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  • 1.
    Dahl, Sofia
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Movements and analysis of drumming2012In: Music, Motor Control and the Brain, Oxford University Press, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses the movement strategies used in drumming. These movement strategies can be described as whiplash-like and aim at achieving high stick velocities on impact. Skilled playing of percussion instruments involves adjusting to and utilising the kinesthetic feedback from the instrument in question. The overall patterns of the movement strategies are maintained consistently for different tempi, surfaces and dynamic levels. The height to which the stick is lifted in preparation for a stroke and the vertical velocity of the stick marker at impact are both strongly linked to the dynamic level.

  • 2.
    Dahl, Sofia
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    On the beat: human movement and timing in the production and perception of music2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses three aspects of movement, performance and perception in music performance. First, the playing of an accent, a simple but much used and practiced element in drumming is studied, second, the perception of gradually changing tempo, and third, the perception and communication of specific emotional intentions through movements during music performance.

    Papers I and II investigated the execution and interpretation of an accent in drumming, performed under different playing conditions. Players' movements, striking velocities and timing patterns were studied for different tempi, dynamic levels and striking surfaces. It was found that the players used differing movement strategies and that interpreted the accent differently, reflected in their movement trajectories. Strokes at higher dynamic levels were played from a greater average height and with higher striking velocities. All players initiated the accented strokes from a greater height, and delivered the accent with increased striking velocity compared to the unaccented strokes. The interval beginning with the accented stroke was also prolonged, generally by delaying the following stroke. Recurrent cyclic patterns were found in the players' timing performances. In a listening test, listeners perceived grouping of the strokes according to the cyclic patterns.

    Paper III concerned the perception of gradual tempo changes in auditory sequences. Using an adaptive test procedure subjects judged stimuli consisting of click sequences with either increasing or decreasing tempo, respectively. Each experiment included three test sessions at different nominal tempi (80, 120, and 180~beats per minute). The results showed that ten of the eleven subjects showed an inherent bias in their perception of tempo drift. The direction and magnitude of the bias was consistent between test sessions but varied between individuals. The just noticeable differences for tempo drift agreed well with the estimated tempo drifts in production data, but were much smaller than earlier reported thresholds for tempo drift.

    Paper IV studied how emotional intent in music performances is conveyed to observers through the movements of the musicians. Three players of marimba, bassoon, and saxophone respectively, were filmed when playing with the expressive intentions Happiness, Sadness, Anger and Fear. Observers rated the emotional content and movement cues in the videos clips shown without sound. The results showed that the observers were able to identify the intentions Sadness, Anger, and Happiness, but not Fear. The rated movement cues showed that an Angry performance was characterized by jerky movements, Happy performances by large, and somewhat fast and jerky movements, and Sad performances by slow, and smooth movements.

  • 3.
    Dahl, Sofia
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Playing the accent: comparing striking velocity and timing in an ostinato rhythm performed by four drummers2004In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 90, no 4, p. 762-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four percussion players’ strategies for performing an accented stroke were studied by capturing movement trajectories.The players played on a force plate with markers on the drumstick, hand, and lower and upper arm. Therhythmic pattern – an ostinato with interleaved accents every fourth stroke – was performed at different dynamiclevels, tempi and on different striking surfaces attached to the force plate. The analysis displayed differencesbetween the movement trajectories for the four players, which were maintained consistently during all playingconditions. The characteristics of the players’ individual movement patterns were observed to correspond wellwith the striking velocities and timing in performance. The most influential parameter on the movement patternswas the dynamic level with increasing preparatory heights and striking velocity for increasing dynamic level. Theinterval beginning with the accented stroke was prolonged, the amount of lengthening decreasing with increasingdynamic level.

  • 4.
    Dahl, Sofia
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    The playing of an accent: Preliminary observations from temporal and kinematic analysis of percussionists2000In: Journal of New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, E-ISSN 1744-5027, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The movements and timing when playing an interleaved accent in drumming were studied for three professionals and one amateur. The movement analysis showed that the subjects prepared for the accented stroke by raising the drumstick up to a greater height. The movement strategies used, however, differed widely in appearance.

    The timing analysis showed two basic features, a slow change in tempo over a longer time span ("drift"), and a short ter variation between adjacent intervals ("flutter"). Cyclic patterns, with every fourth interval prolonged, could be seen in the flutter. The lengthening of the interval, beginning with the accented stroke, seems to be a common way for the player to give the accent more emphasis. A listening test was performed to investigate if these cyclic patterns conveyed information to a listener about the grouping of the strokes. Listeners identified sequences where the magnitude of the inter-onset interval fluctuations were large during the cyclic patterns.

  • 5.
    Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bevilacqua, Frédéric
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Clayton, Martin
    Leante, Laura
    Poggi, Isabella
    Rasamimanana, Nicolas
    Gestures in performance2009In: Musical Gestures: Sound, Movement, and Meaning / [ed] Godøy, Rolf Inge; Leman, Marc, New York: Routledge , 2009, p. 36-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experience and understand the world, including music, through body movement–when we hear something, we are able to make sense of it by relating it to our body movements, or form an image in our minds of body movements. Musical Gestures is a collection of essays that explore the relationship between sound and movement. It takes an interdisciplinary approach to the fundamental issues of this subject, drawing on ideas, theories and methods from disciplines such as musicology, music perception, human movement science, cognitive psychology, and computer science.

  • 6.
    Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Expressiveness of musician's body movements in performances on marimba2004In: Gesture-Based Communication in Human-Computer Interaction / [ed] Camurri, A.; Volpe, G., Genoa: Springer Verlag , 2004, p. 479-486Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore to what extent emotional intentions can be conveyed through musicians’ movements, video recordings were made of amarimba player performing the same piece with the intentions Happy, Sad, Angry and Fearful. 20 subjects were presented video clips, without sound, and asked to rate both the perceived emotional content as well as the movement qualities. The video clips were presented in different conditions, showing the player to different extent. The observers’ ratings forthe intended emotions confirmed that the intentions Happiness, Sadness and Anger were well communicated, while Fear was not. Identification of the intended emotion was only slightly influenced by the viewing condition. The movement ratings indicated that there were cues that the observers used to distinguish between intentions, similar to cues found for audio signals in music performance.

  • 7.
    Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Visual perception of expressiveness in musicians' body movements2007In: Music perception, ISSN 0730-7829, E-ISSN 1533-8312, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 433-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MUSICIANS OFTEN MAKE GESTURES and move their bodies expressing a musical intention. In order to explore to what extent emotional intentions can be conveyed through musicians' movements, participants watched and rated silent video clips of musicians performing the emotional intentions Happy, Sad, Angry, and Fearful. In the first experiment participants rated emotional expression and movement character of marimba performances. The results showed that the intentions Happiness, Sadness, and Anger were well communicated, whereas Fear was not. Showing selected parts of the player only slightly influenced the identification of the intended emotion. In the second experiment participants rated the same emotional intentions and movement character for performances on bassoon and soprano saxophone. The ratings from the second experiment confirmed that Fear was not communicated whereas Happiness, Sadness, and Anger were recognized. The rated movement cues were similar in the two experiments and were analogous to their audio counterpart in music performance.

  • 8.
    Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Ability to determine continuous drift in auditory sequences: Evidence for bias in listeners' perception of tempo2005In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Rinman, Marie Louise
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Bendiksen, B.
    Cirotteau, D.
    Dahl, Sofia
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Kjellmo, I.
    Mazzarino, B.
    Camurri, A.
    Ghost in the Cave: an interactive collaborative game using non-verbal communication2004In: GESTURE-BASED COMMUNICATION IN HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION / [ed] Camurri, A; Volpe, G, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2004, p. 549-556Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interactive game environment, Ghost in the Cave, presented in this short paper, is a work still in progress. The game involves participants in an activity using non-verbal emotional expressions. Two teams use expressive gestures in either voice or body movements to compete. Each team has an avatar controlled either by singing into a microphone or by moving in front of a video camera. Participants/players control their avatars by using acoustical or motion cues. The avatar is navigated in a 3D distributed virtual environment using the Octagon server and player system. The voice input is processed using a musical cue analysis module yielding performance variables such as tempo, sound level and articulation as well as an emotional prediction. Similarly, movements captured from a video camera are analyzed in terms of different movement cues. The target group is young teenagers and the main purpose to encourage creative expressions through new forms of collaboration.

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