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  • 1. Akyol, Z
    et al.
    Arbaugh, B
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231).
    Garrison, R
    Ice, P
    Richardson, J
    Swan, K
    A response to the review of the community of inquiry framework2009In: Journal of distance education = Revue de l'enseignement à distance, ISSN 1916-6818, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 123-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework has become a prominent model of teaching and learning in online and blended learning environments. Considerable research has been conducted which employs the framework with promising results, resulting in wide use to inform the practice of online and blended teaching and learning. For the CoI model to continue to grow and evolve, constructive critiques and debates are extremely beneficial, in so much as they identify potential problems and weaknesses in the model or its application, as well as provide direction for further research. In this context, the CoI framework was recently reviewed and critiqued by Rourke and Kanuka in their JDE article entitled “Learning in Communities of Inquiry: A Review of the Literature.” This paper is a response to this article and focuses on two main issues. The first issue is the focus of the review and critique on learning outcomes. The second issue concerns the representation, comprehensiveness, and methodology of the review.

  • 2. Ally, M.
    et al.
    Cleveland- Innes, Martha
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231).
    Incorporating learning objects in an online distance education course: A firsthand experience2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. Ally, M
    et al.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Learners and learning objects: Developing learning objects with the learner in mind2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4. Ally, M.
    et al.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Boskic, N
    Larwill, S
    Learner use of learning objects2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports findings from a study exploring the generativity (Gibbons, Nelson, & Richards, 2000; Parrish, 2004) and discoverability (Friesen, 2001) of learning objects in the hands of the learner. Through the convergence of two separate pilot projects—the Canadian EduSource initiative through Athabasca University, and the researchers’ ongoing study of affective learning in online learning environments (Cleveland-Innes & Ally, 2004)—learner perspectives of learning object use and value was evaluated. Participants in the study of affective outcomes in the workplace worked independently with learning objects and outlined the interaction with learning object repositories and individual learning objects. Analysis of learners’ activity and response indicates that selection of learning object repositories and objects is based on personal needs and expectations for satisfying desired learning outcomes. Data analysis found pedagogical and contextual implications of learning object technology from the point of view of the learner. Results suggest that there is opportunity to combine learning object technology with consideration for learner engagement in designs that support lifelong learning principles and focus on learner development rather than the content or the technology. Cet article nous fait part des résultats d’une ́étude explorant la générativité (Gibbons, Nelson, & Richards, 2000; Parrish, 2004) et la facilité à trouver (Friesen, 2001) des objets d’apprentissage entre les mains des apprenants. Grace à la convergence de deux projets pilotes distincts—l’initiative EduSource de l’Université Athabasca, et l’étude en cours des auteurs de l’apprentissage affectif dans des environnements d’apprentissage en ligne (Cleveland-Innes & Ally, 2004)—la perspective des apprenants à propos de l’utilisation et de la valeur des objets d’apprentissage a été évalué. Les participants à l’étude sur les conséquences affectives en milieu de travail ont utilisé des objets d’apprentissage de manière indépendante et ont souligné l’interaction entre les dépôts d’objets et les objets d’apprentissage individuels. L’analyse de l’activité et de la réponse des apprenants indique que le choix des dépôts d’objets d’apprentissage et des objets eux-memes est basé sur les besoins personnels et les attentes de l’apprenant sur les capacités des objets à satisfaire les besoins d’apprentissage. L’analyse des données a permis d’identifier des conséquences pé́dagogiques et contextuelles de la technologie derrière les objets d’apprentissage, du point de vue de l’apprenant. Les résultats suggèrent qu’il y a une opportunité de combiner la technologie soutenant les objets d’apprentissage et une péoccupation pour l’engagement de l’apprenant grâce à des designs qui soutiennent les principes de l’apprentissage à vie et se centrent sur le développement de l’apprenant plutôt que sur le contenu de la technologie.

