onto the glomerular level of the olfactory bulb (OB) to form a code composed of continuous spatial zones that are differentially active for particular physico?-chemical feature combinations, some of which are known to trigger behavioral responses. In a model study of the early human olfactory system, we derive a glomerular organization based on a set of real-world,biologically-relevant stimuli, a distribution of receptors that respond each to a set of odorants of similar ranges of molecular properties, and a mechanism of axon guidance based on activity. Apart from demonstrating activity-dependent glomeruli formation and reproducing the relationship of glomerular recruitment with concentration, it is shown that glomerular responses reflect similarities of human odor category perceptions and that further, a spatial code provides a better correlation than a distributed population code. These results are consistent with evidence of functional compartmentalization in the OB and could suggest a function for the bulb in encoding of perceptual dimensions.

  • 7.
    Auffarth, Benjamin
    et al.
    Inst Bioengn Catalonia, Spain.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Maite
    Cerquides, Jesus
    Comparison of Redundancy and Relevance Measures for Feature Selection in Tissue Classification of CT images2010Inngår i: Advances in Data Mining: Applications in Medicine, Web Mining, Marketing, Image and Signal Mining / [ed] Petra Perner, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, s. 248-262Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on a study on feature selection within the minimum-redundancy maximum-relevance framework. Features are ranked by their correlations to the target vector. These relevance scores are then integrated with correlations between features in order to ob- tain a set of relevant and least-redundant features. Applied measures of correlation or distributional similarity for redundancy and relevance include Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, Spearman correlations, Jensen-Shannon divergence, and the sign-test. We introduce a metric called “value difference metric“ (VDM) and present a simple measure, which we call “fit criterion“ (FC). We draw conclusions about the usefulness of different measures. While KS-test and sign-test provided useful information, Spearman correlations are not fit for comparison of data of different measurement intervals. VDM was very good in our experiments as both redundancy and relevance measure. Jensen-Shannon and the sign-test are good redundancy measure alternatives and FC is a good relevance measure alternative.

  • 8.
    Auffarth, Benjamin
    et al.
    Univ Barcelona, Spain.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Maite
    Cerquides, Jesus
    Hopfield Networks in Relevance and Redundancy Feature Selection Applied to Classification of Biomedical High-Resolution Micro-CT Images2008Inngår i: Advances in Data Mining: Medical Applications, E-Commerce, Marketing, and Theoretical Aspects / [ed] Petra Perner, Heidelberg: Springer , 2008, s. 16-31Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study filter-based feature selection methods for classification of biomedical images. For feature selection, we use two filters - a relevance filter which measures usefulness of individual features for target prediction, and a redundancy filter, which measures similarity between features. As selection method that combines relevance and redundancy we try out a Hopfield network. We experimentally compare selection methods, running unitary redundancy and relevance filters, against a greedy algorithm with redundancy thresholds [9], the min-redundancy max-relevance integration [8,23,36], and our Hopfield network selection. We conclude that on the whole, Hopfield selection was one of the most successful methods, outperforming min-redundancy max-relevance when more features are selected.

  • 9.
    Auffarth, Benjamin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    López-Sánchez, Maite
    Campos i Miralles, Jordi
    Puig, Anna
    System for Automated Assistance in Correction of Programming Exercises (SAC)2008Inngår i: Proceedings of CIDUI 2008, Lleida (Spain), 2008, s. 104-113Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In university programming classes often hundreds of students participate having to solveeach hundreds of programming assignments a situation which puts instructors to the difficult task of validating hundreds of programming assignments. We present a framework thatcan help instructors and students in organization and validation of program code. Our “System for Automated Assistance in Correction of Programming Exercises“ (short: SAC) is aweb-platform for test-driven development and automated validation. The web-platform isbased on Java Server Pages technology with tomcat as servlet container, and allows teachersto specify and define program exercises and students to upload their solutions. Students can get immediate feedback on the validity of their code and both instructors and students cansee statistics about each programming assignment. We explain our platform and proposehow the automatic validation can be extended. 

1 - 9 of 9
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf