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  • 1.
    Magnusson, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Brinell Centre - Inorganic Interfacial Engineering, BRIIE.
    Creep modelling of particle strengthened steels2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials used in thermal power plants have to resist creep deformation for time periods up to 30 years. Material evaluation is typically based on creep testing with a maximum duration of a few years. This information is used as input when empirically deriving models for creep. These kinds of models are of limited use when considering service conditions or compositions different from those in the experiments. In order to provide a more general model for creep, the mechanisms that give creep strength have to be identified and fundamentally described. By combining tools for thermodynamic modelling and modern dislocation theory the microstructure evolution during creep can be predicted and used as input in creep rate modelling. The model for creep has been utilised to clarify the influence of aluminium on creep strength as a part of the European COST538 action. The results show how AlN is formed at the expense of MX carbonitrides. The role of heat treatment during welding has been analysed. It has been shown that particles start to dissolve already at 800ºC, which is believed to be the main cause of Type IV cracking in commercial alloys.

    The creep strength of these steels relies on minor additions of alloying elements. Precipitates such as M23C6 carbides and MX carbonitrides give rise to the main strengthening, and remaining elements produce solid solution hardening. Particle growth, coarsening and dissolution have been evaluated. By considering dislocation climb it is possible to determine particle strengthening at high temperatures and long-term service. Transient creep is predicted by considering different types of dislocations. Through the generation and recovery of dislocation densities an increase in work hardening during primary creep is achieved. The role of substructure is included through the composite model. Cavity nucleation and growth are analysed in order to explain the intergranular fracture and to estimate the ductility.

  • 2.
    Magnusson, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Creep modelling of particle strengthened steels2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials to be used in thermal power plants have to resist creep deformation for time periods up to 30 years. The role of alloying elements for creep strength of 9-12% Cr steels is analysed. The creep strength in these steels relies on minor additions of alloying elements. Precipitates give rise to the main strengthening and remaining elements produce solid solution hardening. Nucleation, growth and coarsening of particles are predicted by thermodynamic modelling. Phase fractions and size distributions of M23C6 carbides, MX carbonitrides and Laves phase are presented. The size distributions are needed in order to determine the particle hardening during creep. At elevated temperatures the climb mobility is so high that the dislocations can climb across particles instead of passing by making Orowan loops.

    By solving Fick's second law the concentration profile around a moving dislocation can be determined. The results show an accumulation of solutes around the dislocation that slows down dislocation movement. When Laves phase grows a decrease in creep strength is observed due to a larger loss in solid solution hardening than strength increase by particle hardening. Solid solution hardening also gives an explanation of the low dislocation climb mobility in 9-12% Cr steels.

    Three different dislocation types are distinguished, free dislocations, immobile dislocation and immobile boundary dislocations. This distinction between types of dislocations is essential in understanding the decreasing creep with strain during primary creep. The empirical relation with subgrain size inversely proportional to stress has been possible to predict. The total creep strength can be predicted by adding the contribution from individual mechanisms.

  • 3.
    Magnusson, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Brinell Centre - Inorganic Interfacial Engineering, BRIIE.
    Sandström, Rolf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Brinell Centre - Inorganic Interfacial Engineering, BRIIE.
    Creep strain modelling of 9-12 Pct Cr steels based on microstructure evolution2007In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 2033-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creep deformation is simulated for 9 pct Cr steels by using the Norton equation with the addition of back stresses from dislocations and precipitates. The composite model is used to represent the heterogeneous dislocation structure found in 9 to 12 pct Cr steels. Dislocation evolution is modeled by taking capturing and annihilation of free dislocations into account. Recovery of immobile dislocations is derived from the ability of dislocation climb. In spite of the fact that the initial dislocation density is high and is reduced during creep, primary creep is successfully modeled for a P92 steel. Subgrain growth is evaluated using a model by Sandström (1977). The long time subgrain size corresponds well to a frequently used empirical relation, with subgrain size inversely proportional to the applied stress.

  • 4.
    Magnusson, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Sandström, Rolf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Creep strain modelling of particle strengthened material2005In: Proceedings - ECCC Creep Conference: Creep and Fracture in High Temperature Components - Design and Life Assessment Issues, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creep strain curves for many materials (for example ferritic and austenitic steels, copper alloys) can accurately be described by a combination of one model for primary creep and one model for tertiary creep. The primary creep is represented by the Φ - model, while the tertiary creep follows the Ω -model. dεprim/dt= Φ1ε-Φ2 dεtert/dt= Ω1 exp{Ω2ε} ε is the creep strain, Φ1, Φ2, Ω1 and Ω2 are constants. In the present work a dislocation model has been developed for these two stages of creep deformation and applied to 9 and 12 % CrMoV steels. A modified version of the composite model for substructure is used. The model takes work hardening and recovery of dislocations into account both in the subgrain boundaries and the subgrain interiors. Orowan particle strengthening is used in the subgrain interiors and Zener drag in the subgrain boundaries. Thermodynamic modelling is used to describe subgrain and particle growth. Initiation and growth of creep cavities are also considered.