  • 5. Ally, M
    et al.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Kenny, R
    Koole, M
    Park, C
    Developing a community of inquiry in a mobile learning context2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Ally, Mohamed
    et al.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231).
    Boskic, Natasha
    Larwill, Sandra
    Learner use of learning objects2006In: Journal of Distance Education, ISSN 1916-6818, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 44-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports findings from a study exploring the generativity (Gibbons, Nelson, & Richards, 2000; Parrish, 2004) and discoverability (Friesen, 2001) of learning objects in the hands of the learner. Through the convergence of two separate pilot projects—the Canadian EduSource initiative through Athabasca University, and the researchers’ ongoing study of affective learning in online learning environments (Cleveland-Innes & Ally, 2004)—learner perspectives of learning object use and value was evaluated. Participants in the study of affective outcomes in the workplace worked independently with learning objects and outlined the interaction with learning object repositories and individual learning objects. Analysis of learners’ activity and response indicates that selection of learning object repositories and objects is based on personal needs and expectations for satisfying desired learning outcomes. Data analysis found pedagogical and contextual implications of learning object technology from the point of view of the learner. Results suggest that there is opportunity to combine learning object technology with consideration for learner engagement in designs that support lifelong learning principles and focus on learner development rather than the content or the technology.

  • 7. Arbaugh, B
    et al.
    Bangert, A
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Subject matter effects and the community of inquiry framework: An exploratory study2009In: The Internet and higher education, ISSN 1096-7516, E-ISSN 1873-5525, Vol. 13, no 1-2, p. 37-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper integrates the emerging literatures of empirical research oil the Community of Inquiry (Col) framework and disciplinary effects in online teaching and learning by examining the disciplinary differences in perceptions of social, teaching, and cognitive presence of over 1500 students in seven disciplines at two U S institutions Our results found significant disciplinary differences, particularly regarding cognitive presence, in soft, applied disciplines relative to other disciplines. These initial results suggest the possibility that the Col framework play be more applicable to applied disciplines than pure disciplines Our findings suggest interesting opportunities for future researchers to consider how the individual elements of the Col framework may influence and be influenced by academic disciplines and how the framework play need to be refined or modified to explain effective course conduct in pure disciplines.

  • 8. Arbaugh, B
    et al.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Diaz, S.D
    Garrison, D. R.
    Ice, P
    Richardson, J.C.
    Shea, P
    Swan, K
    Community of inquiry framework: Informing instructional design and teaching in online courses2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9. Arbaugh, J.B.
    et al.
    Bangert, A.W.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Athabasca University, Canada.
    Subject matter effects and the community of inquiry model2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10. Arbaugh, J.B
    et al.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Athabasca Univ, Athabasca.
    Diaz, S
    Garrison, D.R
    Ice, P
    Richardson, J
    Swan, K
    Developing a community of inquiry instrument: testing a measure of the Community of Inquiry framework using a multi-institutional sample2009In: The Internet and higher education, ISSN 1096-7516, E-ISSN 1873-5525, Vol. 11, no 3-4, p. 133-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on the multi-institutional development and validation of an instrument that attempts to operationalize Garrison, Anderson and Archer's Community of Inquiry (Col) framework (2000). The results of the study suggest that the instrument is a valid, reliable, and efficient measure of the dimensions of social presence and cognitive presence, thereby providing additional support for the validity of the Col as a framework for constructing effective online learning environments. While factor analysis supported the idea of teaching presence as a construct, it also suggested that the construct consisted of two factors-one related to course design and organization and the other related to instructor behavior during the course. The article concludes with a discussion of potential implications of further refinement of the Col measures for researchers, designers, administrators, and instructors.

  • 11. Burkle, M.
    et al.
    Cleveland-Innes, Martha
    Athabasca University, Canada.
    Defining the role adjustment profile of learners and instructors online2013In: Journal of asynchronous learning networks, ISSN 1939-5256, E-ISSN 1092-8235, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 73-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the experience of post-secondary first time online students combining time spent in the classroom-workshop with online course access, and their interactions with instructors. In the following discussion, and following the Cleveland et al. [1] model, a comparison between the categories 'student's role adjustment' and 'instructors' role' is presented.

  • 12.
    Bälter, Olof
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Cleveland-Innes, Martha
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Pettersson, Kerstin
    Stockholm University.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University.
    Svedin, Maria
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Student Approaches to Learning in Relation to Online Course Completion2013In: Canadian Journal of Higher Education, ISSN 0316-1218, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between approaches to studying and course completion in two online preparatory university courses in math- ematics and computer programming. The students participating in the two courses are alike in age, gender, and approaches to learning. Four hundred and ninety-three students participating in these courses answered the short version of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). Results show that students demonstrating a deep approach to learning in ei- ther course are more likely to complete. In the mathematics course, a com- bination of deep and strategic approaches correlates positively with course completion. In the programming course, students who demonstrate a surface approach are less likely to complete. These results are in line with the inten- tions of the course designers, but they also suggest ways to improve these courses. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that ASSIST can be used to evaluate course design. 

  • 13. Campbell, P.
    et al.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Athabasca University, Canada.
    Affect as presence in the community of inquiry model2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This interpretive approach to a mixed-method study examines the likelihood that an awareness of the role of emotion as presented by Damasio and LeDoux enhances individual student participation in computer-mediated conferencing. Consideration is given to emotion as an element of social presence as defined in the community of inquiry conceptual model, proposed by Garrison, Anderson and Archer. Respondents participated in an online workshop, during which they were asked how the role of emotion in cognition might be applicable to distance education. Surveys and interviews were conducted to determine the level of their knowledge of emotion and cognition at the outset. Transcripts of conference postings were examined for evidence that learning had or had not transferred. Exit interviews and surveys determined if the workshops had enhanced or not enhanced the experience of the participants in the computer-mediated conference. Three of twelve participants acknowledged that participation in the workshop did engender a positive change in their normal conference participation behaviour. Three of the remaining nine stated unequivocally that the workshop had no influence. The others were unable to contribute useful data due to technical difficulties or limited participation. Although data were insufficient to support the research question there was evidence that emotion should be a fourth presence – called emotional presence - defined as the extent to which participants in a community of inquiry are aware of and attend to overt feelings and covert emotions with the intention of facilitating learning. The community of inquiry model and the distinction between emotion and feeling need further study. The latter concepts require study in an online context.

  • 14. Campell, P.
    et al.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Affect as presence in online communities of inquiry2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Cleveland- Innes, Martha
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231).
    New directions for higher education: Challenges, opportunities and outcomes2009In: Changing cultures in higher education, Springer, 2009, p. 133-148Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the last few decades, pervasive technology and significant social and economic development have forever changed our society. Social and economic change has made it increasingly difficult for higher education to operate in insular ways; attention to changing demographics, global economies, and new social mores is required (Keller 2008). The potential reach of technology seems limitless and has already changed higher education institutions in “the way we organize ourselves, our policies, our culture, what faculty do, the way we work, and those we serve” (Ikenberry 1999, p. 63). Change in higher education to accommodate broader societal changes requires new ways of thinking about economic issues, accountability, technology, and the teaching–learning process. This chapter makes the challenges currently facing higher education explicit. It outlines the leadership traits and behaviors that are moving higher education into a hybrid version of traditional and distance institutions. Six principles of sound strategic planning for creating a new higher education enterprise are reviewed.

  • 16.
    Cleveland- Innes, Martha
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231).
    Ally, M.
    Managing online learning projects – at a distance: A case of workplace training2005In: Plan to learn: case studies in elearning project management, 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Cleveland- Innes, Martha
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231).
    Garrison, D. R.
    An introduction to distance education: Understanding teaching and learning in a new era2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Cleveland- Innes, Martha
    et al.
    The University of Calgary.
    Gauvreau, S
    Online Support for Online Graduate Students: Fostering Student Development through Web-based Discussion and Support2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Adult student dropout at post-secondary institutions1994In: The Review of Higher Education, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 423-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of 233 nontraditional-age and 92 traditional-age university students investigated the utility of Vincent Tinto's model of student attrition for age-related sensitivity. Student variables considered include demographic, individual, educational, academic integration, social integration, and commitment factors. Results suggest the model fits data for nontraditional students better than for traditional students. (Author/MSE)

  • 20. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Beyond the standard model: Disciplinary differences in online design and delivery2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid expansion of online design and delivery in higher education has occurred, for the most part, without careful consideration of what it means for curriculum design (Garrison & Anderson, 2003) or disciplinary differences (Kenaith, Hassam & Cleveland-Innes, 2005). This presentation will present faculty perspectives from multiple disciplines regarding the epistemological and teaching differences in the application of online education.