  • 5.
    Magnusson, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Brinell Centre - Inorganic Interfacial Engineering, BRIIE.
    Sandström, Rolf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Brinell Centre - Inorganic Interfacial Engineering, BRIIE.
    Growth of Creep Cavities in 12% Cr Steels2009In: Creep & Fracture in High Temperature Components – Design & Life Assessment, 2nd International ECCC Conference, Empa, Dübendorf, Switzerland, 21-23 April, 2009 / [ed] I A Shibli, S R Holdsworth, LANCASTER, PA: DESTECH PUBLICATIONS, INC , 2009, p. 950-963Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nucleation and growth of creep cavities will eventually occupy a considerable fraction ofthe grain boundary. This will lead to microcracks and intergranular fracture thus controllingthe ductility of the component. The traditional approach to predicting this type of failure is tosimulate cavities with only one size. Assumptions of an instant nucleation with symmetricallyplaced cavities make all cavities equally sized. It has been observed, in 12% Cr steels as wellas in other commercial alloys that cavities nucleate during all stages of creep. Creep cavitiesget randomly placed mostly at grain boundaries directed transverse to the loading direction.With continuous nucleation a size distribution of cavities appears, which is compared toobserved average cavity size. Constraints on cavity growth are introduced, which reduces thegrowth rate. This is needed in order to explain the cavity growth of 12% Cr steels.Furthermore, creep rupture will be derived based on the area fraction of cavities, thus explaining the intergranular failure.

  • 6.
    Magnusson, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Brinell Centre - Inorganic Interfacial Engineering, BRIIE.
    Sandström, Rolf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Brinell Centre - Inorganic Interfacial Engineering, BRIIE.
    Influence of aluminium on creep strength of 9–12% Cr steels2009In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 527, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of aluminium on creep strength of 9% Cr steels is predicted by a fundamental model forcreep. Through thermodynamic modelling the particle structure is determined for a temperature andcomposition range. This shows how AlN is formed at the expense of MX carbonitrides of VN characterwhen the aluminium content is increased. The remaining MX particles are of NbC type and have approximatelyone fifth of the original phase fraction. The evolution in microstructure such as particle coarseningis included in the model as well as the recovery. Rupture time is predicted using a modified Norton equationincluding back-stresses calculated from microstructure. The predictions show correspondence tosome of the creep data for the steel P91 over a temperature and stress range. Furthermore, simulationwith high Al content verifies the observed early failure of Al rich components. Overall, the simulationsshow a decrease in rupture time by a factor 6 due to Al additions of up to 0.2%.

  • 7.
    Magnusson, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Brinell Centre - Inorganic Interfacial Engineering, BRIIE.
    Sandström, Rolf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Brinell Centre - Inorganic Interfacial Engineering, BRIIE.
    Modeling Creep Strength of Welded 9 to 12 Pct Cr Steels2010In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 41A, no 13, p. 3340-3347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of weld simulated heat treatments of 9-12% steels is evaluated by a fundamental model for creep. The heat affected microstructure is predicted by considering particle coarsening, particle dissolution, and subgrain coarsening. Particle coarsening is predicted for a multi-component system, showing significant M23C6 coarsening in the BCC matrix. Dissolution simulations of MX and M23C6 are performed by considering a size distribution of particles, indicating that the smallest particles can be dissolved already at relatively low welding temperatures. Recovery in dislocation networks will take place due to the coarser particles. Creep rate modelling is performed based on the heat affected microstructure, showing strength reduction of weld simulated material by 12% at 850ºC and 26% at 900ºC. The main cause of this degradation is believed to be the loss of the smallest carbonitrides.

  • 8.
    Magnusson, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Brinell Centre - Inorganic Interfacial Engineering, BRIIE.
    Sandström, Rolf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Brinell Centre - Inorganic Interfacial Engineering, BRIIE.
    Modelling of the influence of Laves phase on the creep properties in 9% Cr steels2007In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING CONFERENCE / [ed] Jaske, CE; Jaske, CE, 2007, p. 519-526Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleation and growth of Laves phase are calculated for a multi-component system. Coarsening Of MX, M23C6 and Laves are also determined. The influence on creep strength is discussed by analysing particle hardening and solid solution strengthening. A model for particle size distribution is presented in order to determine the amount of dislocations that can climb across particles or generate Orowan loops.

    The model for solid solution hardening is based on a solution of Fick's second law with a moving frame of reference for the concentration profiles around a climbing dislocation. This is done in order to determine the slowdown in dislocations velocity due to solute drag. The results show a loss in creep strength as the Laves phase grows.

  • 9.
    Magnusson, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Sandström, Rolf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Brinell Centre - Inorganic Interfacial Engineering, BRIIE.
    The role of dislocation climb across particles at creep conditions in 9 to 12 pct Cr steels2007In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 38A, no 10, p. 2428-2434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of a distribution of particles on creep strength is analyzed. The time it takes for dislocations to climb across the particles is the basis for a model that can describe the effect of particle size distribution, particle area fraction, stress, and temperature on the creep rate. The degradation of microstructure through coarsening is taken into account. The particle size distributions for M23C6 carbides and MX carbonitrides in a 9 pct Cr steel are accurately represented by an exponential function. Coarsening coefficients and phase fractions for MX and M23C6 particles are predicted using thermodynamic modeling, and show good fit to experimental data. The size distributions are used to determine the amount of dislocations, which can either climb across particles or make Orowan loops. The dislocation climb model is integrated into a creep rate prediction model and is used to reproduce experimental creep data for P92 steel.

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