  • 21.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Athabasca University, Canada.
    Keeping your distance: Disciplinary differences and the impact on online design and delivery2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Managing innovative distance education projects in a telework environmentIn: canadian journal of distance educationArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Online teaching, cultural imperialism and instructional design2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Responding to the call for a new future in higher education:  balancing individual requirements with collective requirements2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
     the silent conversation1996In: Making the Rounds in Health, Faith & Ethics, Vol. 1, no 22, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents the author's story of the lack of communication between her and her doctor. Erroneous, arrogant judgment calls of the doctor; Proving the doctor wrong as reason for staying well.

  • 26.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Athabasca University, Canada.
    Thinking outside the standard: Disciplinary differences in online design and delivery2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    Understanding teaching and learning in a new era: The online teacher as bricoleur2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Athabasca University, Canada.
    Ally, M.
    Affective learning outcomes in online workplace training: A test of course design and facilitation strategies2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Ally, M.
    Affective learning outcomes in workplace training: A test of synchronous vs. asynchronous online learning environments2004In: Canadian Journal of University Continuing Education, ISSN 0318-9090, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 15-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ... be supported by close trans- actional distance. Emotional and psychological safety requires predictable and known ... Journal of University Continuing Education Vol ...

  • 30. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Ally, M.
    Learning to feel: Education, affective outcomes and the use of online teaching and learning2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research employing an experimental design pilot tested two delivery platforms, WebCT and ElluminateLive, for the generation of affective learning outcomes in the workplace. Ten different organizations across Western Canada asked their call centre/help desk staff to participate in an online course on customer service. One hundred and one participants were randomly assigned to two types of online learning management systems. Data comparing results of the two groups are inconclusive in relation to delivery outcomes, but indicate there is potential for soft skill development and affective gain using online delivery. Both groups performed well on tests of knowledge regarding appropriate affect in customer service environments. Soft skill assessment showed small gains from time one to time two for participants studying in both platforms. Differences between groups were seen in two observations. There was greater engagement and interaction among participants in the WebCT group. Additionally, the WebCT group yielded higher exam scores, but differences between exam means were not statistically significant.

  • 31.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Athabasca Univ, Athabasca, Canada.
    Ally, M.
    Learning to feel: Education, affective outcomes and the use of online teaching and learning2009In: European Journal of Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1027-5207, E-ISSN 1027-5207, Vol. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research employing an experimental design pilot tested two delivery platforms, WebCT and ElluminateLive, for the generation of affective learning outcomes in the workplace. Ten different organizations across Western Canada asked their call centre/help desk staff to participate in an online course on customer service. One hundred and one participants were randomly assigned to two types of online learning management systems. Data comparing results of the two groups are inconclusive in relation to delivery outcomes, but indicate there is potential for soft skill development and affective gain using online delivery. Both groups performed well on tests of knowledge regarding appropriate affect in customer service environments. Soft skill assessment showed small gains from time one to time two for participants studying in both platforms. Differences between groups were seen in two observations. There was greater engagement and interaction among participants in the WebCT group. Additionally, the WebCT group yielded higher exam scores, but differences between exam means were not statistically significant.

  • 32. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Ally, M
    Using elearning in the generation of affective outcomes in workplace training2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Ally, M
    Using e-learning methods to foster online soft skills in the workplace:  preliminary findings2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Ally, Mohammed
    Athabasca University.
    Affective learning outcomes in online workplace training: A test of course design2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      The value of online education for outcomes in the cognitive domain has been established but there is less evidence of the value of online education in the generation of affective outcomes.  Research employing an experimental design pilot tested two delivery platforms, WebCT and ElluminateLive, for the generation of affective learning outcomes in the workplace.  This presentation with outline practical implications for realizing affective outcomes in online environments.

  • 35.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Athabasca University, Canada.
    Campbell, P.
    Understanding emotional presence in an online community of inquiry2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Emes, C
    Faculty views on creating learner-centred curriculum in higher education2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Emes, C.
    Principles of a learner centered curriculum: responding to the call for change in higher education2005In: Canadian Journal of Higher Education, ISSN 0316-1218, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 85-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using well-known tenets of student development and student success as a central organizing premise, it is suggested that higher education curriculum should include outcomes related to the development of students as competent, lifelong learners. This imperative is driven by demands on higher education to prepare graduates for complex, dynamic, and information based social and occupational experiences. Curricula that prepare students with appropriate knowledge and skills to manoeuvre a changed and changing society is in order. Labelled a learner-centred curriculum, this approach includes, but goes beyond, the already explored learner-centred instruction (Lieberman, 1994; McCombs & Whistler, 1997; SCCOE, 2000; Soifer, Young & Irwin, 1989) to content and skill development regarding the mechanisms of learning and growth.

  • 38. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Emes, C.
    Social and academic interaction in higher education contexts and the effect on deep learning2005In: NASPA Journal, ISSN 0027-6014, E-ISSN 1559-5455, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 241-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of interaction in higher education environments impacts not only end outcomes, but also the approach to learning itself. Using a quasi-experimental research design, this empirical study tests the impact of social and academic interaction on student approaches to learning. Findings demonstrate significant correlations between contextual variables and approaches to learning. Most importantly, Peer Interaction and Faculty Interaction have an effect on change in approach to learning over time. This demonstrates the potential of interaction in the learning context to affect not only learning outcomes, but also the way learning itself takes place.

  • 39. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Emes, C
    Ellard, J
    On being a social change agent in a reluctant collegial environment2001In: Planning in Higher Education, Vol. 29, p. 25-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reviews a collaborative process established at the University of Calgary in the earliest stages of strategic planning and maintained throughout undergraduate curriculum redesign and implementation. Offers some lessons learned by the change agents operating within a reluctant environment, including: start with serious self-reflection, understand the change context, and balance passion for change with enlightened self-interest. (EV)

  • 40. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Emes, C
    Findley, D
    Managing change in distance and higher education through strategic planning: distance and distributed learning as a response to the call for change in higher education2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Emes, Claudia
    Findlay, Donna
    Strategic Planning for the Integration of Distributed and Online Learning in Traditional Institutions2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Garrison, D. R.
    Higher education and post-industrial society: New ideas about teaching, learning, and technology2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online learning offers the opportunity to examine and rethink the teaching and learning enterprise in education broadly.  Online learning can be conceived of as the new distance education, where issues such as interaction and dialogue are introduced back into the distance education model.  However, regardless of education delivery mode – face-to-face, online, distance or some combination through blended learning – teaching (and learning) is changing. Online learning, whether synchronous or asynchronous, offers a range of pedagogical practices previously unavailable in both distance and face-to-face higher education.

  • 43. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Garrison, D.R
    Learner independence and interdependence in online communities of inquiry: The case for teaching presence2007In: Exemplary research in distance education, e-learning, and on related competence issues: Selected papers of the 4th EDEN Research Workshop, Bibliotheks- und Informationssystem der Universität Oldenburg , 2007, 13, p. 91-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, a core value of distance education has been independent study shaped by oftenrigorous design protocols and support structures of the educational institution. However, morerecently, distance education appears to be in a process of re-examining the teaching and learningprocess. Peters (2002) states that education in general is experiencing a “radical and far-reachingrestructuring process …” (p. 26) and will have a disproportionate effect on distance education.According to Peters (2002), “the digital revolution has already begun and is well underway indistance education” (p. 34). Much of this centers around access and interactivity and “how usefulit is to become members of virtual communities of students” (Peters, 2002, p. 35). What is notclear is the exact nature of these interactions and communities and how these changes will modifythe core value of distance education – learner independence.The core question here is: to what degree should online distance education hold to the ideal ofindependent study? An argument is made for the importance of considering both learner independenceand interdependence in an online learning environment. Evidence is presented regarding theimportance of teaching presence in the determination of the role of online learner, particularly asit relates to independence and interdependence. Novice online learners and their instructors werequestioned regarding their reaction to the experience of being online. Responses were examinedin relation to the perceived need for learner independence and interdependence in onlinecommunities of inquiry.

  • 44.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Athabasca Univ, Athabasca, Canada.
    Garrison, D.R
    The role of learner in an online community of inquiry: Instructor support for first time online learners2009In: Web-Based Learning Solutions for Communities of Practice: Developing Virtual Environments for Social and Pedagogical Advancement, IGI Global, 2009, p. 167-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students experiencing an online educational community for the first time experience adjustment in therole of learner. Findings from a study of adjustment to online learning from the instructor’s point ofview validate five main areas of adjustment identified in previous research: technology, instructor role,modes of interaction, self-identity and course design. Using a confirmatory research model, instructorsfrom two open and distance institutions were interviewed. Data confirmed that instructors also perceiveadjustment in the five areas of online experience identified by students. In addition, student adjustmentin these five areas can be understood in light of core dimensions of learner role requirements in anonline community of inquiry (Garrison, Anderson, and Archer, 2000). Instructor comments provideunderstanding of the experience of online learners, including the challenges, interventions and resolutionsthat present themselves as unique incidents. Recommendations for the support and facilitation ofadjustment are made. Funding for this research was received from the Athabasca University MissionCritical Research Fund.

  • 45. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Garrison, R
    Going online: Student role adjustment and higher order learning in online communities of inquiry2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Garrison, R.
    Higher order learning in online communities of inquiry: Identifying required student adjustment to cognitive, social and teaching presence2004In: proceedings of the Canadian Association of Distance Education 2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Athabasca University, Canada.
    Garrison, R.
    Online learning: Interaction is not enough2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed the depth of online learning, with a focus on the nature of online interaction in four distance education course designs. The Study Process Questionnaire was used to measure the shift in students' approach to learning from the beginning to the end of the courses. Design had a significant impact on the nature of the interaction and whether students approached learning in a deep and meaningful manner. Structure and leadership were found to be crucial for online learners to take a deep and meaningful approach to learning.

  • 48.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Athabasca University, Canada.
    Garrison, R.
    Student role adjustment in online communities of inquiry2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49. Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Garrison, R.
    Kinsel, E.
    Role adjustment for learners in an online community of inquiry: Identifying the needs of novice online learners2007In: International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies, ISSN 1548-1093, E-ISSN 1548-1107, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study outlines the process of adjustment learners experience when first participating in anonline environment. Findings from a pilot study of adjustment to online learning environmentsvalidate differences found in three presences in an online community of inquiry. Using pre- andpost-questionnaires, students enrolled in entry-level courses in two graduate degree programsat Athabasca University, Canada, describe their adjustment to online learning. Responses wereanalyzed in relation to the elements of cognitive, social, and teaching presence, defined by Garrison,Anderson, and Archer (2000) as core dimensions of student role requirements in an onlinecommunity of inquiry. In each of these presences, five areas of adjustment characterize the movetoward competence in online learning: interaction, self-identity, instructor role, course design,and technology. Student comments provide understanding of the experience of first time onlinelearners, including the challenges, interventions, and resolutions that present themselves asunique incidents. Recommendations for the support and facilitation of adjustment are made.

  • 50.
    Cleveland-Innes, Marta
    et al.
    Athabasca Univ, Athabasca.
    Garrison, R
    Kinsel, E
    The role of learner in an online community of inquiry: Responding to the challenges of first-time online learners2008In: Solutions and innovations in web-based technologies for augmented learning: Improved platforms, tools and applications, IGI Global, 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learners experiencing an online educational community for the first time can explain the adjustment required for participation. Findings from a study of adjustment to online learning environments validate differences found in 3 presences in an online community of inquiry. Using pre- and post-questionnaires, students enrolled in entry-level courses in 2 graduate degree programs at Athabasca University, Canada, describe their adjustment to online learning. Responses were analyzed in relation to the elements of cognitive, social, and teaching presence, defined by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2000) as core dimensions of learner role requirements in an online community of inquiry. Five areas of adjustment characterize the move toward competence in online learning: interaction, self-identity, instructor role, course design, and technology. Student comments provide understanding of the experience of first-time online learners, including the challenges, interventions, and resolutions that present themselves as unique incidents. Recommendations for the support and facilitation of adjustment are made.

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